CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 10001 to 13720 of 13720

_id 13d8
authors Pratini, Edison
year 2000
title Dos esboços no papel para o esboçar no espaço: a concepção de um sistema gestual para modelagem 3D (From Paper Sketches Towards Sketching in Space: The Conception of a Gesture System for 3D Modeling)
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 261-264
summary This paper describes the conceptual basis of a research on a simple and intuitive 3D modeling tool to be used from the very beginning of architectural or object design. The proposed system - the 3D SketchMaker - is a gestural 3D-sketching instrument. The results of two simple and different developed prototypes show this is a feasible way.
series SIGRADI
email pratini@unb.br, pratini@psu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 6df6
authors Pratini, Edison
year 2001
title New Approaches to 3D Gestural Modeling - The 3D SketchMaker Project
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 466-471
summary The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modeling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
keywords Gestural Interface, Virtual Reality, 3D Modeling, Sketching
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id ascaad2004_paper3
id ascaad2004_paper3
authors Pratini, Edison
year 2004
title Modeling with Gestures: Sketching 3D Virtual Surfaces and Objects Using Hands Formation and Movements
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary The 3D SketchMaker project has developed two prototypes for a gestural 3D sketching system to be used in the earliest phases of the design process. The goal of this ongoing research is to provide architects, and other designers involved in object conception, with a 3D gestural instrument that takes advantage of new virtual reality resources and is more natural than using the mouse, less difficult than learning complex software and less abstract than manipulating 2D entities on orthogonal projections. The system was conceived to assist or replace the first 2D drawing steps in the design process, generating rough 3D sketches that can be refined later using any 3D package. It is, in essence, a 3D modelling system directed to do sketching with hand movements and gestures in a virtual reality environment.
series ASCAAD
email pratini@psu.edu
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id caadria2008_57_session6a_472
id caadria2008_57_session6a_472
authors Prats, S. Lim, M.; S. Chase, S. Garner
year 2008
title Sketching in Design: Formalising a Transformational Process
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 472-478
summary The process of sketching can support the sort of transformational thinking that is seen as essential for the interpretation and reinterpretation of ideas in innovative design (Suwa 2003). In this paper, the initial outputs and findings of an ongoing project called Design Synthesis and Shape Generation are described based on experimental investigations of the mechanics of sketching from practicing architects and industrial designers as they responded to a series of conceptual design tasks. Preliminary analyses of the experimental data suggest that the interactions of designers with their sketches can be formalised according to a finite number of generalised shape rules. These rules formalise the transformations and reinterpretation of shapes for example through deformation or restructuring.
keywords Sketching; Exploration; Computer supported design; Shape rule
series CAADRIA
email m.prats@open.ac.uk, s.w.garner@open.ac.uk
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id f86b
authors Pratschke, A., Tramontano, M. and Dos Santos Moreira, E.
year 2000
title Designer Wanted! Interface Usuário-Computador,O design de um Diálogo
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 316-318
summary This paper discusses the designer’s role in the process of computer interfaces production. Understood as virtual spaces, they polarize the user’s attention as they are the vague and little known territory in which user and system can, finally, communicate. For so far, a parallel will be established between the architect’s education as a designer of concrete spaces, whose wideness qualifies him to dialogue with specialized engineers about technical construction matters, and the need of being formed a (new?) professional interface designer, able to dialogue with the experts of technological aspects concerning the building of virtual spaces. The paper also analyses the education of nowadays’ interface designers - computer scientists, web designers, writers, artists, architects and information architects -, searching to identify ways of potentializing their performance.
series SIGRADI
email anjaprat@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2003_062
id sigradi2003_062
authors Pratschke, Anja and dos Santos Moreira, Edson
year 2003
title Entre Mnemo e Locus, o design de interfaces do ponto de vista de seu uso (Between Mnemo and Locus, the interface design from the users point of view)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary A method is proposed for architectural construction of virtual spaces by using structures of mnemotechniques. Defined as belonging to the mind, it is proposed to conceive the virtual space through architectural methods by adding the use of Mnemonics, which is the art and technique of developing and strengthening the memory. The memorization process itself becomes central in the process of constructing the virtual context. Introducing examples in history and recent art applications in virtual reality, this paper proposes the introduction of mnemotechniques for the architectural spatial structuring of the virtual space.
series SIGRADI
email anjaprat@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2006_p010d
id sigradi2006_p010d
authors Pratschke, Anja and Peronti, Rodrigo
year 2006
title Olhares múltiplos, ou como conceber um espaço de conhecimento para a cidade de São Carlos [Multiple looks, or how to conceive a knowledge space for the city of São Carlos]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 377-380
summary The aim of the article is to present and analyse strategies for the conception of diverse computational interfaces designated to register and organize in an especially developed free software data-base, contends related to culture heritance of the city of São Carlos, situated in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Part of a large research in public Politics financed by FAPESP, the interface is configured as a database integrator of some centers, patrimonies architectural and museums. Preoccupied to keep alive the data base after the end of the project, it aims to propose activities together with the local community, to promote the preservation and the physical and virtual access to such patrimonies, contribute for the valuation of the traditional cultures, and strengthen the identity and belonging feeling, guaranteeing consequently the permanence of this patrimony for the future generations.
series SIGRADI
email pratschke@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2005_203
id sigradi2005_203
authors Pratschke, Anja
year 2005
title Abrigo Mínimo: architecture as process
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 203-208
summary Information and communication technologies bring together methods of organizing complex activities while questioning traditional ways of working, inviting to use complex approaches when it comes to design process, based on the fact that the media has the potential to alter the perceptions of whole factors involved. It enables the creation of networks, the rethinking of working methods, allowing an even more effective interaction between different actors and their activities. The starting point for the experimental exercise “Abrigo Mínimo” was to discuss a different approach of understanding the way architectural student design by including questions of context. It is proposed that, to understand the design process complexity, they should have a vision of site, subjects and design interrelations as processes rather than products and a conception of it as fields of relations rather than as arrangements of objects. This posture would change radically the students’ way of designing, providing a kind of orientation to act. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email pratschke@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2005_315
id sigradi2005_315
authors Pratschke, Anja
year 2005
title From participation to collaboration: structuring digital knowledge environments
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 315-320
summary This paper discusses ways to structure digital knowledge environments as process environments, tracing a parallel between participatory design processes, developed in the disciplinary area of architecture, and collaborative contemporary processes. These processes are supported by new information and communication technologies. At this context the key-words are interaction and auto-organization. The discussion draws on relations between the auto-organization model and the use of mnemonic techniques. These techniques of data organization – related to spatial structures, may constitute the informational organization rules: structuring the flow, storage and access, making auto-organization possible [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email pratschke@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2006_p058c
id sigradi2006_p058c
authors Pratschke, Anja; Ribeiro, Clarissa; La Rocca, Renata and Januário, Fernanda
year 2006
title Da ars mnemônica à ‘ars generativa’: uma reflexão critica sobre a produção arquitetônica na era glocal [From Ars mnemonic to Ars generative: A critical review about the architectural production in a glocal time]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 308-311
summary The aim of this article is to show the complementarity and actuality of the use of design methods as Mnemonic Structures, Cybernetic and Complexity, for the conception of virtual, mixed or concrete knowledge spaces. The ideas presented in this article inscribe themselves in a larger questioning about the relation of architectural design process and digital culture, discussed in our research group nomads.usp [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc. usp.br/nomads].
series SIGRADI
email pratschke@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2007_187
id ecaade2007_187
authors Pratschke, Anja; Tramontano, Marcelo
year 2007
title No Man is an Island (Even in the Virtual World): The Online_Communities Project
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 703-709
summary This article is based on the results of various research projects on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to reduce the digital divide in poor neighborhoods at Nomads.usp Research Center (Center for Studies on Interactive Living, www.eesc.usp.br/nomads). Among them is the Online_Communities project, which has been financed by the São Paulo State Research Funding Agency - FAPESP since 2004 involving four research groups from both the Architecture and Computer Science departments at the University of São Paulo and various public and non-governmental organizations. The Online_Communities project proposes a diversified approach in order to cover the different aspects of the conception and implementation of a specific geographical complex communication system in a mixed reality scenario. It includes its network, the requalification of a local telecenter, meta-recycling activities, setting-up a graphic interface and presenting some workshops.
keywords Public policies, Brazil, digital divide, collaborative network, interface
series eCAADe
email pratschke@sc.usp.br, tramont@sc.usp.br
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 990b
authors Pree, W.
year 1995
title Design Patterns for Object-Oriented Software Development
source ACM Press, Addison-Wesley
summary Provides an overview of state-of-the-art approaches in object-oriented technology as well as practical guidance for their use in software design. Covers forming class hierarchies and interaction relationships between objects, software architectures that allow for reuse of code and design, and documenting object-oriented design on an adequate abstraction level. Includes examples and a case study.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2006_557
id caadria2006_557
authors PREECHA MANESSATID, PETER J SZALAPAJ
year 2006
title THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL BUILDING DESIGN TOOL
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 557-559
summary Environmental design implementations are generally applied within limited and specialised areas of environmental design making them difficult to use intuitively by designers (Maneesatid and Szalapaj, 2003). Building simulations have mostly focused on accurate parameters and physical properties of building elements. Such tools typically require numerous numerical data which is often only accurately known in the detail design stages. Conventional environmental building design systems (EBS) have typically required highly experienced users who are familiar with extensive qualitative input and output requirements. A successful architectural design solution that is both energy efficient and environmentally friendly, cannot be obtained simply by additively combining a set of discrete specialist analyses. A move towards better architectural design with environmental considerations can be achieved by allowing designers themselves to express relationships between salient environmental parameters that can subsequently be analysed in integrated ways. This presentation is concerned with the issues involved in developing a quick and intuitive interface for expression of relationships between environmental parameters.
series CAADRIA
email arp00pm@sheffield.ac.uk, arlps@sheffield.ac.uk
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 74bb
authors Preetham, Shirley
year 1999
title A practical analytic model for daylight
source Proceedings of the SIGGRAPH annual conference on Computer graphics, 91-100
summary Sunlight and skylight are rarely rendered correctly in computer graphics. A major reason for this is high computational expense. Another is that precise atmospheric data is rarely available. We present an inexpensive analytic model that approximates full spectrum daylight for various atmospheric conditions. These conditions are parameterized using terms that users can either measure or estimate. We also present an inexpensive analytic model that approximates the effects of atmosphere (aerial perspective). These models are fielded in a number of conditions and intermediate results verified against standard literature from atmospheric science. Our goal is to achieve as much accuracy as possible without sacrificing usability.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id a7a8
authors Preiss, K.
year 1983
title Future CAD Systems
source Computer Aided Design July, 1983. vol. 15: pp. 223-227. includes bibliography.
summary This paper discusses conceptual changes observed as CAD/CAM systems progress from one generation to anther. The influence of representation technology on concepts and methods in CAD/ CAM is discussed, and then the influences of communication between computers are considered. Taken together, these various aspects of computer technology throw light on possible scenarios for the future working environment
keywords design process, communication, systems, CAD, CAM
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 1e36
authors Prensky, M.
year 2001
title Digital Game-Based Learning
source McGraw-Hill, New York
summary Digital Game-Based Learning, by Marc Prensky, is a strategic and tactical guide to the newest trend in e-learning - combining content with video games and computer games to more successfully engage the under-40 "Games Generations," which now make up half of America's work force and all of its students. The book fully explores the concept of Digital Game-Based Learning, including such topics as How Learners Have Changed, Why Digital Game-Based Learning Is Effective, Simulations and Games, How Much It Costs, and How To Convince Management. With over 50 case studies and examples, it graphically illustrates how and why Digital Game-Based Learning is working for learners of all ages in all industries, functions and subjects.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8d75
authors Preparata, Franco P. and Shamos, Michael Ian
year 1985
title Computational Geometry : An Introduction
source xi, 390 p. : ill. NeW York: Springer-Verlag Pub. Co., 1985. includes bibliography: p. [366]- 376 and index. -- (text and monographs in Computer Science)
summary A fundamental task of computational geometry is identifying concepts, properties and techniques which help efficient algorithmic implementations for geometric problems. The approach taken here is the presentations of algorithms and the evaluation of their worst case complexity. The particular problems addressed include geometric searching and retrieval, convex hull construction and related problems, proximity, intersection and the geometry of rectangles
keywords geometry, algorithms, computational geometry, convex hull, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2218
authors Preparata, Franco P.
year 1979
title A New Approach to Planar Point Location
source August, 1979. 21 [3] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Given a planar straight line graph G with n vertices and a point PO, locating PO means to find the region of the planar subdivision induced by G which contains PO. Recently, Lipton and Tarjan presented a brilliant but extremely complex point location algorithm which runs in time O(log n) on a data structure using O(n) storage. This paper presents a practical algorithm which runs in less than O(log 2n) comparisons on a data structure which uses O(n log n) storage, in the worst case. The method rests crucially on a simple partition of each edge of G into O(log n) segments
keywords algorithms, data structures, point inclusion, computational geometry, graphs
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 224b
authors Preparata, Franco P.
year 1979
title A Note on Locating a Set of Points in a Planar Subdivision
source SIAM Journal of Computing. Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, November, 1979. vol. 8: pp. 542-545 : ill. includes some bibliographical references
summary In this note the author shows algorithmically that a set of k points can be located in the planar subdivision induced by straight-line planar graph with n vertices in time O(k log k) + O(n) + O(k log n), given a preprocessing time O(n log n)
keywords algorithms, computational geometry, point inclusion
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 5bc7
authors Prestinenza, Luigi
year 1999
title Hyperarchitecture: Spaces in the Electronic Age
source Birkhauser
summary In an age dominated by the Internet and electronic media it is becoming increasingly clear that our perception of space is also undergoing a profound transformation. The author takes the reader on a fascinating journey, revealing who has played a part in this transformation. Avant-garde artists, including Boccioni, Duchamp and Kandinsky, the architect Gropius, philosophers such as Wittgenstein and psychoanalysts like Carl Gustav Jung all contributed to this development. Today, our awareness of traditional architectural space is changing; buildings are being rendered transparent, fleeting and intangible, enhanced by virtual potential. The author looks at works by Rem Koolhaas, Jean Nouvel, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, James Wines, Daniel Libeskind, Toyo Ito, which reflect building in an age of virtual realism.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 3186
authors Price, Nicholas E. and Noble, Douglas
year 1999
title Animation and Multimedia: Interviews at Five Large Los Angeles Firms
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 1-3
summary Developments in digital media have created a myriad of tools to help architects communicate ideas. Three dimensional graphics software has revolutionized our ability to visualize our ideas. With the advent of animation and advanced methods of real time video presentation seem to have substantially upgraded the architects' tool chest. Significant advances have been made recently in bringing animation capabilities to the architectural desktop. To discover the level of integration of animation and multimedia in architectural firms, a series of interviews were conducted at five large Los Angeles firms. The interviews were structured with open-ended questions to allow the firms to emphasize their interests and capabilities. This document depicts the status of the current thinking at Gensler, Jerde, NBBJ, RTKL, and DMJM.
series ACADIA
email dnoble@usc.edu
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id ascaad2007_029
id ascaad2007_029
authors Prichard-Schmitzberger, A.
year 2007
title Team-Working and Reverse Engineering: Teaching Methods for Complex Architecture
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 343-356
summary This paper contains research and details of a work in progress on the implementation of advanced 3D precision modelling in an undergraduate curriculum. Core to the investigation is the undergraduate course Digitally Enhanced Construction and Fabrication (D.E.C.A.F.) at the Department of Architecture, California State Polytechnic University Pomona. The course tests the application of Reverse Engineering (RE) in a team configuration, Hot-Swapping (HS), and precision modelling of complex geometries with minimal programming/scripting input, taking in consideration the limited resources common to small-scale architectural practices. Reverse Engineering particularly enables students to extract information building assembly and executed details with precision, based on existing documentation. It is conducted in teams not only to emphasize and investigate efficiency of protocols but also to observe problems in developing threads in digital modelling. Hot-Swapping identifies the principle of replacing components of a building during active design processes without altering its general appearance. As a teaching methodology, it allows the investigation of required modelling accuracy, creation of prototypes and various versions of assembly alternatives. The current paper focuses mainly on 1) engaged procedures in Reverse Engineering, 2) the educational aspects of such an approach, and 3) the advantages and disadvantages of conventional tools in a collaborative modelling exercise.
series ASCAAD
email schmitzberge@csupomona.edu
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id 3e89
authors Pridmore, T.P., Cooper, D. and Taylor, N.
year 1997
title Estimating camera orientation from vanishing point location during sewer surveys
source Automation in Construction 5 (5) (1997) pp. 407-419
summary A method is presented by which camera orientation relative to the pipe axis may be recovered from a single frame of a survey video of a small-bore brick sewer. If it can be fully recovered, the pipe axis provides part of a frame of reference within which 3D descriptions of sewer shape may be expressed. The concept of the vanishing point is introduced and it is shown that the vanishing point position supplies information about the relative orientations of the camera and pipe axes. A method for the automatic detection of vanishing points is presented and used to analyse the camera motion underlying a number of sewer survey videos. The technique might form an active part of a more comprehensive image understanding system recovering pipe shape from survey videos and/or be used as an experimental tool during the design of such a system.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 40
authors Prieto, Carlos and Serrentino, Roberto
year 1998
title Configuraciones Urbanas Recursivas (Recursive Urban Configurations)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 300-309
summary A method to develop skills using digital techniques in architectural and design fields is proposed. Recursive procedures in successive cycles of abstraction are used applied for the urban layout design process. Each configurational cycle (master plan, urban modules, buildings, habitational units) is separated and exaggerated to face the process with pedagogical goals. Urban factors that conform the city are identified in order to classify repetitive urban problems. A patch of the city, in which a master plan is developed, is isolated and is submitted the measurable tests related to the Architectural and Design projecting process, enfatizating the following aspects., its systemic structures, its geometry and its growing. Alometric concepts and growing form analogies are used as scale control method in transformations and in recursive cycles. Based in two potentially recursive theories, fractals and tessellation's theories, a pedagogic procedure oriented to the use of tessellations is proposed using CAD systems tools.
series SIGRADI
email labsist@herrera.unt.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2015_10.378
id sigradi2015_10.378
authors Primo, Lane; Ulbricht, Vânia; Vanzin, Tarcísio; Fadel, Luciane
year 2015
title Transmedia in Education – Link for Inclusion
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 609-617.
summary This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the literature to identify how transmedia is used in Education. The motivation for this study arises from the observation of the growth of the participation of students with disabilities in distance learning courses, the projection of increased development of learning objects and multimedia for use in these courses, therefore, requiring care for accessibility.The information gathered reveal thoughts about student’s experience and have resulted in recommendations and proposals with a view to enhancing inclusion.
series SIGRADI
email lanepprimo@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id a65f
authors Primrose, P.L., Creamer, G.D. and Leonard, R.
year 1985
title Identifying and Quantifying the Company-Wide Benefits of CAD Within the Structure of a Comprehensive Investment Program
source Computer Aided Design. Butterworth & Co. Pub., February, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 3-8 : ill. flow charts
summary This paper discusses the costs and benefits associated with introducing CAD. It is shown that by suitably defining the terms involved, all the so-called 'intangible benefits' can be quantified and used within a rigorous financial evaluation. Because 45 specific factors must be considered if a genuine investment appraisal of CAD is to be performed, a computer program has been specifically written to overcome the difficulties normally associated with the DCF evaluation of major projects. The results from the program demonstrate that not only are the benefits of CAD company-wide, but that when these benefits are quantified, the economic case for CAD is greatly strengthened. The problem of CAD systems being regarded as nothing more than a 'drawing office tool to make draftsmen redundant' is overcome. In particular, the use of the program within a number of major companies reveals that CAD systems not only give a much greater potential return on investment than has been suggested by previous authors, but that the greatest benefits accrue in areas outside the drawing office. This is illustrated by a case study
keywords CAD, evaluation, business, cost, practice, economics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9212
id ddss9212
authors Prins, M., Bax, M.F.TH., Carp, J.C. and Tempelmans Plat, H.
year 1993
title A design decision support system for building flexibility and costs
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary Because of possible changes in demand, buildings must have some flexibility. In this paper a building model, a financial-economic model and a process model will be presented, which together constitute a design decision support system. This system may be used to decide on flexibility and costs of building variants in all phases of the design process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 0ac1
authors Prins, M.
year 1990
title Flexibility of Buildings and Decision Making : A Financial Economical Design Decision Support System
source 1990. [12] : ill. includes bibliography
summary A building can be considered as a complex long term production means of dwelling services. The various parts which compile the building have different life spans determined in the first place by the use of the building and secondly by the construction and materials used. Because in most cases, some fluctuation in the demand of the building market might be expected, buildings must have some flexibility. A model is presented by which the flexibility of buildings can be optimized in a financial economical way
keywords optimization, evaluation, building, architecture, construction,design, economics, methodology, decision making, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id f912
authors Pritschow, G., Dalacker, M., Kurz, J. and Gaenssle, M.
year 1996
title Technological aspects in the development of a mobile bricklaying robot
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 3-13
summary This paper presents a process for automated masonry construction on a building site by means of a mobile robot. A scenario for the on-site operation of a man-machine-system comprising the mobile bricklaying robot and a skilled worker is outlined. An automated method for the application of thin-bed mortar is presented and verified by experiments. Furthermore, the vacuum handling system of the bricklaying robot and a device which integrates technological functions such as calibration of the brick position, determination of material tolerances and application of bonding material in a single unit are described in detail. Finally, the realised prototype of the mobile bricklaying robot is presented.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id bff9
authors Proctor, George (Ed.)
year 2002
title ACADIA 2002 [Conference Proceedings]
source Proceedings of the 2002 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-11-X / Pomona (California) 24-27 October 2002, 446 p.
summary The 2002 ACADIA conference finds digital tec_nology ubiquitous as the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture moves into its third decade. The organization of ACADIA is on the threshold of restating its mission. After 20 years, many of the organization’s initial objectives have been achieved. ACADIA members have been instrumental in the development of design software, and in bringing computers and digital technology into architectural practice and design school curriculum. At first, ACADIAns faced the debate over the appropriateness and utility of digital technology in the disciplines of architecture, planning and building science. Today the use of computers and information technology is widely accepted by architects and CAAD and digital technology have brought profound change to design practice. The debate in ACADIA has long since moved from "should we use this technology" to "how", "for what" and "why". Now that many practitioners, learning institutions and professional organizations have taken up the call, ACADIA must restate its mission, if it wishes to remain “distinct”. This does not mean that the work of ACADIA is complete. Much remains to be done and much more needs to be improved. ACADIA’s Mission Statement places particular focus on “education and the software, hardware and pedagogy involved in education.” And “(t)he organization is also committed to the research and development of computer aides that enhance design creativity, and that aim at contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” These are the areas that continue to evolve, grow and provide for ACADIA’s continued relevance. The ACADIA 2002 conference theme reflects the state of digital technology’s application to the discipline, as much as it refers to ACADIA’s future. With the general acceptance of digital technology and CAAD, we have arrived at a place where the work of great interest and relevance lies in the space between what is digital and what is analog. The environments of real space and cyberspace have in a very short time become so intertwined that the space between real and virtual (not to be confused with reality and fantasy) is becoming indistinguishable. You cannot eat, travel, use public utilities, bank, shop, vacation or recreate without at the very least coming into contact with or passing through information space. The landscape between these two environments has become a cultural phenomenon for those societies with access to the Internet and information networks. And while the computer and World Wide Web have empowered individuals, the collective impact of the technology holds all the potential and problems that similarly emerged in other technology induced landscapes. Consider this last point in the context of ACADIA’s stated mission to “enhance design creativity while contributing to the construction of humane physical environments.” And you can see why many of the 260 initial submissions to this conference were in the area of design artifacts and design methodology, providing evidence that ACADIA’s mission remains relevant and in accord with the trends of research and professional creative activity.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/10/26 23:25

