CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures
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This paper presents four possible approaches in identifying and designing effective VR systems for architecture and planning design to allow the user to effectively communicate and share their experiences and ideas in a collaborative manner. It is also proposed that VEs should look beyond plain representations and reproductions of the real world environments that they portray and bear higher interpretation and expression values. The value of eliciting structuring and interfacing information and knowledge to a VE is also highlighted, as is the need for efficient database systems and CAD systems capable of exchanging information and data with VEs. Current efforts in prolonging the lifetime of VEs are being examined through four case studies that highlight the ever-escalating requirements that currently face VR researchers.
The paper will introduce Global Information Infrastructure (GII) that is currently being developed in the Asian region and discuss its impact on the Information Age society. It will further highlight the ‘natural’ value and characteristics of the emerging technologies in particular Virtual Reality (VR), Multimedia and Internet as a guidance to design an effective, rich and innovative content development. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the re-convergence of art and science and context in which content is being developed. Some of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University will also be demonstrated. It is hoped that this will be the evidence to guide future ‘techno-creative designers’.
There is little doubt that texture, surface, extension, value, and color are in one sense basic categories of physical phenomena, constituting in essence a fundamental stratum of experience and the sensible world. Modern psychology and epistemology, however, cohere in saying that this stratum is not the sense world of everyday, the primary datum of the functioning societal member. Neither is the abstract world of the physicist's concepts an everyday world. What is given in our day-to-day life is neither very abstract, nor very concrete, but a sort of functionally-bound middle world of norms and stereotypes.
It takes the disciplined seeing characteristic of foundational training in the arts to drive this bourgeois view of physical reality back to elemental sense data. Just as it requires the supremely abstract language of mathematics and the rarified "experience" of modern scientific experimentation to drive that same view offcenter in the direction of abstraction. The first exercises of a program of design education begin to perform the former role.
For this reason, and because not always is arranged the best possible documentation, we consider that the majority of vectorisations
they exist in the market don’t plenty satisfied our needs as teaching staff of graphic expression and CAD, althoug we can always be
using the same systems of projection or codified representations, it is imposed a lot of times to interpret acording the context the
different signs and graphic registers used.
We know experimental applications that go beyond, they even arrive to generate a 3D model from a lifted hand draw that represents
three orthogonal projections of it, but it isn’t less certain that its utility is restricted to fields very specialised and the option that we
propose, there is not knowledge at least to us that it exist; commercially speaking.
Our porpose has been to develope a symple metedology of vectorisation but adapted to the special idiosyncrasy of the needs of an
architecture student that with frequency for his formation requires to generate with CAD models 2D and 3D of architectural projects from
the information contented in magazines, and with them create several formas analysis.
The most important difference in the matter to other systems is the interactivity of the procedure that let personify the exit file, even the
wide diversity of graphic registers that it exist in the entrance, being the user only once has to identify and interpret the signs to detect,
and then the process is realized automatically to any plant of the building or equivalent projection.
The energy performance of a base case building in each of four climates and cultures is presented. The climates are: Phoenix (hotdry), Minneapolis (cold-dry), Boston (cold-humid), and New Orleans ( hot- humid). Keeping the host climate, site, building size and function constant: but varying materials, shape and design concepts, each base case is iterated through a series of computer assisted re-designs to transform each base case building into an architecture representative of its regional climate and culture.
Traditional technologies and concepts produce traditional regional architecture. New technologies and concepts produce forms expressive of an emerging high-tech, high-touch, low energy society.
The paper presents computer generated work by the author and his students. It also presents an interim evaluation of the successes and difficulties of conducting a 'paper free' design studio.
Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.
SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.
Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.
The aim of linking Planning and CAD systems is to display in real-time the progress of engineering
projects, according its planning and control through their 2D or 3D architectural and engineering models.
This paper describes and illustrates, the development of an innovative software, that, in this way, links
data from any Planning software to the popular AutoCAD producing colored 2D or 3D models of the
multiple activities of an engineering project according the foreseen or real stages - not yet done, being
done, completely done.
Same application examples to different engineering projects through some screen-shots of this software
use, are illustrated.
This paper discusses the process for developing digital
interpretations of the Teocalli or Ceremonial Precinct of
Tenochtitlan based on historical, iconographical, and
archaeological materials. To this end, digital models were
constructed by taking into consideration Aztec
archaeoastronomical principles and measuring systems. The result is an interactive view of the Ceremonial
Precinct, perhaps the most comprehensive since Tenochtitlan was destroyed more than 500 years ago. This
project has been recently published on CD-ROM.
The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?
Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?
The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.
From the detailed analysis of the results obtained, the following diverse pedagogical aspects of this work project arise:
a. The use of several multiple intelligence: Howard Gardner (1985) found that a man has several distinct intelligence types among which Logical-Mathematical; Spatial; Linguistic -oriented; Musical; Intra-personal; Kinesthetic-Corporal; Interpersonal stand out. Only those types used in the task will be analyzed, making a brief description of each type.
b. The architectonic-city planning aspects: architectonic-city planning interpretation of the space imagined after reading the text, with the purpose of identifying figures, shapes, volumes and colors which are expressed via an analogous space. They consist of visual, architectonic and territorial speculations without a rigorous spatial theory and it is pretended that they possess a technical precision at mathematical concept level.
c. The mathematical contents: a study of the conical and square shapes present in the designs done and used in a creative manner in students’ compositions following the reading of the story chosen is carried out. An analysis of shapes is performed and mathematical problems are posed within the design context.
Traditional sketching methods have been used in task solving and the possibilities offered by the virtual tools are analyzed.
Emphasis has been put on the vertical and horizontal interchanges in the Chair, generating changes in knowledge transmission perspectives, thus allowing the sharing of contents, abilities and resources.
The architectonic work imagined and created by the students will focus on these different working lines creating a harmonious and significant whole. The work is the result of multiple connections and creative proposals.