_id 3918
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Comments on Low-Polygon Modeling
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 26-27
summary The readers of this journal no doubt have a strong understanding of the variety and range of modeling and imaging tools available to architects and designers. Clearly the ability to use these tools often requires a substantial time investment to produce usable results. Modeling, constructing scenes, adjusting lights and materials, setting up camera angles and so forth can often amount to several hundred person-hours. Even with the shift to digital media in professional practice, the time required to model and create scenes for presentation purposes not to mention for design study and analysis is frequently not budgeted.
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id ebb2
authors Proctor, George
year 2000
title Reflections on the VDS, Pedagogy, Methods
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 15-16
summary After having conducted a Digital Media based design studio at Cal Poly for six years, we have developed a body of experience I feel is worth sharing. When the idea of conducting a studio with the exclusive use of digital tools was implemented at our college, it was still somewhat novel, and only 2 short years after the first VDS- Virtual Design Studio (UBC, UHK et.al.-1993). When we began, most of what we explored required a suspension of disbelief on the part of both the students and faculty reviewers of studio work. In a few short years the notions we examined have become ubiquitous in academic architectural discourse and are expanding into common use in practice. (For background, the digital media component of our curriculum owes much to my time at Harvard GSD [MAUD 1989-91] and the texts of: McCullough/Mitchell 1990, 1994; McCullough 1998; Mitchell 1990,1992,1996; Tufte 1990; Turkel 1995; and Wojtowicz 1993; and others.)
series ACADIA
email georger@cybertects.com
last changed 2002/12/15 15:37

_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id caadria2016_239
id caadria2016_239
authors Prohasky, Daniel J.; Rafael Moya Castro, Simon Watkins and Jane Burry
year 2016
title Design Driven Physical Experimentation: A flexible wind sensing platform for architects
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 239-248
summary Architectural design in this ‘digital age’ is becoming more embedded within virtual computer aided design environments. This study expands this virtual design environment back into physical realms through the use of microelectronic wind sensing technology. An interactive and flexible wind sensing system (open source minia- ture portable wind tunnel and wind sensors) was evaluated for its abil- ity to simulate and measure the effects of wind. Physical models of four high-rise buildings were constructed to evaluate ground level pe- destrian comfort resulting from the degree of torsional twist in the building form. The model investigation formed a case study for evalu- ating of the low-cost miniature portable wind tunnel and microelec- tronic wind sensing system for comparison with an industrial aeronau- tical wind tunnel and high precision wind sensors.
keywords Architectural wind tunnel; microelectronic wind sensing; twisted building; wind visualisation
series CAADRIA
email daniel.prohasky@rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id diss_prothero
id diss_prothero
authors Prothero, Jerrold D.
year 1998
title The Role of Rest Frames in Vection, Presence and Motion Sickness
source University of Washington, HIT-Lab
summary A framework is presented for comprehending partly participants' spatial percep- tion in virtual environments. Speci c hypotheses derived from that framework in- clude: simulator sickness should be reducible through visual background manipula- tions; and the sense of presence, or of \being in" a virtual environment, should be increased by manipulations that facilitate perception of a virtual scene as a perceptual rest frame. Experiments to assess the simulator sickness reduction hypothesis demon- strated that congruence between the visual background and inertial cues decreased reported simulator sickness and per-exposure postural instability. Experiments to assess the presence hypothesis used two measures: self-reported presence and visual- inertial nulling. Results indicated that a meaningful virtual scene, as opposed to a random one, increased both reported presence and the level of inertial motion re- quired to overcome perceived self-motion elicited by scene motion. The simulator sickness research implies that visual background manipulations may be a means to reduce the prevalent unwanted side-e ects of simulators. The presence research intro- duces a procedure, possibly based on brain-stem level neural processing, to measure the salience of virtual environments. Both lines of research are central to developing e ective virtual interfaces which have the potential to increase the human-computer bandwidth, and thus to partially address the information explosion.
series thesis:MSc
more http://www.hitl.washington.edu/publications/r-98-11/
last changed 2003/11/28 06:35

_id ecaade2012_209
id ecaade2012_209
authors Prousalidou, Elena
year 2012
title A Digital Model for Fabric Formwork Panels: Using Physical Data to Train the Digital Model
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 159-167
summary In the context of a wider inquiry on the integration of material properties and construction processes in computational models, this paper proposes a digital model for fabric formwork panels. Plaster cast in different types of fabric can produce a significant variation of resulting forms. The aim is to investigate whether data retrieved from physical models with 3D scanning techniques can improve the accuracy and efficiency of a simulation based on geometric principles, and better predict the behaviour of cast material in relation to the type of fabric. Setting up the computational model and choosing its parameters and constraints is based on the physical construction process, highlighting the relationship between material and form. As part of the cyclical exchange, evaluation of the digital model with physical testing demonstrates that the simulation can actually be trained by reducing the physical/ digital discrepancies.
wos WOS:000330320600016
keywords Fabric formwork; simulation; dynamic relaxation; 3d scanning; kinect
series eCAADe
email eprous@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id cf2007_265
id cf2007_265
authors Prousalidou, Elena; Sean Hanna
year 2007
title A Parametric Representation of Ruled Surfaces
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / 978-1-4020-6527-9] Sydney (Australia) 11–13 July 2007, pp. 265-278
summary This paper proposes a simple parametric system to generate an almost complete set of ruled surfaces that may be used to describe building geometry. The major classes of regular, named ruled surfaces can be generated from a limited set of curves. Each of these is shown to be reducible to a transformation of a single standard curve, a helix, and therefore represented by a limited set of six parameters. Six extra parameters can position each surface on a global coordinate system. The representation is designed to be flexible enough to represent both planar and curvilinear forms, producing a description of form from minimal data.
series CAAD Futures
email e.prousalidou@uclmail.net
last changed 2007/07/06 10:47

_id 50eaea2001
id 50eaea2001
authors Przybilla, Heinz-Jürgen
year 2002
title A Process of Generating City Models by Means of Digital Photogrammetry
source Environmental Simulation - New Impulses in Planning Processes [Proceedings of the 5th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 3-922602-85-1]
summary The paper gives an overview of procedures used to generate city models on the basis of photogrammtric techniques. The Phaust software system, developed by the laboratory of photogrammetry of University of Essen, together with a software company situated in Essen, is presented. Some actual examples, including video and internet presentation on the basis of virtual reality modelling language (VRML), are shown.
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id caadria2018_115
id caadria2018_115
authors Przybylski, Maya
year 2018
title A Framework to Establish Data Quality for Software Embedded Design
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 267-276
summary This paper focuses on the discovery and articulation of methods for expanding the degree to which designers relate to the data used in their computationally-oriented projects from a sociocultural and ethical perspective. It supports the early development of methods directed at achieving a more complete engagement with the computational components embedded within software embedded design work.
keywords Computational Design; Ethics; Software Embedded Design; Design Methods; Information Processing
series CAADRIA
email mmprzybylski@uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id ecaade2012_281
id ecaade2012_281
authors Psarras, Stamatis ; Liapi, Katherine A.
year 2012
title The Disassembly of a Musical Piece and its Conversion to an “Architectural” Pathway: An algorithmic approach
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 289-297
summary This paper presents and discusses a process of transferring the main features of a piece of music such as structure, notes etc., to a primarily spatial construction in architecture. The main objective of this effort was to convert the linearity of time during the hearing of a musical piece into a continuous pathway and an architectural stroll on a given site. To this end, the musical piece is used as a source of data, which, with the use of developed algorithms, are converted into spatial data. A purely instrumental piece, “Air,” from the suite for strings in D major by Bach, provided the source data used in the design of Park D, a section of a Cultural Park in the suburbs of Athens, Greece. The developed algorithms presented in the paper include: a) an algorithm for generating the shape of the path and the space defi ning elements along the path, and b) an algorithm that generates the geometry of four harmonographic structures.
wos WOS:000330322400029
keywords Music and Architecture; Gestalt; Design Algorithms; Harmonograph
series eCAADe
email psarras.st@gmail.com
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id cf2015_204
id cf2015_204
authors Psyllidis, Achilleas; Bozzon, Alessandro; Bocconi, Stefano and Bolivar, Christiaan Titos
year 2015
title A platform for urban analytics and semantic data integration in city planning
source The next city - New technologies and the future of the built environment [16th International Conference CAAD Futures 2015. Sao Paulo, July 8-10, 2015. Electronic Proceedings/ ISBN 978-85-85783-53-2] Sao Paulo, Brazil, July 8-10, 2015, pp. 204.
summary This paper presents a novel web-based platform that supports the analysis, integration, and visualization of large-scale and heterogeneous urban data, with application to city planning and decision-making. Motivated by the non-scalable character of conventional urban analytics methods, as well as by the interoperability challenges present in contemporary data silos, the illustrated system – coined SocialGlass – leverages the combined potential of diverse urban data sources. These include sensor and social media streams (Twitter, Instagram, Foursquare), publicly available municipal records, and resources from knowledge repositories. Through data science, semantic integration, and crowdsourcing techniques the platform enables the mapping of demographic information, human movement patterns, place popularity, traffic conditions, as well as citizens’ and visitors’ opinions and preferences about specific venues in a city. The paper further demonstrates an implemented prototype of the platform and its deployment in real-world use cases for monitoring, analyzing, and assessing city-scale events.
keywords urban analytics, semantic integration, crowdsourcing, ontologies, SocialGlass, urban computing, smart cities.
series CAAD Futures
email A.Psyllidis@tudelft.nl
last changed 2015/06/29 05:55

_id sigradi2005_684
id sigradi2005_684
authors Puebla Pons, Juan
year 2005
title The visual singularity and representation in Zaha Hadid works
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 684-688
summary One of the architectural positions characterized by a visual singularity, it has been that of Zaha Hadid. It will be their particular contribution to the renovation of the architectural representation, through different graphic techniques, analogical and digital, and scale models. Hadid has created its own visual code in which the configuration of the shape and the representation are inseparable, standing out the generating role of the architecture on the part of the representation, beyond its instrumental role, with their peculiar paintings, drawings, scale models and their sophisticated renderings. By analyzing the graphic strategies in relation to the intentions or architectural contents along several proposals, it will conclude showing, through their special graphic style, their contribution to the innovation of the expression of the contemporary project. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email juan.puebla@upc.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id bdbb
authors Pugh, D.
year 1992
title Designing solid objects using interactive sketch interpretation
source Computer Graphics (1992 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics), 25(2):117-126, Mar. 1992
summary Before the introduction of Computer Aided Design and solid modeling systems, designers had developed a set of techniques for designing solid objects by sketching their ideas on pencil and paper and refining them into workable designs. Unfortunately, these techniques are different from those for designing objects using a solid modeler. Not only does this waste avast reserve of talent and experience (people typically start drawing from the moment they can hold a crayon), but it also has a more fundamental problem: designers can use their intuition more effectively when sketching than they can when using a solid modeler. Viking is a solid modeling system whose user-interface is based on interactive sketch interpretation. Interactive sketch interpretation lets the designer create a line-drawing of a de- sired object while Viking generates a three-dimensional ob- ject description. This description is consistent with both the designer's line-drawing, and a set of geometric constraints either derived from the line-drawing or placed by the de- signer. Viking's object descriptions are fully compatible with the object descriptions used by traditional solid modelers. As a result, interactive sketch interpretation can be used with traditional solid modeling techniques, combining the advan- tages of both sketching and solid modeling.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 8401
authors Puglisi, Luigi P.
year 1999
title Hyper Architecture. Spaces in the Electronic Age
source Birkhauser Basel. p. 6
summary In an age dominated by the Internet and electronic media it is becoming increasingly clear that our perception of space is also undergoing a profound transformation. The author takes the reader on a fascinating journey, revealing who has played a part in this transformation. Avant-garde artists, including Boccioni, Duchamp and Kandinsky, the architect Gropius, philosophers such as Wittgenstein and psychoanalysts like Carl Gustav Jung all contributed to this development. Today, our awareness of traditional architectural space is changing; buildings are being rendered transparent, fleeting and intangible, enhanced by virtual potential. The author looks at works by Rem Koolhaas, Jean Nouvel, Frank Gehry, Zaha Hadid, James Wines, Daniel Libeskind, Toyo Ito, which reflect building in an age of virtual realism.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2007_af34
id sigradi2007_af34
authors Pujol Romero, Monica; Monica Farkas
year 2007
title Digital Maps [Mapas Digitales]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 340-344
summary This work is based on a digital mapping of actors that build the territorial or conceptual relations between different believes, agents and identities of design. This dynamic map although they are connected with a territory, they are visible on a net that can be based on territory or not. Therefore nodes appear and not necessarily material relationships between them, building networks which will allow data to flow between new neighborhoods. From this framework, the project’s next step is to produce an interactive prototype map of design’s field in the city of Buenos Aires.
keywords Mapa; digital; interactividad; diseño; territorio
series SIGRADI
email mpujol@fibertel.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2011_411
id sigradi2011_411
authors Pujol, Mónica; Farkas Monica; Feinsilber, Sebastián; Cruz, Diego; Mato, Gastón
year 2011
title Dispositivos de visualización y cartografías digitales del Diseño [Visualization devices and digital mapping of Design]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 391-394
summary As part of the UBACyT A038 Digital Map Buenos Aires City Design research project, we propose, on the one hand, to examine the misalignments detected between the development of interfaces and the technological developments available for accessibility to complex information systems, applied to map the field of design; on the other hand, to show the advances achieved in the realization of a digital visual device that enables collaborative data input that allows visualization of the different variables of the design state in Buenos Aires, through digital processing and analytical interpretation of information.
series SIGRADI
email monicapujol@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ddss9204
id ddss9204
authors Pullen, W.R., Wassenaar, C.L.G., van Heti'ema, I., Dekkers, J.T., Janszen, I., Boender, C.G.E., Tas, A. and Stegeman, H.
year 1993
title A decision support system for housing of (public) organizations
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture (Proceedings of a conference held in Mierlo, the Netherlands in July 1992), ISBN 0-7923-2444-7
summary In this paper we present a hierarchical decision support system for the allocation of organisations to available buildings, and for the allocation of employees of an organisation to the work units of a building. For both allocation problems a mathematical model and optimisation algorithm is developed, taking into account the relevant criteria, such as the extent to which the allocated floorspace is in accordance with the standards, and the extent to which departments are housed in connecting zones of a building. The decision support system is illustrated by two practical applications.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2009_1124
id sigradi2009_1124
authors Pupo, Regiane Trevisan; Gabriela Celani; José P. Duarte
year 2009
title Digital materialization for architecture: definitions and techniques
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary The introduction of digital technologies for making models, prototypes, and buildings or building parts in the architectural research, teaching, and practice is a reality today. However, the process is sometimes jeopardized by the lack of clarity regarding the use of certain terms still found in the literature. The goal of this paper is to contribute for overcoming this flaw by providing such a clarification and a possible categorization of the available technologies. The term digital materialization is proposed as a general term to designate all the production technologies available for making physical artifacts.
keywords Rapid prototyping; digital fabrication; rapid manufacturing
series SIGRADI
email regipupo@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2012_189
id sigradi2012_189
authors Pupo, Regiane Trevisan; Orciuoli, Affonso
year 2012
title Experiência sem fronteiras [No limits experience]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 641-644
summary The intention of this paper is to discuss the effort to spread knowledge and technology to a group of people (teachers, students and professionals), who would probably take much longer to have the chance to use new technologies as a design tool. Connecting two events called Road Show and Workshop, the paper shows the methods, processes and solutions achieved throughout different activities and its effects on the use of Digital fabrication and rapid prototyping as a design and materialization tools. In such case, it is a good example on how to spread the news and provide a starting point to make people more aware and train them to become future users of these technologies. The materialization of the results are shown.
keywords Fabricação digital; materializar; customizar
series SIGRADI
email regipupo@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2007_228
id ecaade2007_228
authors Pupo, Regiane; Celani, Gabriela
year 2007
title Trends in Graduate Research on IT & Architecture: a Qualitative Comparison of Tendencies in Brazil and abroad
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 431-437
summary Applications of information technology (IT) in the architectural profession have greatly increased in the past decades, ranging nowadays from concept design to automated construction. There are countless applications in the architecture practice that go well beyond representation, such as BIM software, generative design systems, and rapid prototyping and fabrication. For this reason, IT has been a frequent graduate research topic. In the present research academic graduate theses that dealt with IT in architecture since 1999 were surveyed and categorized, with the purpose of comparing the topics, applications and methods that are studied in Brazil and abroad. We hope that the differences found will help Brazilian architecture schools to update their IT curriculum, overcoming old prejudices against the use of computers in the creative phases of design.
keywords Information technology, architectural design, design process, design education, computational design, CAD
series eCAADe
email rpupo@fec.unicamp.br, celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id ecaade2008_161
id ecaade2008_161
authors Pupo, Regiane; Pinto Duarte, José; Celani, Gabriela
year 2008
title Introducing digital fabrication into the architectural curriculum
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 517-524
summary The present paper describes two similar experiences in the setting up of digital fabrication laboratories in architectural schools and the introduction of such techniques in the schools curriculum, with the aim of answering the following questions: how long – and how much – does it take to incorporate these new technologies in a traditional architectural course? Both experiences were held in Portuguese-speaking countries, but within very different economic and cultural contexts (Europe and South-America).
keywords Rapid prototyping, digital fabrication, fabrication techniques for architecture, architectural curriculum
series eCAADe
email rpupo@fec.unicamp.br, jduarte07@fa.utl.pt, celani@fec.unicamp.br
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id sigradi2011_337
id sigradi2011_337
authors Pupo, Regiane; Teixeira Mendes, Leticia; Andrade De Martino, Jarryer
year 2011
title Da parametrização à fabricação digital [From parametrization to digital fabrication]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 163-166
summary The impact of new technologies as rapid prototyping and digital fabrication used throughout the design process has been a very discussed subject mainly in architecture teaching. Together with this discussion, the introduction of parametric software has a great importance in getting new perspectives and design innovation. In attempting the association of these two lines, the development of a roof project was one of the results of a subject in the postgraduate program at State University of Campinas, Brasil. The design process used those technologies, which allowed the analysis of the impacts they might have during each phase of the design process.
series SIGRADI
email regipupo@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ea5c
authors Purcell, P.
year 1988
title The Role of Media Technology in the Design Studio
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 179-187
summary This paper refers to a program of work, which aims to integrate a range of computer-based multi-media technologies which has the overall goal of enhancing the processes of education in the design studio. The individual projects describe the development of visual information systems and intelligent design systems. The framework of support for much of the work is Project Athena, a campus wide initiative to apply new technology towards enhancing the educational process project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2a8b
authors Purcell, Patrick and Applebaum Dan
year 1990
title Light Table: An Interface To Visual Information Systems
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 229-238
summary A primary aim of the Light Table project was to see if a combination of the optical laser disc, local area networks, and interactive videographic workstation technology could bring a major visual collection, (such as the Rotch Visual Collections of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology), to a campuswide population of undergraduate users. VIS (Visual Information System) is the name being given to the new genre of information technology. Much research and development effort is currently being applied to areas where the image has a special significance, for example in architecture and planning, in graphic and fine arts, in biology, in medicine, and in photography. One particular advance in the technology of VIS has been the facility to access visual information across a distributed computer system via LAN (Local Area Networks) and video delivery systems, (such as campus TV cable). This advance allows users to retrieve images from both local and remote sources, dispatching the image search through the LAN, and receiving the images back at their workstation via dedicated channels on the campus TV cable. Light Table is the title of a system that acts as a computer-based interactive videographic interface to a variety of visual information systems described in the body of this paper. It takes its name from the traditional, back- lit, translucent light table that lecturers use to assemble and view collections of slides for talks and seminars. The component of Light Table which is being reported in greatest detail here, a software outcome called Galatea, is a versatile and robust system capable of controlling video devices in a networked environment.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0797
authors Purnomo, H.
year 1989
title SPACE - Generative Expert System: An Expert System for Designing a Layout of Single-Family Houses Using the Expansiva Building System
source Department of Architectural and Design Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis describes an expert system for designing the layout of a single-family house using the Espansiva building system introduced by Jorn Utzon. The expert system uses two systems that are already available; the BUILD expert system shell as an automated reasoning system and the Eagle 3D modeler system for producing graphical output. Both programs run under the UNIX operating system on SUN microcomputers. The integration of BUILD, which is written in Prolog, with Eagle using one of the Eagle commands called 'weasel' is a major part of the implementation of the system. [Unpublished. -- CADLINE has abstract only.]
keywords Expert Systems, Floor Plans, Synthesis, Layout, Applications, Languages, PROLOG
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:12

_id e72a
authors Putnam, L.K. and Subrahmanyam, P.A.
year 1986
title Boolean Operations on n- Dimensional Objects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. June, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 43-51 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Computation of the union, intersection, and difference of n- dimensional objects plays a central role in several computer- aided geometric design problems. An algorithm for computing these operations that uses a boundary classification technique is presented here. The algorithm is recursive in structure, with the recursion being on the dimensions of objects dealt with at each stage. The representation treats all entities as objects, making no distinction between faces, edges or vertices. The objects produced are 'regularized,' that is, there are no degenerate boundaries such as dangling edges. The sample application given involved hidden-surface removal
keywords algorithms, recursion, hidden surfaces, boolean operations, B-rep,geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id caadria2008_65_session6b_536
id caadria2008_65_session6b_536
authors Puttipong, Nuttawut
year 2008
title Instant Message Application For Collaborative Work In Architectural Office via Network System
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 536-543
summary his developed software has objectives to improve and develop working style of architectural organizations to suit the world nowadays and to increase capability and convenience in working of coordination and assignment as well as following up task progression in drawing works to be finished timely the determined schedule so that would reduce problems due to time and distance. All participating parties can work and coordinate together whereas such colleague may be in another place or another time. The software designed by us is to be used in operation via network system supporting operation in collaborative working style.
keywords Instant Messaging; Collaborative Designs Coordination; Digital Communications System
series CAADRIA
email info@rsu.ac.th, nes.nuttawut@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ecaade2016_123
id ecaade2016_123
authors Puusepp, Renee, Cerrone, Damiano and Melioranski, Martin
year 2016
title Synthetic Modelling of Pedestrian Movement - Tallinn case study report
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 473-481
summary This paper builds towards the argument that pedestrian traffic in the city can be successfully simulated with agent-based computational models if pedestrians' movement patterns are appropriately studied first. Furthermore, such simulation models, when finely calibrated and supported by onsite observations, allow planners to evaluate different urban design scenarios.We present a pilot study carried out in the centre of Tallinn, and discuss a way of how pedestrian movement simulations can be conceived. In the pilot study we recorded some 120 traces of pedestrians' movement and developed a prototype of an agent-based computational model to simulate this movement. Additionally we investigated the possibility of including solar analysis into the computational model. Already this short exercise offered us some interesting insights into how certain spatial qualities and features can drive pedestrian traffic making urban walkers to verge off the shortest routes. The pilot study was carried out in the context of the High Street project [1] for turning the centre of Tallinn into more pedestrian friendly area by redesigning urban space, calming vehicular traffic and creating new opportunities for businesses to flourish.
wos WOS:000402064400047
keywords agent-based model; urban analysis; pedestrian simulation; movement patterns; solar analysis
series eCAADe
email renee.puusepp@artun.ee
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id caadria2017_046
id caadria2017_046
authors Puusepp, Renee, L?oke, Taavi and Kivi, Kaiko
year 2017
title Enabling Customer Choice in Housing - Mass Customisation Solution for Prefabricated House Manufacturers
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 251-260
summary This paper presents a live and tested solution that enables home buyers to choose and customise their future homes in a web browser. It allows future owners and residents to configure and visualise their home in 3D but also keep it affordable by displaying the construction costs back to users in real-time. The proposed solution is analysed in the context of current housing market, excising web and BIM technologies and compared to currently available solutions. Additionally, we have been tracking visitor behaviour by using web analytics and can draw some conclusions about its performance.
keywords mass customisation; housing; configurators; combinatorics; web technologies
series CAADRIA
email renee.puusepp@artun.ee
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id acadia14_43
id acadia14_43
authors Puusepp, Renee
year 2014
title Agent-based models for computing circulation
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 43-52
summary This paper presents and compares two computational models for designing circulation networks in settlements.
keywords Multi Agent Systems in Design, Generative Design, Circulation Diagrams
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email renee.puusepp@artun.ee
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id caadria2014_088
id caadria2014_088
authors Puusepp, Renee
year 2014
title Spatial Agglomerates
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 585–594
summary This paper reports on the computational modelling research investigating spatial organisations often associated with unplanned settlements. Such spatial agglomerates are composed of several co-located but autonomous units (agents) that share common facilities and infrastructure (e.g. circulation). Depending on the context, units in the agglomerate represent individual dwellings, apartments or abstract spatial geometry. The paper presents early prototype models that can be interpreted at various scale, and a computational model for generating organic settlement layouts. The originality of the research resides within a new multi-agent algorithm for creating spatial organisations. The agglomeration process benefits from two distinct generative design strategies – self-organisation and adaptive development strategy. While the self-organisation accounts for the emergence of the global structure in the agglomeration, the adaptive development strategy ensures that the basic environmental and spatial requirements of each individual unit are satisfied.
keywords Generative design; agent based modelling; object oriented design; unplanned settlements
series CAADRIA
email renee.puusepp@artun.ee
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id ijac20075106
id ijac20075106
authors Puusepp, Renee; Coates, Paul
year 2007
title Spatial Simulations with Cognitive and Design Agents
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 5 - no. 1, pp. 100-114
summary Agent based design systems could provide useful decision help for architects working on spatial planning tasks that involve large number of actors or deal with complex urban situations. These systems are especially helpful in bridging the gap between concrete design proposals and high-level design abstractions such as frequency and flow diagrams. Every attempt to use computational design agents in the planning process will automatically raise many fundamental issues about spatial perception and representation of the environment. The paper discusses these issues in the light of some recent agent based simulations. Two case studies are presented in order to demonstrate different uses of computational agents in urban design. The first study shows how a simple agent-based design system placed in an urban context becomes a creative production tool. The second one reveals analytical capabilities of an agent system in urban environments.
series journal
email puusepp1@hot.ee
last changed 2007/06/14 10:11

_id ecaaderis2018_114
id ecaaderis2018_114
authors Pyrillos, Theodoros
year 2018
title Behavioural Space Configurations - Architectural Spatial Configuration from a Biological Standpoint
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 39-48
keywords The following research, depicts a theoretical model of producing architectural spatial layouts. This is based on a more Biological View of Architectural space and concerns it self with the way that organisms (and in-turn we) perceive and interact with our environments. The model presented here emanates from a range of different fields and not only architectural theory and design. This research touches upon the fields architecture, mathematics, biology, behavioural psychology and has been inspired and draws heavily on the work done by Tim Ireland, as well as some of the work of Gregg Lynn and Alessandro Zomparelli, as well as the theoretical work of Uexküll and Kwinter. The model has began from a simple coding exercise and has developed into a detailed organism that acts and interacts with its environment. The end results present a bottom-up approach to spatial architectural layouts that are defined by the way the organism design interacts with given spatial qualities and other similar organisms with other given spatial qualities. The results retrieved from the coding exercises represent a more abstract -at this point- representation of space and have been slightly manipulated in other Modelling Packages to receive a clearer image.
series eCAADe
email theodoros.pyrillos@gmail.com
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id sigradi2007_af31
id sigradi2007_af31
authors Pérez Miró, Ricardo; Miriam Bessone
year 2007
title Music and Architecture: Towards a programmable relation through the form [Música y arquitectura: Hacia una relación programable a través de la forma]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 433-438
summary This report presents the Second Controlled Experience of the project "Music and Architecture: form as a bond, hypermedia as a tool", which basically tries to determine possible relations between Electroacoustic Music and Form in order to establish the bond with Architecture.This presentation expose a detailed report of the activities of experimentation and analyses, made up to this moment, and the projections which arise from them, for the continuation of the research. We are trying to obtain the necessary statistical production for the enunciation of elements 'conventionalizables' which will make possible the later mathematical representation for development of testing softwares.
series SIGRADI
email ricardopm@gigared.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id caadria2011_041
id caadria2011_041
authors Pérez, Edgar and Tomás Dorta
year 2011
title Assessment of design tools for ideation
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 429-438
summary Designers interact with a wide range of design tools, in a variety of ways, in order to support their work. Any attempt to produce digital tools aimed at supporting ideation raises the question of the kind of information considered account and what is appropriate to the needs and expectations of designers. We developed and implemented an assessment method for digitally supported conceptual design based on reflective conversation, flow, cognitive ergonomics and activity theory. Our approach opens up the evaluation spectrum to include parameters beyond performances factors for conceiving new digital design tools. This assessment approach considers user (the designer), action (ideation) and object (the tool) in the ideation process, namely the designer’s experience interrelated to the needs of the task and the characteristics of the tool. In this paper we present the results of several research protocols in which we observed, analyzed and successively acted upon five different stages of the interface of a design tool as it was being developed, the Hybrid Ideation Space (HIS). Taken as a whole, these results suggest the limits and support of designers’ optimal relationship with an ideation interface.
keywords Ideation; assessment method; design tools; human computer interaction
series CAADRIA
email uriel.edgar.perez@umontreal.ca
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id c57c
authors Pöyry Matti (Ed.)
year 1984
title The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984
summary The conference took place in the Department of Architecture of the Helsinki University of Technology (Otaniemi). There were 63 delegates from Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Australia, France, Israel, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom, Denmark, California and the Netherlands. The conference program was divided into three parts, namely general lectures (T. Maver, W. Mitchell, A. Neil and J. Gero), national situation reports and parallel workshops.
series eCAADe
email matti.poyry@poypoy.inet.fi
last changed 1998/09/12 05:52

_id ecaade2017_079
id ecaade2017_079
authors Qabshoqa, Mohammad, Kocaturk, Tuba and Kiviniemi, Arto
year 2017
title A value-driven perspective to understand Data-driven futures in Architecture
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 407-416
summary This paper reports on an investigation of the potentials of data utilisation in Architecture from a value generation and business creation points of view, based on an ongoing PhD research by the first author. It is of crucial importance to, first, identify what data actually signifies for Architecture, and secondly to explore how the value obtained through data-driven approaches in other industries could potentially be transferred and applied in our professional context. These objectives have been achieved through a qualitative comparative analysis of various cases. Additionally, the paper discusses the multiplicity of factors which contribute to different interpretations and utilisation of data with reference to various value systems embedded into our profession (e.g. design as ideology, design as profession, design as service). A comparative analysis of the existing data utilisation methods in connection with various value systems provide crucial insights in order to answer the following questions: How can data assess values in architectural design/practice? How can data utilisation give way to the emergence of new values for the profession?
keywords Big Data in Architecture; Data-Driven Architecture Design; Data in Architecture Design; Computational Data Design; Digital Value in Architecture
series eCAADe
email MQabshoqa@Lincoln.ac.uk
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id a32f
authors Qamhiyah, A.Z., Venter, R.D. and Benhabib, B.
year 1996
title Geometric reasoning for the extraction of form features
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 28 (11) (1996) pp. 887-903
summary The primary limitation of feature-recognition approaches, namely their lack of generalization, has been addressed by the development of feature-extraction techniques. This paper presents a boundary-based procedurefor the sequential extraction of form features from CAD models of objects with planar surfaces. An object is viewed as an initial basic shape that has been iteratively altered through the introduction of form features.Form features are first classified based on their effect in changing a basic shape. Geometric reasoning is then used to obtain generalized properties of the form-features' classes. Finally, form-features' classes aresequentially extracted based on the obtained properties.
keywords CAD, Form-Feature, Feature Extraction
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id ecaade2012_86
id ecaade2012_86
authors QaQish ; Ra’Ed K.
year 2012
title 15 Years of CAD Teaching in Jordan: How Much Has Been Accomplished? A Comparative Analysis of the Use of CAD in Architectural Schools Between 1997 and 2012
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 23-32
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the evolution in architectural education trends arising from the changes brought about by both Socioeconomic Factors and the implications of CAAD in the last 15 years in Jordanian universities. The findings reflect the views of thirteen (13) architecture faculties/schools through a nation-wide questionnaire survey conducted in the spring of 2012. The survey was structured to cover both private and public universities in Jordan, represented by faculties of engineering, architecture and design. Structurally, the main fi ndings of this study are summarized under six areas, namely: 1) General Students’ Information, 2) Demographic and Socioeconomic Factors, 3) CAD Competences amongst both Staff and Students, 4) Program of Study and CAD Courses, 5) Overall Satisfaction of CAD Courses and Training , 6) CAD and Social Networks. The majority of student respondents were females (144) (53.3%). The top laptop brands used were HP (17%) Toshiba (12.2%) and Dell (7.8%). The CAD packages found to be most highly used throughout universities were AutoCAD, 3D Max, Sketch-up, and Adobe Suite. The importance of new technologies, electronic book, and the social network aspects in enhancing CAD and 3D modeling software integration with the design studio was affi rmed yet no relationship to the gender was noted.
wos WOS:000330320600001
keywords CAD Integration, Socioeconomic Factors
series eCAADe
email qaqish@aum.edu.jo
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id 8804
authors QaQish, R. and Hanna, R.
year 1997
title A World-wide Questionnaire Survey on the Use of Computers in Architectural Education
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper reports on a study which examines the impact on architectural education needs arising from the changes brought about by the implications of CAD teaching/learning (CAI/CAL). The findings reflect the views of fifty-one (51) architecture schools through a world-wide questionnaire survey conducted in mid 1996. The survey was structured to cover four continents represented by seven countries, namely the USA, UK, Israel, Australia, Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands. Structurally the main findings of this study are summarised under five areas, namely: 1) General Information, 2) Program of Study (curriculum) and CAD course, 3) CAD Laboratories: Hardware, Software, 4) Departmental Current and Future Policies, 5) Multi-media and Virtual Reality. Principally, there were three main objectives for using the computers survey. Firstly, to accommodate a prevalent comprehension of CAD integration into the curriculum of architecture schools world wide. Secondly, to identify the main key factors that control the extent of association between CAD and architectural curriculum. Thirdly, to identify common trends of CAD teaching in Architecture schools world-wide and across the seven countries to establish whether there are any association between them. Several variables and factors that were found to have an impact on AE were examined, namely: the response rate, the conventional methods users and the CAD methods users amongst students, CAD course employment in the curriculum, age of CAD employment, the role of CAD in the curriculum, CAD training time in the Curriculum, CAD laboratories/Hardware & Software, computing staff and technicians, department policies, Multi-Media (MM) and Virtual-Reality (VR). The statistical analysis of the study revealed significant findings, one of which indicates that 35% of the total population of students at the surveyed architecture schools are reported as being CAD users. Out of the 51 architecture schools who participated in this survey, 47 have introduced CAD courses into the curriculum. The impact of CAD on the curriculum was noted to be significant in several areas, namely: architectural design, architectural presentation, structural engineering, facilities management, thesis project and urban design. The top five CAD packages found to be most highly used across universities were, namely, AutoCAD (46), 3DStudio (34), Microstation (23), Form Z (17), ArchiCAD (17). The findings of this study suggest some effective and efficient future directions in adopting some form of effective CAD strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio and the curriculum.

 

keywords CAD Integration, Employment, Users and Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@gsa.ac.uk
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/qaqish/qaqish.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 05ca
authors QaQish, R.
year 1998
title Assessing CAD Learning Environment and CAL Materials in Association with the Overall Effectiveness of CAD Integration Domains
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 196-207
summary This paper report on the findings of an empirical case study undertook at Mackintosh School of Architecture/ University of Glasgow study. The study investigated several questions concerning the efficiency of CAD teaching in the design studio in tandem with the CAD learning environment and materials. The study investigated the computer-aided learning in the AutoCAD course at Mackintosh School of Architecture using 35 students at the second year design studio as a vehicle. The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administering questionnaires to students. The objective of this study was to determine to what extent the CAD learning environment and administered materials were effective in generating supplementary strategies in the design studio. Another objective was to evaluate the computer lab as an optional design studio space in the future settings of schools of architecture. Principally, the study attempted to locate the areas where CAD teaching lapses in relation to the design studio. To arrive at this, several variables were investigated such as the levels of students? performance, attitudes and skills against the learning environment and the overall effectiveness of CAD. The findings of this study may provide some answers to the problems of CAD integration with the design studio. In addition, the questionnaire used in this case study may prove to be helpful as an evaluation tool of CAD courses when integrated with the design studio.
keywords CAD Environment, CAL Effectiveness, Attitude, Performance, Skills
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/40qaqish/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 17:29

_id 2c63
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed and Tarazi, Khaled
year 1999
title Formulating a Computer-Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) Program Model in Distance Education (DE) at Open Universities (OU)
source AVOCAAD Second International Conference [AVOCAAD Conference Proceedings / ISBN 90-76101-02-07] Brussels (Belgium) 8-10 April 1999, pp. 189-204
summary This paper reports on a project that aims to formulate a CAAD program model in Distance Education (Learning/Teaching) framework, to be applied and implemented in future settings at Open Universities worldwide. The methodology used to establish the CAAD program model consisted of a worldwide literature review on the subject of Distance Education and Open Universities. It also involved an assessment of the methods and means used in the delivery of materials to students enrolled at Open Universities, together with an analysis of the current program of study and subject related courses. The methods of this investigation consisted of a comparative analysis between the existing models of teaching process at Open Universities and how it relates to CAAD in architecture schools. The study endeavored to examine several issues that were found to be key factors in any Open University system, namely: the methods of study, program of study, student type/body, academic/degree requirements, and residency/academic calendars. While attempting to establish a conceptual CAAD program model, this study investigated several questions concerning the efficiency of CAAD teaching in Distance Education. One of the study objectives was to determine which factors were mostly needed to effectively integrate CAAD in DE as a new program in Open Universities. In addition, how would these factors affect the design of CAAD courses in OU systems as a new DE program area? And what structural elements would be most affected by these factors? Another objective of this study was to determine to what extent the new CAAD program model in tandem with staff, learning environment, and administered materials would be effective in generating supplementary strategies in the virtual design studio. A third objective was to evaluate the personal computer station as an alternative design studio space in future settings of schools of architecture. Consequently, the principle objective of this study was to develop and establish a CAAD program model to be adopted by Open Universities as a new subject area in DE. Mainly, the study attempted to locate the areas where CAAD teaching excels in the context of virtual design studio of OU system.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4c45
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed K.
year 2001
title Exploiting Tools of Evaluation to Improve CAAD Teaching Methods. A Case Study of Inter & Intra ECTM Model
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 215-230
summary This paper reports on an ongoing research study model into the Evaluation of CAAD Teaching Methods (ECTM) of which a number of resolutions and strategies were attained via an empirical investigation. The first stage of the study findings proposed a framework for the evaluation of architecture courses in tandem with CAAD. The second stage was based on the Inter & Intra ECTM design model as a strategy for acquiring solutions to CAAD problems through the exploitation of CAAD evaluation tools. The ECTM model structure criteria: the Model Concepts, the Operational Context, Dialectic Meanings, Relational Context, Performing Methods and Level of Integration were illuminated. ECTM model has a twofold involvement junctures, which describe CAAD evaluation behaviour. The first involves the evaluator in an interdepartmental comparison of CAAD integration into the curriculum, and/or between schools of architecture. The second engages the evaluator in an intradepartmental study of CAAD integration, and within the institution. The study projected an attempt to validate the Inter & Intra ECTM design model in concert with evaluation. The paper presents an extended description of the objectives, procedures and testing designed for the two abovementioned junctures composing the proposed ECTM case studies. Sequences of methods of data collection employed as a vehicle for the ECTM were Kirkpatrick model, questionnaire survey, observation (using an ECTM checklist) and experimental studies. The paper also explores variables and indicators used, and advances to shed some light on the methods of statistical analysis employment. ECTM model as a tool to attain CAAD effectiveness might redefine the role of collaborators/ team partnerships in CAAD tuition; and induce the level of technology selection and adaptation amongst schools, e.g. tutors and coursework interconnectivity. The ECTM model may also work as a framework of strategies to augment interactivity and positive learning amongst both staff and students.
keywords Evaluation, Teaching Methods, Interactivity, Effectiveness
series CAAD Futures
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 13f7
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed K.
year 1999
title Evaluation as a Key Tool to Bridge CAAD and Architecture Education
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 279-285
summary This paper reports on the findings of a study carried out at Glasgow University which proposes a framework for the evaluation of architecture curriculum once integrated with CAAD. This study investigated the evaluation of CAAD teaching methods (CTM) and the effectiveness of CAAD integration (CI) and explored CAAD employment suitability in the design studio, and what influences does it have on the design process tuition using the Kirkpatrick model as a vehicle. The related CAAD evaluation variables investigated were: CAAD Tutor, Course Materials & Contents, Class Environment, Use of Media, Delivery Methodologies, Administrative Briefs, and Overall Effectiveness of CAAD event. Several other variables investigated were the levels of students' performance, attitudes, knowledge, new-stand, creativity and skills. The paper covered briefly some of the findings of the case studies acquired over two years at MSA; both observations and questionnaire surveys were used as methods of data collection. Evaluation deficiency postulates the weaknesses of CAAD in architecture schools. Evaluation of CAAD tuition should be a fundamental approach to address CAAD integration efficiency and problems, to achieve effectiveness and productivity amongst architecture schools.
keywords Evaluation, Integration, Effectiveness
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 7244
authors QaQish, Ra'Ed Kamal Musa
year 1997
title Computer Aided Learning in Computer Aided Design : inter & intra departmental computer management learning (CML) in architectural education (AE)
source University of Glasgow
keywords Computer-Assisted Instruction; Architectural Design; Data Processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ab09
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed and Hanna, Raid
year 1997
title The Impact of CAL Strategies on CAD
source CAADRIA ‘97 [Proceedings of the Second Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 957-575-057-8] Taiwan 17-19 April 1997, pp. 475-489
summary This paper reports on a two fold study, which examines the impact of CAL on CAD and architectural education, and evaluates the overall effectiveness and efficiency of CAD teaching and strategies in the curriculum of architecture. The study also examined the need for a framework within which the creation of a module for applying CAL in CAD to support the curriculum of architecture can be structured and assessed. The main concern of the study was to explore the range and balance of computer assisted activities in the design studio, and the interpretation of the various roles of the CAD tutor and his/her involvement in delivering these activities. In delivering these activities two criteria, namely: teaching methods and CAD integration (which are interchangeable and yet play different roles), can have a distinct effect on the implementation of CAL in the design studio. The case study evaluated and investigated the CAL the AEC course as part of the 3rd year design studio at Mackintosh School of Architecture, to determine to what extent the AEC learning events were effective in advocating new strategies in CAD. The methods of this investigation consisted of classroom observations and administrating questionnaires. Variables such as the group and gender differences/participation, the tutor’s confidence, level of administration and strategies to help with technical problems and motivations, also the task-related activities, tangibility of the learning materials, and the minutes of lesson have been examined. The global rating of the CAL events in CAD lessons, the CAL organisation and sequence, the level of students’ confidence, the rate of students’ interest, the mode of classroom, the level of learner performance and the relationship between CAL and the overall curriculum have also been empirically examined and their interdependent relationships explored. The findings of this study may help in establishing future directions in adopting some form of effective CAL strategies in CAD. The study also serves as an evaluation tool for computing teaching in the design studio. Furthermore, the checklist used in this case study may also be used in evaluating the different courses in CAD in the curriculum of architectural schools.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/02/01 14:21

_id 3815
authors Qaqish, Ra’ed
year 2001
title VDS/DDS Practice Hinges on Interventions and Simplicity - A Case Study of Hard Realism vs. Distorted Idealism
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 249-255
summary This paper reports on a contemporary and laborious ongoing experimental work initiated during the establishment of a new Virtual/Digital design studio “VDS” in Sept. 1999 by CAAD tutors at University of Petra “UOP”. The new VDS/DDS now works as an experimental laboratory to explore several solutions to problems of efficiency in design teaching as a new digital design studio paradigm, in tandem with CAD/Design staff, DS environment, materials and facilities. Two groups of graduating level students participated as volunteers in this experiment. The first group was comprised of three fifth-year architectural design students while the second group was comprised of two fourth-year interior design students. The media currently in use are ArchiCAD 6.5 as a design tool along with CorelDraw 9 as a presentational tool, running on Pentium III computers. The series of experiments evaluated the impression on architectural design studio tuition requirements arising from the changes brought about by the implementation of the new CAD pedagogical approach (VDS/DDS) at UOP. The findings echo several important key issues in tandem with CAAD, such as: the changes brought about by the new design strategies, adaptation in problem solving decision-making techniques, studio employment in terms of environment, means and methods. Other issues are VDS/DDS integration schemes carried out by both students and staff as one team in design studio practice on one hand and the curriculum on the other. Finally, the paper discusses the negative impact of conventional design studio hardliner teaching advocates and students alike whose outlook and impressions undermine and deplete effective CAAD integration and obstruct, in many instances, the improvement of such experiments in a VDS environment.
keywords Design Studio Strategies, Problem Solving Decisions, Transformation And Integration Policies
series eCAADe
email r.qaqish@index.com.jo
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id caadria2016_601
id caadria2016_601
authors Qattan, Wajdy and Stephen Harfield
year 2016
title Architects and Digital Designing Techniques Frontiers
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 601-610
summary Recently digital-design techniques have influenced the way architects think and design. This extends to impact architectural edu- cation by drawing new boundary lines. Therefore, it is desirable for architectural educators and students to consider these lines and to know how to establish them within these technological trends. This will be through raising their knowledge and skills in three aspects, which are algorithms and geometry characteristics, authorship, and fabrication in digital architecture.
keywords Algorithms; authorship; fabrication; education; digital
series CAADRIA
email wajdy.s.qattan@student.uts.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id ascaad2016_039
id ascaad2016_039
authors Qattan, Wajdy; Stephen Harfield
year 2016
title Understanding Digital Design Techniques in Saudi Architectural Education
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 375-382
summary To understand the current architectural digital design techniques, architects and architecture educators and students need to know that these techniques are the new tool set. These techniques offer architects a new way of thinking and designing and enhance complexity. They will link architecture design with mathematics and computation, and they will generate and improve ideas. Giving that Saudi architectural education is still using traditional manual techniques and using technology only for drawing and montaging, this evokes the fact that there is a need to know and understand these techniques and their importance.
series ASCAAD
email wajdy.s.qattan@student.uts.edu.au
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id acadia07_230
id acadia07_230
authors Qian, Cheryl Z.; Chen, Victor Y.; Woodbury, Robert F.
year 2007
title Participant Observation Can Discover Design Patterns in Parametric Modeling
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 230-241
summary Our research aims to understand the mid-level patterns of work that recur across designers and tasks. Our users comprise active architects and civil engineers. The hypothesis is that making such patterns explicit will result in improved expert work practices, in better learning material and suggestions for improvements in parametric design. The literature shows that patterns express design work at a tactical level, above simple editing and below overall conception. We conducted a user experience study based on Bentley’s GenerativeComponents, in which geometry can be related, transformed, generated, and manipulated parametrically within a user-defined framework. After interviewing the system’s chief, we ran a participant-observer study in the January 2007 SmartGeometry workshop. We engaged designers through the role of tutor and simultaneously observed and discussed their design process. We found clear evidence of designers using patterns in the process and discerned several previously unknown patterns. In February at another 10-day workshop, we found more evidence supporting prior findings. The paper demonstrates that participant observation can be an efficient method of collecting patterns about designers’ work and introduces such new patterns. We believe these patterns may help designers work at more creative levels and may suggest new ideas of interest to CAD application developers.
series ACADIA
email cherylq@sfu.ca
last changed 2007/10/02 06:13

_id 9f59
authors Qian, Dongqiu and Gross, Mark D.
year 1999
title Collaborative Design with NetDraw
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 213-226
summary The paper describes NetDraw, a Java-based object oriented drawing program that employs a server-client architecture to provide a shared drawing environment for collaborative design. NetDraw goes beyond conventional shared whiteboard applications in its support for concurrency control, groups and constraints, and ephemeral gesture objects. Small and simple enough that users can learn it quickly, NetDraw is designed to run on small platforms such as handheld computers. We describe NetDraw's features and an early evaluation of its use.
keywords Synchronous Collaboration, Shared Drawing.
series CAAD Futures
email mdg@spot.colorado.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id caadria2007_619
id caadria2007_619
authors Qian, Jingping; Chiu-Shui Chan
year 2007
title Beijing Xidan business street plan evaluation
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary In the international cooperative research project of "Utilizing Three-Dimensional Data in a Virtual Urban Environment to Support and Evaluate Planning Decisions" in Beijing, a digital city is constructed, and a set of planning regulations is established. This paper will give you a brief introduction to the programming of evaluating the city planning with ObjectARX accompaning AutoCAD. By loading the application programmed in Visual C++ on AutoCAD software platform, you can design a building and let the tool evaluate the design to generate graphic suggestions.
series CAADRIA
email cschan@iastate.edu
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id 5f96
authors Qin, S.F., Jordanov, I.N. and Wright, D.K.
year 1999
title Freehand drawing system using a fuzzy logic concept
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 31 (5) (1999) pp. 359-360
summary In their paper, Chen and Xie report on the development of a pen-based Fuzzy Freehand Drawing System (FFDS). A Liming multiplier is used in their FFDS to reconstruct ellipses from scattered data.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 08:56

_id ddssup9623
id ddssup9623
authors Qingming, Zhan and Zhengdong, Huang
year 1996
title GIS Support for urban planning in wuhan, p.r.china
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part two: Urban Planning Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The shift from a planned economy to a market economy has been a great challenge for the urban planning bureau of Wuhan. This challenge lies partially in finding new land for the rapid urban expansion as well as redeveloping existing urban areas especially inner city areas. The urban planning bureau initiated two projects: the revision of the master plan and the development of an urban renewal plan. In both plans the university assisted in spatial data analysis and the development of a spatial data model to support the inner city redevelopment process.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id caadria2018_310
id caadria2018_310
authors Qiu, Lili, Li, Yuan and Rao, Jintong
year 2018
title The Evolution of Kulangsu's Urban Morphology in its Period of Public Settlement, Based on Space Syntax
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 421-430
summary Heritage protection entails the integrated construction of conservation and collective memory based on historical authenticity. Therefore, the study of history is essential for accomplishing the task of heritage conservation. This article applies a space syntax methodology to explore how urban morphology evolved at a heritage site on Kulangsu Island. The analysis reveals the characteristic features of urban morphology and offers suggestions for optimizing the historical space of world heritage. The effectiveness and limitations of the research are also debated and substantiated.
keywords Urban morphology; Kulangsu; Historical evolution; Space syntax; GIS
series CAADRIA
email qll@xmu.edu.cn
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id caadria2017_033
id caadria2017_033
authors Qu, Tengteng, Zang, Wei, Peng, Zhenwei, Liu, Jun, Li, Weiwei, Zhu, Yun, Zhang, Bin and Wang, Yongsheng
year 2017
title Construction Site Monitoring Using UAV Oblique Photogrammetry and BIM Technologies
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 655-662
summary Traditional construction site monitoring primarily relies on a human presence. Automated construction progress monitoring is expected to make this process much more efficient and precise. The planned state of construction (as-planned) must be validated by the actual state (as-built) during automated construction progress monitoring. This research uses an integrated application of high-resolution low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) oblique photogrammetry and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technologies for construction site management. A case study was carried out for a renewable energy development program in the JiaDing District of Shanghai, China. A high-resolution 3D model of the construction site acquired by our multi-motor UAV provides data to illustrate the as-built state of the construction program. Comparison of the UAV-based 3D model (as-built) with the BIM-based 3D model (as-planned) for a specific chimney was used for dynamic construction site monitoring. Our results show 3D illustrations of construction progress. This research demonstrates that the BIM technology in conjunction with the use of UAV photogrammetry provides efficient and precise as-built data collection and illustration of construction progress.
keywords Oblique Photogrammetry; UAV; 3D modeling; BIM; construction site monitoring
series CAADRIA
email 1989tengteng@tongji.edu.cn
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id 1ad0
id 1ad0
authors Qu, Yingge; Schnabel, Marc Aurel
year 2009
title Drawing Architecture using Manga Techniques
source Managing IT in Construction / Managing Construction for Tomorrow, CIB W78, Attila Dikbas, Esin Ergen & Heyecan Giritli (eds.), CRC Press/Balkema, Istanbul, Turkey, pp.567-576
summary Manga is a type of stylised bitonal drawings pleasing in terms of screen variety and tidy lines. In this paper, we present a method to draw architecture, spatial compositions and their details, including colours, textures, and tones, using manga drawing techniques. Given a colour image, such as photography, or drawing, our method finds the optimal solution for screening during the bi-tonal transformation, as well as a set of ideally abstracted line drawings. This offers a novel rendering appearance for the communication of architectural design. In our results we demonstrate successfully that our method generates manga-like drawings from an architectural image that preserve architectural key-elements, such as surface or material properties.
keywords representation, visual communication, non-photorealistic rendering, multidimensional scaling, Manga
series other
type normal paper
email marcaurel@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2010/02/02 07:54

_id 8298
authors Quadrel, Richard W. and Chassin, David P.
year 1985
title Energy Graphics: A Progress Report on the Development of Architectural Courseware
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 129-141
summary Energy Graphics is a technique for determining the energy performance of buildings at the conceptual stage of the architectural design process. Unlike many energy analysis programs, which only produce results after ail of the building information has been supplied, Energy Graphics works with the designer in understanding how early decisions about building form and configuration affect energy use.

The Energy Graphics technique is currently being "computerized" on a Sun 2/120 graphics workstation, under a grant by the Inter-University Consortium for Educational Computing. The resulting software will be used in the architectural design curriculum so that students will be able to receive an immediate energy evaluation of their design explorations.

For use in the studios, the software must include a powerful graphics interface that allows students to "sketch" their design concepts interactively. The computer will then interpret these sketches as building information, organize them into an integrated database, perform the energy calculations, and inform the student of the results in a graphic format. One of the project's major goals is to provide this graphics interface in the same way that architects think about drawing, and not simply to imitate current computer "drafting" systems.

The goals of the project can only be met by developing the software on a powerful workstation system, which provides fast processing time, large memory, multitasking capabilities and high-resolution graphics. This progress report describes our efforts to date on the development of this important software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:55

_id 0fba
authors Quarendon, P. and Woodwark, J.R.
year 1987
title Three-Dimensional Models for Computer Graphics
source [2] 17 p. : col. ill. Winchester, UK: IBM UK Scientific Center, May, 1987. IBM UKSC Report 158. includes bibliography
summary The various object models which are in use for generating computer graphics are reviewed and some of their advantages and disadvantages discussed. In particular, methods of overcoming the apparently unpromising performance characteristics of set-theoretic solid models are described. A number of examples are given showing the use of set- theoretic models in graphics applications. It is concluded that, while these models were developed for computer-aided design, they will have increasing use in computer graphics
keywords geometric modeling, methods, performance, evaluation, solid modeling,boolean operations, computer graphics, B- rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2017_220
id ecaade2017_220
authors Quartara, Andrea and Figliola, Angelo
year 2017
title Tangible Computing - Manufacturing of Intertwined Logics
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 115-122
summary This paper explores the process of digital materialization through robotic fabrication techniques by presenting three wooden projects. The analysis of the case studies is oriented to underline the impact that computation had on architectural construction due to its methodological and instrumental innovations over the last decades. The absorption of computing and digital fabrication logics within the discipline is explored from either an architectural point of view and from the improvements related to automation of the constructive process. On the one hand the case studies are caught because of the desire to expand material complexity and, on the other hand because of the integration with other technological systems. The narrative allows gathering pros and cons in three different investigative macro areas: material culture, methodological oversights, and operative setbacks coming from digital machine and communicational constraints. This analytical investigation helps the definition of a new pathway for future researches, looking forward the assimilation of digital materiality learning in building construction.
keywords computational design; file-to-factory; large-scale robotic woodworking; new production methods
series eCAADe
email andreaquartara@gmail.com
last changed 2017/09/13 13:30

_id sigradi2005_069
id sigradi2005_069
authors Quartin Baeta-Neves, Ana Claudia R.; Rejane Spitz
year 2005
title New enchantments: design, hypermedia, and motivation
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 69-74
summary From the analogy between computer and theater, such as proposed by Brenda Laurel, this paper aims to introduce a discussion on the possibility of contemporary dramaturgies’ contributions to the project of hypermedia interfaces that are able to motivate the users action. Some of Bertolt Brecht’s concepts, although namely opposed to Aristotle´s poetics, are briefly introduced as they refer to the idea of commitment with audience motivation. This approach requires the presentation of some key issues regarding the idea of engaging human-computer experiences. These issues evolve from Laurel’s theory, published in the early 1990s and focussed in the computer as a medium for action representation, to contemporary concerns that start to address the urge for new study fields related to the design of human-computer activities. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email rejane@art.puc-rio.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2010_080
id ecaade2010_080
authors Queiroz Abreu Torres, Yuri; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Yabuki, Nobuyoshi
year 2010
title Use of a WiFi Location Estimation Service as a Tool for Presenting Real Time Information During a River Cruise
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.557-564
summary This paper highlights the use of ubiquitous technology to effectively enable location estimation in a system that promotes the display of surrounding information during a sightseeing cruise. The proposed system stands on the applicability of WiFi signal strength to grasp current location and on the use of web-tagged place information on the contents of riverfront places and its revival processes. The effectiveness of system in both technical and social aspects was verified promoting a river cruise in downtown Osaka in cooperation with volunteer citizens, experts and a cruise company. The accuracy provided by the WiFi location estimation presented some failures at certain points but was satisfactory enough to guarantee the display of nearby information at certain level. The proposed web navigation was testified positive by respondents, although additional adjustments of its design and improvements of the WiFi server were pointed out as necessary steps.
wos WOS:000340629400060
keywords Location estimation; Place information; WiFi; GPS; River cruise
series eCAADe
email torres.yuri@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2015_sp_8.284
id sigradi2015_sp_8.284
authors Queiroz, Natália; Dantas, Ney; Nome, Carlos; Vaz, Carlos
year 2015
title Designing a Building envelope using parametric and algorithmic processes
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 797-801.
summary This article presents a case study on a vertical building envelope design considering Recife ?s climatic conditions. It consists of the utilization of parametric and algorithmic processes to distribute sun shading devices. The study uses computational tools such as Grasshopper and the DIVA for Grasshopper. The latter is a thermal energy simulation tool that uses the Energy Plus 7.0 and Daysim for calculations. The model uses incident solar radiation simulation on the envelope as basis for distribution of shading devices. The result is a parametric model that automatically responds to urban and climatic characteristics, through simulations integrated to the 3D model.
keywords Shading Devices, Parameterization, Grasshopper, DIVA
series SIGRADI
email nataliaqueiroz.arq@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2007_af35
id sigradi2007_af35
authors Quezada Gutiérrez, Marcelo Andrés
year 2007
title Use of Film Techniques for Architectural Project Visualization [Uso de Técnicas Cinematográficas para la Visualización del Proyecto de Arquitectura]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 413-417
summary The developed work is framed inside the concept of "context visualization", applied to the Architectural field, using film techniques such as image based spatial and building reconstruction and three-dimensional object composition on images and video, using camera tracking techniques. In this paper, the methodology, contents and the current results of the experience and its future projections are described.
keywords Architecture; Visualization; VFX; Reconstruction; Tracking
series SIGRADI
email marcelo.quezada@usach.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2005_209
id sigradi2005_209
authors Quezada Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Andrés Cavieres Pinilla, Osvaldo Zorzano Betancourt
year 2005
title Learning of digital tools trough its concurrent utilization: game design.
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 209-213
summary This educational experience intends to show that the concurrent application of the digital tools in a project of design permits a better learning of these, by means of an environment of collaborative work and utilizing tools of e-learning next to traditional systems of teaching. As a consequence of this experience we have the possibility to outline a methodology that already is being applied in our institution. [Full paper in Spanish]
series SIGRADI
email mq@homodigital.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id cdc2008_323
id cdc2008_323
authors Quijada, Rodrigo Martin
year 2008
title Reality-Informed-Design (RID); A framework for design process
source First International Conference on Critical Digital: What Matters(s)? - 18-19 April 2008, Harvard University Graduate School of Design, Cambridge (USA), pp. 323-328
summary The “action” of design is an integration process, in which values, information of different kinds and data leads to a physical object of “design”. This integration process is non-linear and multiple objectives aimed, producing complex requirements to computer programs. RID systems intend to develop a new tool for the design process, using an evolving structure in the perspective to introduce basic levels of “self-awareness” in the design process to relate analogue and digital tools. This paper proposes an interpretation of the design process, a model for it and the first ideas for a possible new generation of “self awareness” design software.
email rmartin@lauca.usach.cl
last changed 2009/01/07 07:05

_id sigradi2011_155
id sigradi2011_155
authors Quijano Silva, Catalina
year 2011
title El bailarín: un diseñador de su espacio y su tiempo [The dancer: a designer of his time and his space]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 343-346
summary 32pts&1/2 (TreintaYDósPuntos ; YMedio) is a project that offers new ways in dance research using new languages through technology and design in order to analyze and to understand the movement and the motion of the body in the dynamic space,. It gives to directors, teachers and dancers new tools to see, to understand and to explore contemporary work in choreography, dance and visual arts. Design, body and technology are used in equal measure to think the time and the space, having always the human as the center element.
series SIGRADI
email caquijan@uniandes.edu.co
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 456f
authors Quintana, C., Carra, A., Krajcik, J. and Soloway, E.
year 2001
title Learner-Centered Design: Reflections and New Directions
source Carroll, J. (eds), Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium, Addison Wesley, ACM Press, New York, pp. 605 – 626.
summary An Overview of Learner-Centered Design. Audience: Who Are "Learners"? LCD Problem: The Conceptual Gap between Learner and Work. Bridging the Learner-Centered Conceptual Gap: Designing for Learners. Open Issues In Designing Learner-Centered Tools. Issues in Learner-Centered Work and Task Analysis. Issues in Learner-Centered Requirements Specification. Issues in Learner-Centered Software Design. Issues in Learner-Centered Software Evaluation. Conclusion.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2016_483
id sigradi2016_483
authors Quintella, Ivvy Pedrosa Cavalcante Pessôa; Flor?ncio, Eduardo Quintella; Ferreira, Ítalo Cintra
year 2016
title Making pavilions: Os pavilh?es temporários no contexto das faculdades de arquitetura e urbanismo [Making pavilions: The temporary pavilions in the context of schools of architecture and urbanism]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.318-325
summary This paper aims to highlight the educational potential of the association between the architectural typology of temporary pavilions and digital fabrication process for architecture and urban planning courses. The pavilion theme is being increasingly exploited in various universities in the world, in order to work new paradigms of computational algorithmic architecture and new construction process, through digital fabrication labs. In this sense, these exercises can become a privileged and highly effective learning tool, due the impact of the integrated experience between creating (design), construction (to build) and experience (to appropriate the spaces).
keywords Temporary pavilions; Digital manufacturing; Rapid prototyping; Construction; Architecture education
series SIGraDi
email ivvyp@yahoo.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:19

_id ijac20075204
id ijac20075204
authors Quintero, Mario Santana; Blake, Bill; Eppich, Rand
year 2007
title Conservation of Architectural Heritage:The Role of Digital Documentation Tools:The Need for Appropriate Teaching Material
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 5 - no. 2, pp. 240-253
summary Currently, a wide range of digital sensors for capturing our architectural heritage are available. They offer the opportunity to acquire large sets of information in a relatively short time. These sensors include digital photography (photogrammetry-scaled rectified photography), total stations, laser scanners, high-resolution panoramic devices, etc. A lot of effort has been put in the application of these tools in the field of conservation, however a significant gap exists between the information needed by professionals working in the field of conservation and manufacturers claims of these new technologies. The realistic application of these tools for heritage documentation products needs to be addressed. Offering the architectural heritage community didactic material on how and when to use these tools appropriately can address this gap. This paper presents the teaching material being prepared under the CIPA/RecorDIM initiative to overcome these issues and begins to address the need for a common framework of standards in heritage documentation.
series journal
last changed 2007/08/29 14:23

_id sigradi2016_685
id sigradi2016_685
authors Quintino, Estevam
year 2016
title Trambolho: Interface híbrida para negociaç?o espacial de grupos remotos [Trambolho: Hybrid interface for remote spatial negotiation]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.808-815
summary The dialogue between people from different social groups (class, gender, race or sexual orientation) could help develop a sense of empathy, reduce discrimination and catalyze socio-spatial transformations. However, the space usually acts segregating these groups or suggesting how they should behave. Architects, usually unconsciously, reinforce this through their practice, labeling otherwise abstract spaces to determine users behaviour and so reproducing social norms. The aim of this article is to investigate how space shapes human interaction and to introduce Trambolho, an interface that is not attached to any previous meaning, which people can use to negotiate and build a shared space.
keywords Interface; Non-verbal communication; Interaction; Telecommunication; Physical computing
series SIGraDi
email estevamgomes@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:20

_id sigradi2011_237
id sigradi2011_237
authors Quitral Zapata, Francisco J.; González Böhme, Luis F.
year 2011
title Sistema de seguimiento solar de bajo costo para instalaciones fotovoltaicas domésticas [Low-cost solar tracking system for domestic photovoltaic installations]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 118-122
summary The ongoing research is focused on the development of a low-cost solar tracking system to improve domestic fixed PV installations which performance is dramatically diminished due to the absence of reorientation mechanisms to maximize solar energy capture. A straightforward way to reduce fabrication and maintenance costs of a domestic solar tracking system is to avoid the use of photoresistors. Most solar trackers use photoresistors to reorient their PV panels. However, the daily and seasonal solar path is well known and its variation is negligible when comparing photoresistorbased and preprogrammed reorientation against the amount of solar energy that is captured.
series SIGRADI
email francisco.quitral@alumnos.usm.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 5456
authors Quéau, Philippe
year 1999
title The Information Revolution: in search of the common good
source Mendes, C. & Larreta, E.R. (eds) Media and Social Perception, Rio deJaneiro : UNESCO/ ISSC/ EDCAM, 131-154
summary Is globalization really global? * Glocalization. Towards the Common Good. * One Globe, Lots of Tribes and Many Ghettos * Is There a Pilot in the Global Plane? * The market vs. General interest. The Need for Regulation. * Deregulation does not necessarily mean more competition * Sharing the costs of international calls. The case of Internet. * Price setting and regulation for telecommunications * «Proper» competition vs. «Fair» competition * Public and Private. The crucial importance of «Public Domain» * Is Information Society a Meaningful Society? * New cognitive tools for a global citizenship * The role of UNESCO in the Information Society * Globalization and Abstraction * In search of a global meaning Is globalization really global? Glocalization. The Common Good. Buzz phrases like "global village" or "global information society" are misleading. The concept of "global" is not itself global, in other words globalization is not "universal", it does not affect everybody in the same way. Exactly like the very concept of "universality" is not itself "universal". I am referring here to some Asian voices raising concerns about the "occidental" flavour of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and supporting the idea that "Asian values" were not taken properly into account and might even be in contradiction with it (for instance the confucean predominence of the Society over the rights of the Person).
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id bdfd
id bdfd
authors R Sosa and JS Gero
year 2003
title DESIGN AND CHANGE: A MODEL OF SITUATED CREATIVITY
source Approaches to Creativity in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, Bento, C, Cardosa, A and Gero JS (eds), IJCAI03, Acapulco, pp 25-34.
summary This paper describes current research on the computational modeling of change phenomena in design. In particular it introduces a tutorial view of the moel of design situations (DS) as a methodological basis for experimentation with change processes at the individual and the collective levels of an agent society. Creativity in the DS model takes place within the situated interaction of individuals in a social environment transcending its conventional characterization as purely a cognitive process.
keywords social creativity, agent society
type normal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2004/04/10 00:23

_id 0744
id 0744
authors R Sosa and JS Gero
year 2003
title SOCIAL CHANGE: EXPLORING DESIGN INFLUENCE
source Multi-Agent Based Simulation III, Hales, D. Edmonds, B. Norling, E.and Rouchier, J. (eds), Springer, pp 106-119.
summary This paper explores some aspects of group divergence based on principles of design disciplines and social dissemination. Extensions to an elementary model are used to explore the fundamental relation between divergence and social influence mechanisms previously employed to explain group convergence. The possible role of a change agent is investigated supporting the notion that there is no need to invoke any extraordinary mechanism other than convergence to trigger social change.
keywords social behaviour, change agents
type normal paper
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2004/04/10 00:40

_id ddss2006-pb-253
id DDSS2006-PB-253
authors R. Di Giulio, M. Coccagna, and G. Tonelli
year 2006
title IT Tools for the Valorisation of the Building Heritage - Analysis and reuse of rural buildings to improve cultural-tourism activities
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 253-268
summary According to the valorisation of sustainable policies, many European countries developed common or individual strategies to preserve and exploit their environmental and building heritage. Through the VILLAS transnational project it has been possible to create a set of specific tools, focused on different user types and needs that are easy to be combined and applied to assess and valorise private and public building heritage.
keywords Design support tools, Geographical information systems (GIS), Multi-criteria & decision mapping, Networks for decision-making
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id caadria2006_063
id caadria2006_063
authors R. HOMMA, M. MOROZUMI, K. IKI, Y. DEGUCHI
year 2006
title MAP-BASED BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEM FOR THE ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN STUDIO
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 63-69
summary This paper discusses the development of a Web-based mapping system (MapBBS) to support the discussion of field surveys in an architectural design studio. It supports a hierarchical discussion of student groups according to the scale of the map.
series CAADRIA
email homma@ge.kumamoto-u.ac.jp, moro@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp, iki@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp, 051d8718@gsst.stud.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2006_645
id caadria2006_645
authors R. ISE, R. HOMMA, K. IKI
year 2006
title DEVELOPMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE-SHARING SHEET SYSTEM FOR COLLABORATIVE CITY MASTER PLANNING
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 645-647
summary In recent years, citizen participation has begun to progress in administration plan development. However, preparations for argument are not enough so that the citizen who is non-expert participates to administration plan development. In addition, arguments among experts are not understandable to citizens. In sum, experts cannot explain to citizens plainly. They often show only a result and a conclusion of their argument. Therefore the result of their argument cannot obtain sympathy of citizens. As a result the effectiveness of the administration plan has been deteriorated. For citizen participation, it is necessary to represent the process of an argument by arranging the information and ranking them for an argument. The purpose of this research is to adopt the knowledge management in planning a city master plan and to develop the systematic tool for the consensus decision-making in planning a city master plan. This tool supports a resident group for making a city master plan.
series CAADRIA
email Ryouichi_Ise@jphytec.co.jp, homma@ge.kumamoto-u.ac.jp, iki@arch.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id ecaade2008_010
id ecaade2008_010
authors R. Lyon , Eduardo
year 2008
title CAD and CAM Systems Integration:
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 837-844
summary CAM systems traduce design information from CAD systems in to different manufacturing routines in order to produce NC code for CNC machinery. The output from the CAM software is usually a simple text file of G and M code, usually containing thousand of lines of code. Later this code is transferred to a machine tool using a direct numerical control (DNC) program. This translation process becomes extremely important in developing a digital design and fabrication approach. Consequently the aim in this research is; to investigate CAD-CAM workflow; to analyze final product deviation from design intent; and to determine where in the workflow, and how design strategies and design decisions correlates to manufacturing results.
keywords Design Computing, CAD and CAM integration, Digital fabrication
series eCAADe
email elyon@uc.cl
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2006_037
id caadria2006_037
authors R. OXMAN
year 2006
title DIGITAL DESIGN THINKING: IN THE NEW DESIGN IS THE NEW PEDAGOGY
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 37-46
summary Theories and methods of digital design can no longer be conceptualized as the merging of computational tools with conventional formulations of design. A new orientation to understanding the impact of digital media on “digital design thinking” and pedagogy is presented discussed and demonstrated.
series CAADRIA
email rivkao@tx.technion.ac.il
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2006_495
id caadria2006_495
authors R. SATO, W. YEO, A. KAGA, M. OYAMA
year 2006
title NEW METHODS FOR URBAN DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE USING THE VR TECHNIQUE AND ANALYSIS OF THE PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 495-501
summary Urban plan and architecture require the use of VR systems. We adapted the buildings into a VR system, and then performed a virtual realization in the world’s largest dome at Matsushita Electric Works, Ltd. Walking or flying through life-size space was enabled. We viewed the planned future scenes that featured real size, space composition, and a simulated environment. The construction, the materials and colors of the building were examined. In addition, VR system on PC was applied to city planning and architectural design and a number of novel functions were added to the VR system by plug-in, which assisted and facilitated the design process. The stereoscopic thinking mode in 3-D space can inspire and comprehend more directly the ideas of design, and confirm the intended effects. We accordingly carried out a further study on users operating the VR system to investigate their responses of “like” or “dislike” towards the real time adjustments of design effect at identical viewpoints. Fractals analysis was conducted to demonstrate physically the influence of real time 3-dimentional design and presentation on the psychological trends of subjective judgment. Our findings pave the way for future research on monitoring psychological impacts on observers of VR system during design process.
series CAADRIA
email kaga@mit.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp
last changed 2008/10/28 06:19

_id acadiaregional2011_030
id acadiaregional2011_030
authors Ra, Seung
year 2011
title Parametric Translations
source Parametricism (SPC) ACADIA Regional 2011 Conference Proceedings
summary The aim of this paper is to understand the outcomes of parametric methods in beginning design projects and their impact on rethinking digital technology in current design education. In order to realize comprehensive results, in this paper i) conceptual and formative projects are presented to describe specifications of a parametric design at OSU School of Architecture; ii) for OSU SOA, we plot pedagogical objectives and evaluate how we have interpreted and applied novel digital technology into the design process; and iii) Cultivate parametric design as systemic and organizational design. Along with unit-based, component design, expand the use of digital tools to become the discipline and domain of the creative culture. How digital tools are integrated into early design education through a collaborative studio project will be the focus of the study. Through the experimental exercises, we can begin to explore how the digital process can be integrated at a fundamental level.
series ACADIA
last changed 2011/07/08 09:17

_id ascaad2016_038
id ascaad2016_038
authors Rabboh, Emad H.; Ali A. Elmansory
year 2016
title Utilizing CAAD in the Design Studio to Consolidate with Professional Practices - Pedagogical approach
source Parametricism Vs. Materialism: Evolution of Digital Technologies for Development [8th ASCAAD Conference Proceedings ISBN 978-0-9955691-0-2] London (United Kingdom) 7-8 November 2016, pp. 367-374
summary Utilization of computer-aided architectural design CAAD in architectural design studio has its problems. Recently, CAAD has been over used within education, , and applied, presumably, more efficiently in professional contexts.. Noticeably, time available for the application of CAAD in architectural firms outweights that of academy. Consequently, it has to be utilized effectively and efficiently in the design studio. The current study proposes and discusses techniques to expand and consolidate CAAD utilization in the design studio by analysing stages of work of design professionals, as well as the utilization of CAAD in architectural firms, in the first phase. The second phase looks at the stages of work in the design studio academically. Later, we conduct a survey and categorization of the Egyptian schools of architecture, to identify the mechanisms of their CAAD applications. We aim to improve the synergies between academia and professional practice and, in this respect, we hold a comparison between the professional context and the academic context with emphasis on the pedagogical aspects of architecture in design studio. The third part makes proposals to bridge the gap between the professional practices in the applications of CAAD and academic practices via enhancement of architectural technology-based learning milieu. The proposed techniques are applied and examined in the design studio. They aim to establish the parallelism between academic objectives and professional and technological objectives.
series ASCAAD
email emadeldin_hamdy@cic-cairo.com
last changed 2017/05/25 11:33

_id caadria2005_a_1b_a
id caadria2005_a_1b_a
authors Rabee M. Reffat
year 2005
title Collaborative Digital Architectural Design Learning within 3D Virtual Environments
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 65-74
summary This paper introduces a collaborative learning approach to digital architectural design within a 3D real-time virtual environment within which students Inhabit, Design, Construct and Evaluate (IDCE) their designs virtually and collaboratively. The paper articulates the development and implementation of the IDCE model utilized within the 3D virtual environment for achieving collaborating digital architectural design learning. The effects of metaphors on constructing architectural designs within virtual environments are addressed.
series CAADRIA
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id caadria2006_169
id caadria2006_169
authors RABEE M. REFFAT
year 2006
title A COMPUTATIONAL SYSTEM FOR ENRICHING DISCOVERY IN ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 169-177
summary This paper presents a computational system for enriching design discovery in the external 2D representation of architectural plans. Enriching discovery is achieved through an interpretative search process that involves emergent findings. The developed computational system employs a twofold discovery process, generative phase and an interpretative or explorative phase. In the generation phase the system allows designers to depict an initial building design in the form of 2D plans as a set of lines. The system recognizes possible components of the initial design by generating different forms of bounded shapes that are both explicit and implicit using the Hamiltonian circuit approach. In the interpretation phase the discovery process using the quest mechanism is invoked by selecting a geometrical semantic identified in the recognized shapes to generate possible alternative interpretations of the complete representation of initial design. This plays an important role in enriching discovery in the architectural design of buildings and provides a set of new moves and directions for the designer to pursue.
series CAADRIA
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 11b9
authors Rabie, J.
year 1991
title Towards the simulation of urban morphology
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 18, 57-70
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id e541
authors Radford Antony
year 1997
title Games and Learning about Form in Architecture
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The paper outlines metaphors of play and games in the use of digital media in architectural education as a means of developing student confidence and abilities in spatial modelling, design composition, and form creation.
keywords Architecture, Games, Play, CAD, Modelling, Education, DesignDesign
series eCAADe
email aradford@arch.adelaide.edu.au
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/radford/radford.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 9840
authors Radford, A. and Day, A.
year 1996
title Growing Georgian Bath
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 23, 465-488
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id 9026
authors Radford, A. D.
year 1992
title Local Architectural Language and Contextualism
source Design Review: Challenging Urban Aesthetic Control. B. C. Scheer and W. F. E. Preiser. New York, Chapman & Hill Inc., pp. 165-174
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id c6df
authors Radford, A., Woodbury, R., Braithwaite, G., Kirkby, S., Sweeting, R. and Huang, E.
year 1997
title Issues of Abstraction, Accuracy and Realism in Large Scale Computer Urban Models
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 679-690
summary The availability of large scale computer urban models promises to radically improve the effectiveness of urban design policy-making and development control. A key question in the implementation of such models is how the balance between abstraction, accuracy and realism influences the effectiveness of their use. This paper discusses and illustrates the issues involved, with a computer model of the City of Adelaide as example.
keywords 3D City Modeling
series CAAD Futures
email archdept@arch.adlaide.edu.au
last changed 2001/06/04 12:23

_id 9edf
authors Radford, A., Woodbury, R., Wyeld, Th., Genimahaliotis, B., Gill, J., Lee, S.J., Lundberg, E., O’Shea, S, Patterson, T. and Williams, H.
year 2001
title Modelling the Australian Lightweight House
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 540-545
summary This paper outlines the process of making a series of highly detailed CAD models showing the form and construction of a group of contemporary award-winning houses by leading Australian architects. It discusses the issues of collecting information, clarifying details with the architects, the differences between ‘as built’ and ‘as designed’ descriptions and the organization of data.
keywords Houses, Construction, CAD Models, Australia, Rapid Prototyping
series eCAADe
email antony.radford@adelaide.edu.au
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 2d82
authors Radford, Anthony D., Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1988
title Design Teaching: The Language of Architectural Plans
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 99-110
summary The aims, operation and student reaction to a design studio course for beginning architecture students on the syntax of architectural plans are described. The course is highly structured and draws from computer graphics templates and a teaching manual which set up a series of exercises. The process of learning comes from execution of the exercises and from associated reading, discussion and debate on architectural planning issues.

series ACADIA
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 012b
authors Radford, Antony D. and Mitchell, J.R.
year 1986
title Automated Architectural Detailing: a Knowledge Based Approach,
source 1986. vol. 2: pp. 737-745
summary The working detail in architecture is the means by which an architect describes to a builder how parts of a building are to be fashioned and assembled. The approach to automated architectural detailing described is based on the encoding of the appropriate knowledge in production rules in generative expert systems. An example of such a system for the automation of eaves detailing is presented. The system is written in Prolog with the graphics in Fortran
keywords expert systems, knowledge base, architecture, detailing, automation, design, synthesis, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 604b
authors Radford, Antony D. and Stevens, Gary
year 1984
title Style for 1984 : Computers and Building Form
source pp. 131-143. includes bibliography
summary The relationship between computers, building form and building style is examined. Speculations on future influences of the use of computers in the design process, in the construction process and in the control of buildings are based on some existing examples
keywords CAD, architecture, design process, applications, style, building,control, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2071
authors Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title Style in Knowledge-based Systems for Architecture
source 1986. pp.i:3:1-9
summary The role of style in mapping between design intentions and design forms in knowledge-based. A particular generative expert system in architecture is discussed with some examples
keywords synthesis, style, architecture, knowledge base, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 44be
authors Radford, Antony
year 2000
title Games and learning about form in architecture
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 379-385
summary Metaphors of play and games in the use of digital media in architectural education are described. The essence of 'games' lies in a person's immersion in play subject to rules. The paper argues that embracing these metaphors is an effective means of developing student confidence and abilities in spatial modelling, design composition, and form creation. Some examples are provided.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id ga0225
id ga0225
authors Radojevic, Mirjana Devetakovic and Turner, Raewyn
year 2002
title Spatial Forms Generated by Music – The Case Study
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper resulted from the first stage of an ongoing collaborative research between a multi-senses artist (R. T.) from New Zealand and an architect interested in generic architecture (M. D.) from Yugoslavia. The research examines potential relations between music and architecture and explores the ways music could be a source for generation of spatial forms, and vice versa, whether architecture might generate music. In the first stage of the research two different existing generic principles were combined. The graphical interpretation of the music served as a pattern for creating the spatial forms. In this experiment the Brahms’s Hungarian Dance No1 has been used as an initial generator. The music is transformed into the sequence of linear drawings. Every single drawing potentially defines a spatial composition, while each single line represents an axis of the future spatial form. Together with geometric definitions there are some ambient values, like color, transparency and many others, that can be determined by music. After an overview of results, paper concludes with perspectives for future research that will include time as an additional dimension towards generating dynamic spatial concepts based on music.
series other
email eaoyu@ptt.yu
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ecaade2016_213
id ecaade2016_213
authors Raducanu, Vlad Andrei, Cojocaru, Vasile Danut and Raducanu, Doina
year 2016
title Structural Architectural Elements Made of Curved Folded Sheet Metal
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 409-416
summary To deviate from conventional metallic structural elements is not an easy achievement, especially if free forms with curved surfaces are wanted. One approach that makes sinuous volumetric metallic shapes accessible is curved folded sheet metal.The aim of the current application is to create a reinterpretation of the classical column, an architectural element which is both decorative and structural. This is achieved through curved crease folding of steel sheet metal. To aid the form-finding process, a virtual simulation of the bending process is done using computational means.
wos WOS:000402064400040
keywords curved crease folding; metallic material behaviour; computational design; digital stress analysis
series eCAADe
email zoster.ar@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ascaad2004_paper23
id ascaad2004_paper23
authors Radwan, Magdy Mohamed and Lobna Abdel_Latif
year 2004
title A Review of Advanced Computer Applications in Architectural Acoustics
source eDesign in Architecture: ASCAAD's First International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design, 7-9 December 2004, KFUPM, Saudi Arabia
summary The paper is a review of the advanced computer applications in Architectural Acoustics in its different fields, one of these fields is the new measuring apparatus and how it has moved from basic measurement using transducers and analyzers to final documentation based an advanced software. Computers have been proved to be a very useful tool in acoustic studies and prediction of acoustics performance of halls in the design stage. Recent commercial models have been reviewed in both fields; room acoustics and noise control in the built – up areas. Controlling the acoustic performance of some halls by different means and recently by computer has been discussed. The role of computers in the field of learning acoustics by means of auralisation and visualization and in the active noise control has been studied.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id radzjukevich02_paper_eaea2007
id radzjukevich02_paper_eaea2007
authors Radzjukewich, Andrey
year 2008
title The Computer Methods of Construction Spiral Structures
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary The object of our research is geometric characteristics of spiral structures which are widely spread in nature (cones, sunflower beds…). It is a well-known fact that there is a proportional intercommunication according to the “golden section”. The correlation of the quantity of “right” and “left” spirals ties to have an irrational coefficient of “golden section” through the correlation numbers of 1,618… from Fibbonacci series ( 5/3, 8/5, 13/8, 21/13, 34/21, 55/34 …). When the proportion of “golden section” was found in the natural objects since the middle of the 19-th century (A.Zeizing), there began to appear a lot of hypotheses about some special aesthetic and technological characteristics of this proportion. The proportion of “golden section” became the most important architectural instrument in the first half of the 20-th century. This instrument made it possible to design beautiful and comfortable buildings (Le Corbusier). We tried to find a geometric way of building spiral structures which would be similar to natural ones. We solved this problem with the help of the developed algorythm the geometric characteristics of the cells of which spiral structures are built were investigated. It was found out that the cells of “golden” spiral structures don't have any special characteristics if compare with the cells of other spiral structures. During our work we found some spiral structures which have optimal geometric characteristics. These structures let's call them radial-hexagonal, have maximal area of a cell, though they have minimum perimeter. We also defined the main difference in the growing strategy of animate and inanimate structures. Inanimate structures grow by means of addition external elements. Animate structures grow by means of constant pushing of new elements which appear in the centre towards periphery. The optimal filling of the plane in the process of such growing is possible only by “golden section” of “right” and “left” spirals.
keywords spirals, spiral lattices, a proportion of "gold section”
series EAEA
email radz@au.ru
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id acadia11_152
id acadia11_152
authors Rael, Ronald; San Fratello, Virginia
year 2011
title Developing Concrete Polymer Building Components for 3D Printing
source ACADIA 11: Integration through Computation [Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA)] [ISBN 978-1-6136-4595-6] Banff (Alberta) 13-16 October, 2011, pp. 152-157
summary The creation of building components that can be seen as sustainable, inexpensive, stronger, recyclable, customizable and perhaps even reparable to the environment is an urgent, and critical focus of architectural research. In the U.S. alone, the construction industry produced 143.5 million tons of building-related construction and demolition debris in 2008, and buildings, in their consumption of energy produce more greenhouse gasses than automobiles or industry.Because the inherent nature of 3D printing opens new possibilities for shaping materials, the process will reshape the way we think about architectural building components. Digital materiality, a term coined by Italian and Swiss architects Fabio Gramazio and Matthias Kohler, describes materiality increasingly enriched with digital characteristics where data, material, programming and construction are interwoven (Gramazio and Kohler, 2008). The research aspires towards this classification through the use of parametric modeling tools, analytic software and quantitative and qualitative analysis. Rapid prototyping, which is the automatic construction of physical objects using additive manufacturing technology, typically employs materials intended for the immediate analysis of form, scale, and tactility. Rarely do the materials used in this process have any long-term value, nor does the process - except in rare cases with expensive metal prototyping - have the ability to create actual and sustainable working products. This research intends to alter this state of affairs by developing methods for 3D printing using concrete for the production of long-lasting performance-based components.
series ACADIA
type work in progress
email r@el.net
last changed 2011/10/06 04:05

_id ecaade2014_071
id ecaade2014_071
authors Rafael Moya, Daniel Prohasky, Simon Watkins, Yan Ding, Jane Burry and Mark Burry
year 2014
title Aerodynamic strategy applied in an urban shelter design - Simulation and analysis of aerodynamic phenomena in an urban context
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 137-144
summary This paper presents an experimental study on strategies of utilizing wind as an architectural element, proposing the reconfiguration and projection of wind patterns to produce vaults of wind as regions of shelter in the outdoor environment. It shows an aerodynamic analysis and exploration of barriers, deflectors and porous screens in an existing urban wind canyon for a hypothetical urban shelter in a tram stop area. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software and physical tests in a wind tunnel using microelectronic hot-wire anemometry are the methods utilised. The experiments involve a comparison between screens with impermeable surfaces and porous membranes and their ability to project wind as architecture. The experiments showed that the use of porous membranes improves the mitigation level of wind speed and turbulence intensity in the wind vaults regions.
wos WOS:000361384700013
keywords Urban aerodynamics; cfd simulation; wind discomfort; wind tunnel
series eCAADe
email s3296513@student.rmit.edu.au
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2004_272
id sigradi2004_272
authors Rafael Zanelato Ledo; Alice T. Cybis Pereira
year 2004
title Análise do trabalho colaborativo síncrono á distância no desenvolvimento do projeto de arquitetura [Analysis of Synchronous Collaborative Work - Distance in the Development of an Architectural Project]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The development of the society imposed an increase on the program of the constructions and to supply that need there was the development of new specialties in the profession. Actually the architecture project involves a great number of professionals for its realization that demands an information capacity of coordination in an efficient and orderly way. This activity is done using collaborative systems to exchange the data of the projects with the people being in different places and in a different time. For the improvement of these collaborative enviroments and for the conception of new systems it is necessary the investigation of what happens in the collaboration among the professionals. To analyse the collaboration this research is based in six parameters: Involved agents, Tools used in communication, Received and delivery Materials, Stages of Project, Coordination and use of the Internet.
keywords Groupware, Collaborative Work, Simultaneous Project, Virtual Enviroments
series SIGRADI
email rafael@ecthus.com.br, pereira@cce.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac20108303
id ijac20108303
authors Rafael, Urquiza S.
year 2010
title Parametric Performative Systems: Designing a Bioclimatic Responsive Skin
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 8 - no. 3, pp. 279-300
summary This paper assumes the façade as an innovative element of interaction between the inside and the outside: the architectural skin. As in nature, one of its most significant functions is the energy exchange with the environment. Similarly, efficiency increases by passive and active responses to climate conditions and site orientation. This research explores the potential of parametric techniques, programming and digital manufacturing, to design and build a Bioclimatic Responsive Skin (BRS). Firstly, we designed a bio-component applicable to any surface due to its parametric nature. Secondly, we fabricated two non-reactive working prototypes to study the manufacturing and construction details. Thirdly, we integrated the physical and the digital interfaces by using Generative Components™, Arduino, and Ubimash to generate a kinetic responsive model. This prototype was presented at SmartGeometry Workshop and Conference 2010. Finally, Lem3a architecture used this BRS in a real design project for a Sustainable house in New Hope, PA.
series journal
last changed 2011/03/17 07:19

_id ecaade2008_195
id ecaade2008_195
authors Rafi , Ahmad; Hanif , Radzi; Mustaffa, Fauzan
year 2008
title Interpreting Traditional Malay Shadow Play Spaces in a Multimedia Environment
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 921-926
summary This paper presents a research on the techniques of traditional Malay ‘shadow play’ used in developing new concepts for representing interactive media. This funded research by the Selangor State Library is developed based on a book collection on the aural history of Sabak Bernam, one of the counties in Selangor located in the West Peninsular of Malaysia. It considers the domain of conceptual spaces within the shadow play setting and spaces by addressing the typology of the design. Representation of different character and environmental styles related to the Malay cultures were developed as multimedia content involving more than fifty local villages. It suggests form for background consideration of possible metaphors, the space arrangement of the elementary and actors, spatial relationships, audiences and the techniques of puppetry in the design for multimedia environments.
keywords Shadow play, multimedia environment, Malay
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, mradzi.hanif@mmu.edu.my, fauzan.mustaffa@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id b1f3
id b1f3
authors Rafi A, Karboulonis P, Fazidin J, Badrolhisham H
year 2003
title Virtual environments in architecture and planning design: 4 possible approaches
source International Journal of Design Computing
summary Advancements in information retrieval (IR), local and wide area networks (LAN, WAN) and the Internet, human-computer interaction (HCI), and virtual reality (VR) technologies have enabled the emergence and availability of affordable real-time computer data visualisation and manipulation systems that can be deployed and interfaced to most Computer Aided Design (CAD) software systems. However, the rapid advancement and adoption of information visualisation in different areas is currently challenging VR system designers to formulate and deploy strategies and tools to effectively visualise, navigate and effectively communicate various types of information within a virtual environment (VE). A further problem relates to the fact that even within a single area or application the requirements are still diverse to the extent that different approaches and technologies still need to be employed before a satisfactory solution is reached.

This paper presents four possible approaches in identifying and designing effective VR systems for architecture and planning design to allow the user to effectively communicate and share their experiences and ideas in a collaborative manner. It is also proposed that VEs should look beyond plain representations and reproductions of the real world environments that they portray and bear higher interpretation and expression values. The value of eliciting structuring and interfacing information and knowledge to a VE is also highlighted, as is the need for efficient database systems and CAD systems capable of exchanging information and data with VEs. Current efforts in prolonging the lifetime of VEs are being examined through four case studies that highlight the ever-escalating requirements that currently face VR researchers.

keywords Virtual Reality, Virtual Environment, Collaborative Design
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://wwwfaculty.arch.usyd.edu.au/kcdc/ijdc/vol05/papers/rafiFrameset.htm
last changed 2006/09/29 01:05

_id 14fe
id 14fe
authors Rafi A, Karboulonis P
year 2003
title Design considerations for the design of an advanced VR interface for knowledge management and its relevance to CAD
source Automation in Construction
summary This paper introduces knowledge management as a key in establishing both valuation and value creation capabilities in the enterprise where dissemination of knowledge and effective sharing of information through collaboration spur creativity and stimulate business practices. The paper draws an original approach for the design and development of a universal information/knowledge visualisation tool, elucidates the mechanics that enable the working prototype and most important it elaborates on the concepts that have led to the adopted architecture. Finally it presents the next step in the system's development cycle outlining its architecture and direction.
keywords Design considerations; Advanced VR interface; Knowledge management; CAD
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V20-48WBCY2-2&_user=152310&_coverDate=09%2F30%2F2003&_alid=457964375&_rdoc=2&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=5688&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000012578&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=152310&md5=5f18d4f52385e2212e0599426d9a74c8
last changed 2006/09/29 01:12

_id a2b4
id a2b4
authors Rafi A, Khairul A, Samad A, Maizatul H, Mazlan M
year 2005
title Improving spatial ability using a Web-based Virtual Environment (WbVE)
source Automation in Construction
summary Spatial ability is one of the cognitive means used in problem solving activities particularly when manipulating and processing visuo-spatial information. With the increasing use of network communication, conventional teaching and learning has shifted towards the development of network environments, online learning, real-time interaction and high quality multi-user collaboration. This paper presents our experiment using a Web-based Virtual Environment (WbVE) that has improved a group of pre-service teachers' spatial ability understanding for teaching Engineering Drawing for secondary school subjects. The experiment is carried out in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) comprising of 98 pre-service teachers taking the Computer Aided-Design (CAD) course. Selected subjects were pre-tested at the beginning of the semester with spatial tests focusing on mental rotation and spatial visualization to provide the baseline measurement. A desktop WbVE, which was employed and tested in the CAD laboratories to improve their spatial ability for five weeks of instructional treatment, will be demonstrated. Post-testing of spatial tests revealed significantly the overall spatial ability improvements as measured by the test scores. This paper concludes with a discussion on the impact of WbVE spatial learning that will be used as a precedent in the development of the VE teaching and learning prototypes for secondary school in Malaysia.
keywords Web-based virtual environment; engineering drawing; spatial learning
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V20-4F9F8J7-1&_user=152310&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2005&_alid=457968480&_rdoc=1&_fmt=summary&_orig=search&_cdi=5688&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_acct=C000012578&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=152310&md5=018e8748a940a11496dcbc2e65832452
last changed 2006/09/29 01:22

_id ascaad2007_008
id ascaad2007_008
authors Rafi A. and R. Mat Rani
year 2007
title Visual impact assessment (VIA): A review on theoretical frameworks for urban streetscape
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 87-94
summary This paper reviews several theoretical frameworks of visual analysis used in computer-based Visual Impact Assessment (VIA) for design decisions in architecture, urban landscape and urban planning. The discussion will focus on the underlying issues of preferences and predictions between designer and lay-public, methodologies of visual analysis, and computing media technologies due to fact that these components primarily contribute towards the result of VIA. Two different sets of visual analysis (i.e. designer’s and layman’s points of view) are presented based on Sanoff’s (1991) arguments that lay-public preferences are always become a second opinion compared to the judgments by designers. These theories will then be developed and used in the VIA experiments to understand the impact of the visuals in different media for viewers’ understanding. This paper concludes with a discussion and suggestion of analysis framework to be used for the visual experiments.
series ASCAAD
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ecaade03_301_36_rafi
id ecaade03_301_36_rafi
authors Rafi, Ahmad M. E. and Jabar, Mohd. Fazidin
year 2003
title FCM: An Automated Flood Crisis Management System
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 301-304
summary This research presents our progress of the second phase of City Administration System (CAS) (Rafi and Fazidin, 2001). It covers the terrain generation of Kuala Lumpur’s Central Business District about 30km x 30km at 1 meter resolution using the latest stereoscopic satellite data and survey data from Mapping Department of Malaysia’s Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment. CAS will be designed to have three main functions, namely: Flood Crisis Management (FCM), Architectural and Town Planning Management, and City Services and Administration. At a 1meter resolution, CAS will be able to predict, manage and visualise flash and major floods within the city with a very high degree of accuracy. It has been identified for CAS that there is a need to share information through collaborative environment in a more centralised manner that allows collective decisions, facilitates continuous updates, communicates effectively and permits the sharing of experiences and ideas.
keywords CAS; FCM; collaborative environment; sensor
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, fazidin@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id cbfc
id cbfc
authors Rafi, A and Khairul Anuar, S
year 2007
title The relationship of spatial experience, previous mathematics achievement and gender with perceived ability in learning engineering drawing
source Journal of Technology Education, 18(2), 52-66.
summary This study examined the relationships among three factors namely spatial experience, previous mathematics achievement and gender, with students’ perceived ability to learn Engineering Drawing at the foundation year. A correlational and regressional descriptive design was utilized involving 224 students of secondary schools. Two survey instruments comprising Spatial Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and Student Questionnaire (SQ) were administered to elicit participants’ demographics and their perceived ability to learn the course. Correlational analysis found a significant correlation between perceived ability and spatial experience. Perceived ability was slightly correlated with previous mathematics achievement and gender. Regressional analysis attested spatial experience as the only variable to have a strong predictive power to account for variation in perceived ability.
keywords spatial experience, engineering drawing, perceived ability
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/
last changed 2007/09/11 00:35

_id fc73
id fc73
authors Rafi, A, Samsudin, K A, and Ismail, A
year 2006
title On Improving Spatial ability through computer-mediated engineering drawing instruction
source Journal of Educational Technology and Society 9 (3), 149-159.
summary This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-mediated Engineering Drawing instruction in improving spatial ability namely spatial visualisation and mental rotation. A multi factorial quasi experimental design study was employed involving a cohort of 138, 20 year old average undergraduates. Three interventional treatments were administered, namely Interactive Engineering Drawing Trainer (EDwgT), conventional instruction using printed materials enhanced with digital video clips, and conventional instruction using printed materials only. Using an experimental 3 x 2 x 2 factorial design, the research has found statistical significant improvements in spatial visualisation tasks. There appears to be no improvement in reaction times for Mental Rotation. The authors also have investigated the gender differences and the influence of prior experience of spatial ability.
keywords Spatial ability, Spatial visualisation, Mental rotation, Computer-mediated Engineering Drawing
series journal paper
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.ifets.info/
last changed 2007/09/07 06:49

_id 397d
id 397d
authors Rafi, A, Tinauli, M and Mohd Izani, Z A
year 2007
title High dynamic range images: Evolution, applications and suggested processes
source Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Visualization (IV07), ETH Zurich, Switzerland, 4-6 July, 877-882.
summary Three dimensional (3D) and Computer Graphics (CG) industries nowadays require ‘instant’ realism and extreme special effects while imposing the balance in cost, time and solution acceptance standard. It has been known that realistic rendering is time consuming, difficult to use, complex, expensive and often produces insufficient digital output to predict particularly in the early visualization process. This paper focuses on one of the emerging technologies, High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) and how it can be developed in achieving effective solution, while maintaining ‘realism’ or required result based on a specific application. We firstly introduce the overall HDRI processes before continue to present a framework of captured Low Density Range Image (LDRI) source sequence effectively in HDRI environment. This paper concludes with discussions and lists the application of HDRI.
keywords HDRI, Rendering, HDRI Applications
series other
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/11 00:27

_id 2abf
id 2abf
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design creativity in emerging technologies
source In Von, H., Stocker, G. and Schopf, C. (Eds.), Takeover: Who’s doing art of tomorrow (pp. 41-54), New York: SpringerWein.
summary Human creativity works best when there are constraints – pressures to react to, to shape, to suggest. People are generally not very good at making it all up from scratch (Laurel, 1991). Emerging technology particularly virtual reality (VR) Multimedia and Internet is yet to be fully discovered as it allows unprecedented creative talent, ability, skill set, creative thinking, representation, exploration, observation and reference. In an effort to deliver interactive content, designers tend to freely borrow from different fields such as advertising, medicine, game, fine art, commerce, entertainment, edutainment, film-making and architecture (Rafi, Kamarulzaman, Fauzan and Karboulonis, 2000). As a result, content becomes a base that developers transfer the technique of conventional medium design media to the computer. What developers (e.g. artist and technologist) often miss is that to develop the emerging technology content based on the nature of the medium. In this context, the user is the one that will be the best judge to value the effectiveness of the content.

The paper will introduce Global Information Infrastructure (GII) that is currently being developed in the Asian region and discuss its impact on the Information Age society. It will further highlight the ‘natural’ value and characteristics of the emerging technologies in particular Virtual Reality (VR), Multimedia and Internet as a guidance to design an effective, rich and innovative content development. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the re-convergence of art and science and context in which content is being developed. Some of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University will also be demonstrated. It is hoped that this will be the evidence to guide future ‘techno-creative designers’.

keywords design, creativity, content, emerging technologies
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:46

_id bf19
id bf19
authors Rafi, A
year 2001
title Design computing: A new challenge for creative synergy
source In Saito, N. (Ed.), Creative digital media: Its impact on the new century (pp. 132-136), Japan: Keio University Press
summary As content becomes increasingly significant in giving ‘face’ to information technology (IT), the need to train and produce content designers has also become more and more important. The development of powerful computer technologies and the complexity of design have demanded designers to re-examine the design process and consider the adaptation of tools that will provide for creativity, improve the overall design process and, at the same time, reveal new insights (Rafi and Karboulonis, 2000). This paper gives an overview of the relationship between art and science through the ages, and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring, highlighting the need to accelerate the process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies being researched, namely related to effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts, subsequently adopted by practitioners. Such elements, with tools that offer increased power and new abilities, are widely found today in the multimedia and the Virtual Environment (VE) as scientists and designers venture into each other’s domain. This paper also argues that content designers of the future must not only be both artist and technologist, but artist and technologist that are aware of the context in which content is being developed. The presentation will be a showcase of our exploration at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University for the last 4 years, in integrating design and computer skills – the synergy that we called DESIGN COMPUTING.
keywords design computing, creativity, content, design
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:43

_id 955b
id 955b
authors Rafi, A
year 2005
title Information and communication technology (ICT) and intelligent cities: A Malaysian experience
source In Mao-Lin, C. (Ed.), CAAD talk 4: Insights of digital cities (pp. 229-248), Taipei, Taiwan: Archidata
summary This paper reports on Malaysian’s experience in suggesting and maintaining two cybercities (i.e. Putrajaya and Cyberjaya) or Intelligent Cities. The advantage of the convergence of technology has been implemented at national level as a means to increase human participation and to prosper in the Digital Age, in their daily life, business, education and other urban activities. It starts with an overview of ‘High-tech Corridors’ in Asia countries namely Philippines, Thailand, South Korea, and Singapore and its impact to these countries. The foundation of this study presents the criteria of Intelligent Community (IC) that makes a city intelligent without excluding the value of the citizen quality of life, culture and religion by associating with the Information and Communications Technology (ICT). We introduce and present www.i-Putra.com.my, a portal of digital soft city of Malaysia’s new administrative Capital, Putrajaya. This national project is funded by Putrajaya Holdings Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia and was originally developed by the Multimedia University before finally executed by I-Design Sdn. Bhd. It is designed to be an interactive channel to provide the services for different level of target audiences of the civic and urban activities. The guiding principle for i-Putra.com.my portal is content, context, community and commerce in which they will be integrated with the city information such as residential, commercial, service and public areas. It is hoped that this paper gives an example of good intelligent city concepts through a clear vision and planning, effective management, implementation and sustainable approach.
keywords intelligent city, intelligent community (IC), ICT, High-tech Corridors
series book
type normal paper
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2007/09/13 01:39

_id ddss2004_d-177
id ddss2004_d-177
authors Rafi, A., T. Hoai Nam, K. Jin Woo, and W. Lau
year 2004
title InnotiveBrowser
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 177-191
summary This paper explains the results of a collaborative research project between Multimedia University (Malaysia) and Innotive Corporation (Korea) to manage, design a multimedia archiving system and visualising knowledge for the students or the users in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University. This research introduces InnotiveBrowser technology, a high performance multimedia display software that enhances the ability of user to search and discover digital content. The unique result of this method is that the images to be viewed are not limited to available RAM, instead the content utilises the available storage directly from the disk (hard drives). In other words, the larger the size of the hard disk, the greater the number of content information can be stored and displayed. This system is employed with Virtual Reality (VR) techniques particularly imparting viewing technology (pixel-ondemand) and navigation strategy to increase the viewing speed of multimedia information in real-time over the Internet, broadband and even via PDA platforms. This research hopes to set the benchmark for multimedia archiving system that can be applied in other CAD, CAAD or most of the design or production-based teaching and learning environment. The early findings of this research have been patented and this paper will demonstrate the research ideas and explain how we implement and customise the technology and content development in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University.
keywords InnotiveBrowser, Digital Asset Management, Multimedia Archiving, VR Technology
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ga0227
id ga0227
authors Rafi, Ahmad
year 2002
title Creative Multimedia: The Commodity of the 21st Century
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The Digital Revolution has turned individuals, institutions, and businesses into a new form of collective wealth and prosperity. This revolution has effected a creativity burst that goes far beyond an increase in the number of those involved in design tasks and challenges, in both professional and amateur settings. The Internet in particular are not only distributing media but most importantly it is a reference platform in which ideas, talents and capabilities emerge and are refined, enhanced and perfected through the inspiring interplay of collaboration and competition. This paper briefly examines the relationship between art and science through the ages, discusses their recent re-convergence, and examines their current relationship via real world applications and productions. The study of such productions, their successes and the impact they have had in the marketplace based on designs and aesthetics instead of advanced technology appear to support the argument. It also highlights the need for accelerating this process and suggests that the re-convergence is a result of new technologies adopted by practitioners that include the effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts. These elements are widely found today in multimedia, which offers increased power and new abilities to both scientists and designers. This paper also highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer-based interactive technologies which will enhance the design process, better decision-making, increase the quality of communication and collaboration, lessen the errors and reduce the design cycles. A Multimedia Palette is proposed as a design platform to expose one's imagination, creative and innovative ideas, and provide a richer and more creative multimedia content design and development. Following encouraging first round results, an expanded version of the suggested platform has been experimented in the Faculty of Creative Multimedia, Multimedia University for the last 5 years, in integrating design and computer skills in the teaching and learning projects.
keywords creativity, re-convergence, Multimedia Palette, Creative Multimedia
series other
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id caadria2003_b2-1
id caadria2003_b2-1
authors Rafi, Ahmad M.E.
year 2003
title i-putra.com: a Digital Soft City of Putrajaya
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 225-236
summary This paper presents our experiment and development of i.Putra.com - a digital soft city of Malaysia's new administrative Capital Putrajaya. This project is funded by Putrajaya Holdings Sdn. Bhd. Malaysia and was originally developed by the Multimedia University before finally executed by I-Design Sdn. Bhd. It is designed to be an interactive channel for the civic and urban activities that parallel, enhance, compliment, and sometimes 'compete' with physical Putrajaya. Putrajaya's goal is to be the administrative capital for the governance of cyber communities where digital bits rather than physical assets are the primary scarce resource (Putrajaya Holdings, 2002). The guiding principle for i.Putra.com is content, context, community and commerce in which they will be integrated with the city information such as residential, commercial, service and public areas. As the city is being built, i.Putra.com will expand to provide an interactive channel for those who live in, work in, or visit Putrajaya.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 2005_349
id 2005_349
authors Rafi, Ahmad, Izani, Mohd and Tinauli Musstanser
year 2005
title High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) Rendering
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 349-356
summary This paper suggests a method known as High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) to pre-visualise architectural elements in three-dimensional (3D) environment used by Computer Graphic Imaging (CGI) film-makers to integrate 3D models and characters into live action background (special effect). This Intensification Research Priority Area (IRPA) grant project was developed to suggest ways to achieve effective rendering solution and composition of the final output. It will focus on experimental modelling of local cultural elements that provides solutions for radiosity-type effects and dirt shadings. A set of data from an established site (i.e. environment) was captured and represented in High Dynamic Range (HDR) file. This data is integrated with architectural elements (e.g. 3D objects) and then pre-rendered to get the 3D visualisation of the actual environment. Several different exposures were also captured and tested to establish the correct rendering and lighting condition. This earlier result shows that HDRI method provides accurate visualisation and drastically reduces the rendering time without compromising the data (images) with accurate lighting. This paper will demonstrate the process of HDRI, compare the visual impact with ‘radiosity’ technique and other related rendering solutions and present the results, which are useful for architectural animation, simulation and other modelling developments.
keywords HDRI, Pre-Visualisation, Modelling, Rendering
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 2006_276
id 2006_276
authors Rafi, Ahmad
year 2006
title ILUDS - An Interactive Land Use Database System for Intelligent Cities
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 276-279
summary This paper presents the i-putra business channel, a portal that has been completed with a comprehensive database of information relating to commercial and residential properties, and other on-going development components of Putrajaya, one of Malaysia’s intelligent cities. Designers were provided with multimedia-rich information of spaces before making a selection through the Interactive Land Use Database System (ILUDS) which hosted more than 67,000 units of residential and commercial areas in Putrajaya. The database was developed based on category searching features that aimed to be the one-stop brief explanatory system on the Internet. ILUDS depicts an innovative idea for city and urban development to prepare information and virtual interactivities for a better usage in a ‘soft city’ design. The system has the underlying structure that allows for partitioning and ease of handling within which the data can be structured under a graphical interface that facilitates editing, manipulation, attribution and updating. This attribute of city information and associate data offers users a different level of interactivity and provides effective use on architectural and city information.
keywords ILUDS; intelligent community; intelligent cities; database
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id caadria2008_54_session5b_445
id caadria2008_54_session5b_445
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Mastura Yunan, Mazlan Mahadzir, Abdul Halim
year 2008
title Virtual reality as a design education: A Malaysian experience
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 445-451
summary This paper presents our attempts on virtual reality curriculum development for the past four years as one of the multimedia-based degrees. It will give an overview, goals and outcomes of the virtual reality (VR) curriculum with varieties of virtual reality systems, interactions and design theories used at different level of studies. It also highlights issues related to designing virtual spaces and the approach used to suggest a good storytelling. This paper will also explore, report and demonstrate the use of non-immersive virtual reality system based on a study in a problem-based learning environment of a virtual reality majoring. Following early encouraging first round results this paper concludes that experiential design could be one of the effective approaches for a problem-based learning and richer content creation of virtual environment (VE) design. It also suggests that the presence of motions, different field of views, interactivities and stereoscopic visions are attributes of three-dimensional (3D) visualization that contribute to better understanding and designing virtual environments.
keywords Virtual reality; design education; problem-based learning; virtual environment
series CAADRIA
email {ahmadrafi.eshaq, mastura.yunan, mazlan.mahadzir, abdulhalim.ahmad}@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 2006_566
id 2006_566
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Mohamad Izani Zainal Abidin; Avijit Paul and Aishah Abdul Razak
year 2006
title Simulation of architectural lighting in a virtual environment - A case study on real and fake High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI)
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 566-572
summary The early findings of this research were presented in eCAADe 2005 International Conference, Lisbon primarily to highlight the concept of High Dynamic Range Images (HDRI) when representing architectural spaces in the form of still images. An experiment had been carried out to compare the results between HDRI rendering and ‘conventional’ lighting simulation algorithms namely ray tracing and radiosity. The results were based on static and using the same exposure factors, when capturing HDRI. This project, funded by Intensification Research Priority Area (IRPA) grant continues to present and report HDRI results in a simulation environment. In this paper, we first briefly explain on the concept of real and fake HDRI. Then a comparison experiment is conducted to compare these two methods and discuss the impact and effectiveness of the illumination computation in architectural simulation environment. In order to carry out the experiment, a few models of the architectural scenes were developed. These models were then textured with real photos and manipulated with ‘shaders’, and further rendered using fake and real HDRI techniques. As for the fake HDRI, two methods were developed. The first was using an image as the ambient map and different exposures were created by increasing the value of Hue, V of HSV and saturation. The second involved a series of digital photos with the selection of the brightest and darkest area using Adobe Photoshop to establish the scale of luminosity. A few camera movements were triggered and position for ‘real-time’ rendering simulation. The result of the experiment has shown a significant improvement on the rendering time and quality of the rendering. Finally this paper suggests the selection criteria for choosing real and fake HDRI, and how each technique can be best utilized for architectural representations in a simulation environment.
keywords HDRI; simulation; Real HDRI;Fake HDRI; illumination computation
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id cf2009_095
id cf2009_095
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Paul, Avijit; Noraishah, Siti and Nazri, Mohd
year 2009
title Techniques on heritage preservation using lighting computation virtual environment
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages, Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009, PUM, 2009, 95-104
summary This research presents the results of experiments of techniques on heritage preservation using lighting computation in virtual environment. In this research, three traditional houses built in the early 1900s were re-constructed based on the captured data that included texturing and lighting. A thorough study on the lighting solution and its impact to the design aspects of photorealism and issues discovered in processing the digital data will be emphasized. This includes complexity of the modeling, rendering and reality, and real-time lighting techniques. This research will suggest effective lighting techniques for re-construction of heritage preservation in virtual environment for architectural purposes.
keywords Global illumination, HDRI, simulation, virtual heritage
series CAAD Futures
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2009/06/08 18:53

_id ecaade2010_026
id ecaade2010_026
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Rani, Ruzaimi Mat
year 2010
title Visual Perception and Visualization Tools for Visual Impact Assessment (VIA) on Urban Streetscape
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.575-581
summary Two different surveys were conducted for visual impact assessment (VIA) on urban streetscape namely – the visual perception and visualization tools. The first was focused on the visual perception between designers and nondesigners of the undergraduate students from four different public universities in Malaysia representing landscape architecture and business administration courses whereas the latter concentrated on students with a background of landscape architecture and quantity surveyor to evaluate static and dynamic visualization tools. The paper discussed the findings of the visual perception and visualization tools surveys, and its impact towards improving VIA on urban streetscape.
wos WOS:000340629400062
keywords Visual perception; Visualization tool; Visual impact assessment; Urban streetscape
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ascaad2009_ahmad_rafi
id ascaad2009_ahmad_rafi
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Ruzaimi Mat Rani and Peter Woods
year 2009
title Human Perception of Visualization Tools Used for Visual Impact Assessment
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 29-36
summary This paper discusses the visualization tools and methods used to examine human perception in Visual Impact Assessment (VIA). One of the key conservation areas in Kuala Lumpur was selected in the study to measure the impact of different types of visualization tools. This paper recommends that human perception contributes towards the improvements of the visualization tools for VIA. The study found out that the common visualization tools used were not the most preferable tools among respondents. On the contrary most respondent preferred interactive visualization that offered more visual possibilities leading to a better understanding of landscape design. Apart from this, the study identified that the visual perception between the respondents who have different formal education background have similar concerns on the visualization tools tested to them.
series ASCAAD
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id ecaade2010_023
id ecaade2010_023
authors Rafi, Ahmad; Salleh, Azhar; Paul, Avijit; Maulana, Reza; Athar, Faisal; Pratiniyata, Gatya
year 2010
title e-Warisan SENIBINA: Towards a collaborative architectural virtual heritage experience
source FUTURE CITIES [28th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-9-6] ETH Zurich (Switzerland) 15-18 September 2010, pp.739-746
summary This research introduces the concepts of virtual heritage in the field of architecture. It then continues with the fundamentals of virtual heritage (VH) metadata structure adopted from the UNESCO guidelines. The key highlights to the content of e-Warisan SENIBINA will be demonstrated via techniques to reconstruct heritage buildings towards a collaborative architectural virtual heritage experience as closely to originally design features. The virtual reconstruction will be based on the techniques suggested by the research team tested earlier in a smaller scale of advanced lighting technique for virtual heritage representations. This research will suggest (1) content preparation for creating collaborative architectural heritage, (2) effective low-polygon modelling solutions that incorporate global illumination (GI) lighting for real-time simulation and (3) texturing techniques to accommodate reasonable detailing and give the essence of the VH.
wos WOS:000340629400079
keywords Simulation; Virtual heritage; Virtual reality; Collaborative environment; Realistic lighting
series eCAADe
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id caadria2010_009
id caadria2010_009
authors Rahaman, Hafizur and Beng-Kiang Tan
year 2010
title Interpreting digital heritage: considering the end-user’s perspective
source Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Hong Kong 7-10 April 2010, pp. 93-102
summary Present virtual heritage projects are mostly focused either on ‘process’ or ‘product’ but rarely consider ‘user’ (end user’s perception of the content) with project contents predominantly developed with an ‘ocular-centric’ tendency. There is no significant interpretation method or principles for interpreting digital heritage unlike other disciplines such as archaeology. This paper argues that, for better interpretation and experience of a digital heritage site, a comprehensive interpretation method is required, which should address multicultural background of end-users and overcome the linearity and subjectiveness in content creation. This paper also argues that instead of pre-determined instructional sequences or descriptive interpretation, the interaction setting can be participatory and contributive, where the visitor and environment may interplay mutually with each other. As a methodology, ‘Interpretation’ is first conceptualized by assimilating definitions from heritage scholars and organizations. Notions of interpretation-practice and level of interaction were identified from reviewing some online digital heritage projects. By identifying weaknesses, this paper finally proposes a few suggestions for overcoming and possibly developing a comprehensive interpretation method for future digital heritage projects.
keywords Heritage interpretation; end user; digital heritage
series CAADRIA
email hafizur@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2009_192
id caadria2009_192
authors Rahaman, Hafizur; Beng-Kiang Tan
year 2009
title Interactive Space: Searching for A Dual Physical-Virtual World
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 675-684
summary This paper discusses embodied interaction followed by a survey of examples in installation art and research projects that attempt to fuse physical space and digital technology. From studying the examples, we propose a categorization of types for a better understanding of interactive spaces. Design attributes are also identified from the examples. We hope this will be useful to designers in designing engaging interactive spaces.
keywords Architecture, interactive space, embodied interaction, human computer interaction, virtual space
series CAADRIA
email hafizur@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ijac20109106
id ijac20109106
authors Rahaman, Hafizur; Beng-Kiang Tan
year 2011
title Interpreting Digital Heritage: A Conceptual Model with End-Users' Perspective
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 1, 99-114
summary Present virtual heritage projects are mostly focused either on ‘process’ or ‘product’ but rarely consider ‘users’ (end-users' perception of the content) with project contents predominantly developed with an ‘ocular-centric’ tendency. There is no significant interpretation method or principle for interpreting digital heritage like other disciplines such as archaeology. This paper argues that, for better interpretation and experience of a digital heritage site, a comprehensive interpretation method is required, which should address end-users with various background, overcome the linearity in narrative level and subjectiveness in content creation. This paper also argues that instead of predetermined instructional sequences or descriptive interpretation, the interaction setting can be participatory and contributive, where the end-users and environment may engage in ‘dialogic-interaction’. In terms of methodology, ‘Interpretation’ is first conceptualized by assimilating definitions from various heritage scholars and interpretation organizations. Notions of interpretation-practice and level of interaction are identified from reviewing some online digital heritage projects. By identifying weaknesses, this paper finally proposes a conceptual model for developing a comprehensive interpretation method for future digital heritage projects.
series journal
last changed 2011/07/04 16:00

_id acadia08_046
id acadia08_046
authors Rahm, Philippe
year 2008
title Thermodynamic Architecture
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 46-51
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id 4075
authors Rahman, O. M. A.
year 1992
title Visual quality and response assessment: an experimental technique
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 19, pp. 689-708
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:41

_id ascaad2006_paper17
id ascaad2006_paper17
authors Rahman, Rashidah AB. and Alan Day
year 2006
title A Comparative Study of Digital and Traditional Tools for Participative Design
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary Computer tools have been used by experts for a wide range of activities including design and planning, historical conservation, urban management, education, and marketing and promotion. However, the difficulty of using these tools has meant that they have only been used by experts and their benefits have not been available to the public when engaged in participative design exercises. This paper reviews the extent of computer tool usage within urban design and goes on to propose a new way of utilizing digital tools in order to involve non-experts. The work that is presented here takes the form of an experiment which compares the traditional participative design approach with one that employs a three-dimensional digital approach. The setting for the experiment is based on the design of student housing on the University of Bath campus in the United Kingdom. Findings from the experiment demonstrate that the digital toolkit that is proposed has considerable potential to aid the process of participatory design.
series ASCAAD
email abprar@bath.ac.uk
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 6dc2
authors Rahman, Shama
year 1989
title The Realities of Introducing IT/CAD in Architectural and Interior Design Education: A Case Study at the Polytechnic of North London
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.1.1.-4.1.9
summary This paper is an attempt to illustrate the realities of introducing Information Technology at a school of Architecture and Interior Design. The department, under the auspicies of the Polytechnic of North London, comprises of 520 full/part time students working towards various professional and postgraduate degrees and diplomas in Architecture and Interior Design. For the last 18 months, the department has undertaken a rapid IT/CAD implementation programme. This has involved developing a strategy, formulating resource needs and implementing teaching. The strategy is based on the concept of application of IT as a tool for design and a medium for representation, management, use and exchange of design information. A course outline has been developed suggesting what could be taught and who could be taught what, how, when and for how long. At the same time, different types of teaching methods are being experimented upon. On the basis of these factors, attempts are being made to meet resource needs for software, hardware, teaching and technical support. Various issues and problems have been brought to light e.g. overcoming cost of hardware and software, lack of teaching and technical support, finding time slots in overloaded curriculums, changing existing attitudes towards IT,etc. We have approached these problems in various ways. We liaise closely with architects' offices, and try to use student skills and expertise within the polytechnic. We try to overcome time-slot problems by joint teaching and assessment with other subjects and try to integrate IT/CAD with studio-based design projects by locating computlng facilities inside studios. This paper is a story of how we have set for ourselves a path to follow. This path is by no means rigid and will continuously change with new experiences and the demands of a volatile industry. We have only just begun.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:42

_id c5e8
authors Rahman, Shama
year 1992
title Architectural Education to Suit Computers - Or: Computers to Suit Architectural Education?
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 379-386
summary Do the thinking processes which generate architectural design contrast so sharply with the thinking processes generated by the computer that a question like this is asked ? Or is it because computer- integrated education is still missing from the agenda for architectural education that a question like this is rarely asked?
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:32

_id ecaade2017_269
id ecaade2017_269
authors Rahmani Asl, Mohammad, Das, Subhajit, Tsai, Barry, Molloy, Ian and Hauck, Anthony
year 2017
title Energy Model Machine (EMM) - Instant Building Energy Prediction using Machine Learning
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 277-286
summary In the process of building design, energy performance is often simulated using physical principles of thermodynamics and energy behaviour using elaborate simulation tools. However, energy simulation is computationally expensive and time consuming process. These drawbacks limit opportunities for design space exploration and prevent interactive design which results in environmentally inefficient buildings. In this paper we propose Energy Model Machine (EMM) as a general and flexible approximation model for instant energy performance prediction using machine learning (ML) algorithms to facilitate design space exploration in building design process. EMM can easily be added to design tools and provide instant feedback for real-time design iterations. To demonstrate its applicability, EMM is used to estimate energy performance of a medium size office building during the design space exploration in widely used parametrically design tool as a case study. The results of this study support the feasibility of using machine learning approaches to estimate energy performance for design exploration and optimization workflows to achieve high performance buildings.
keywords Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Networks; Boosted Decision Tree; Building Energy Performance; Parametric Modeling and Design; Building Performance Optimization
series eCAADe
email mohammad.asl@autodesk.com
last changed 2017/09/13 13:31

_id acadia13_101
id acadia13_101
authors Rahmani Asl, Mohammad; Zarrinmehr, Saied; Yan, Wei
year 2013
title Towards BIM-based Parametric Building Energy Performance Optimization
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 101-108
summary The demand for sustainable buildings with minimal environmental impact and efficient energy use is increasing. The most effective design decisions for sustainable design can be made in the early design phases, but appropriate tools to explore design alternatives and understand their impacts on building energy performance are not available at this stage of the project. The integration of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and parametric modeling is the new trend of building modeling, which can greatly benefit sustainable building design. This research introduces an innovative tool to facilitate integrated parametric BIM and to enhance its applications towards creative, sustainable building design through simulation and optimization. The created tool, Revit2GBSOpt, integrates parametric BIM and building energy performance simulation and enables designers to generate alternative options in BIM to explore the energy performance simulation results automatically. Finding the optimized solution, the BIM model will be updated.
keywords Tools and Interface, Building Information Modeling (BIM), Parametric Simulation, Performance-based Design, Sustainable Design
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email mra1242@tamu.edu
last changed 2014/08/29 07:36

_id ascaad2014_009
id ascaad2014_009
authors Rahmann, Heike and Jillian Walliss
year 2014
title Interdisciplinary Intersections: New roles for digital technologies and landscape architecture in the design of large scale infrastructures
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 123-135
summary The introduction of BIM is assumed to introduce higher degrees of collaboration and efficiencies within design and construction practices. The potentials of this collaboration tend to focus on architecture, engineering and construction (AEC). Landscape architecture is rarely discussed within this model, technically nor conceptual. This paper explores the potentials of landscape architecture’s contribution to this new model of digitally driven collaboration. Drawing on interviews with the architects, landscape architects and engineers we explore the role of landscape architecture in the conceptualization, design and construction of the Victorian Desalination Plant, a highly political project located on an ecological sensitive coastal site. This paper highlights the centrality of the landscape digital model in mediating the critical intersection between the design parameters, physical attributes of the site, performative qualities of the design and the disciplines of architecture, landscape and engineering. This model also formed the dominant method for communicating the complex project to stake holders and clients. Significantly, this model was not developed into a BIM model, with content instead integrated into the architectural and engineering models. This research highlights one of the major difficulties in conceptualizing the positioning of landscape architecture within a BIM driven collaborative process. To operate effectively, landscape architecture must engage across the multiple scales and disciplinary intersections. Consequently, landscape architects must understand the digital and spatial languages of architecture and engineering, and conceptualise where their contribution lies within ‘paperless’ design and construction processes. This outcome differs significantly from current debates within landscape architecture which instead focus on the identification of ‘the’ specialist BIM software most appropriate to the discipline, as distinct from understanding BIM as a collaborative process.
series ASCAAD
email hrahmann@unimelb.edu.au
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id 6353
authors Raibert, Marc H.
year 1986
title Symmetry in Running
source Science. March, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 1292-1294 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions
keywords symmetry, robotics, animation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id sigradi2012_384
id sigradi2012_384
authors Rainero, Carolina; del Rio, Adolfo
year 2012
title Maquetas digitales. Herramienta para la conservación del patrimonio cultural. [Digital models. A conservation tool of cultural heritage]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 109-112
summary 3D digital models allow the visualization of both the historical and morphological evolution of a building - combined with its environment and transformations - as well as, its survey, record and pre-view of the impact of future interventions. Furthermore, the employment of digital technology offers a great advance in the field of cultural good’s documentation by including not only tangible issues but also iconographic elements, materials information and constructive pathology survey, to mention a few. This kind of models had become an open documentary system, and they should be considered essential in every architectural heritage conservation´s project.
keywords maquetas digitales; documentación; patrimonio arquitectónico
series SIGRADI
email carorain@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 2006_268
id 2006_268
authors Rajala, Marko and Hannu Penttilä
year 2006
title Testing 3D Building Modelling Framework In Building Renovation
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 268-275
summary The paper describes a process where digital measuring survey data is transferred into 3D building model to be used as a foundation for renovation design. The process and method is tested in a case study of an office building of 8 floors. Measuring survey data is more often documented to 2D plan drawings, whereas 3D-modelling was more preferable in the case project. The final aim of the case project is to further test building product model or building information model (BIM) based design methods in building renovation. Product modelling is one emerging framework to manage building related information in contemporary design & construction. Model based methods are more commonly used in new buildings, whereas renovation is usually done with more traditional techniques. Case project results underline the importance of measuring and modelling definition phase. Measuring and documenting objectives for 3D-model based design work are different than for traditional design work. Measuring survey has to be done under the coordination of the designer participants. Selecting and informing the proper and capable surveying partners is also important.
keywords 3D modelling; product modelling; building information modelling BIM; renovation; measuring surveys
series eCAADe
email marko.rajala@hut.fi
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id caadria2012_049
id caadria2012_049
authors Rajasekaran, Balaji; T. Brahmani and C. Reshma
year 2012
title Spatial personality for human space interaction: Space for change
source Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Chennai 25-28 April 2012, pp. 69–78
summary Exploring the duality of pervasive computing and architecture in order to propose new models of interaction between people and their built environment. One of the unique "affordances" of digital media is interactivity. This word has come to stand for all manners of engagements between people and things but as McCollough (2004) reminds us the word implies deliberation over the exchange of messages. "Objects" or architecture would be exempt from this mode of communication since, in a likewise manner, we don't interact with a door, we simply open it. However, computing provides a reflexive twist for it is not only the means through which we indirectly communicate with others but also a subject with which we can directly interact. They solicit information and based on the deliberation we ask them for return responses. This quality of computing, especially as it becomes pervasive, has profound implications for architecture and urbanism. When computation becomes embedded into the very materials we build, they along with their nature as inanimate objects become questionable. Our environment itself becomes the interactive subject through which we can inquire about our condition, perform diagnostic tasks or most significantly converse to discover more about our surrounding and ourselves.
keywords Interaction; communication; responsive; environment; performative
series CAADRIA
email rajabalajindia@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/29 07:34

_id ecaade2008_196
id ecaade2008_196
authors Rajendran, Puaneswaran M.; Rafi, Ahmad
year 2008
title Experiential Design of Space in Virtual Environment: Cubism as an Art Application
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 383-388
summary This paper presents an experiential design concept as one of the approaches to design a good storytelling in VEs. We tested this concept and related it within cubism art to understand spaces based on its original form particularly the shapes, planes and volumes. This experiment revealed elements of expression and abstractions through layers of intrinsic knowledge within the VEs that were extremely difficult to understand when viewed in their original forms. New spaces were also discovered within the VEs thus suggesting evidence on the stories within the art form. This paper also suggested that VEs provide a better understanding of spaces and abstract spaces, scale through different depth of illusions and spatial representation.
keywords Experiential design, virtual environment, space design, navigation
series eCAADe
email puvan@mmu.edu.my, ahmad.rafi@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id acadia10_320
id acadia10_320
authors Rajus, Vinu Subashini; Woodbury, Robert; Erhan, Halil I.; Riecke, Bernhard E.; Mueller, Volker
year 2010
title Collaboration in Parametric Design: Analyzing User Interaction during Information Sharing
source ACADIA 10: LIFE in:formation, On Responsive Information and Variations in Architecture [Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-4507-3471-4] New York 21-24 October, 2010), pp. 320-326
summary Designers work in groups. They need to share information either synchronously or asynchronously as they work with parametric modeling software, as with all computer-aided design tools. Receiving information from collaborators while working may intrude on their work and thought processes. Little research exists on how the reception of design updates influences designers in their work. Nor do we know much about designer preferences for collaboration. In this paper, we examine how sharing and receiving design updates affects designers’ performances and preferences. We present a system prototype to share changes on demand or in continuous mode while performing design tasks. A pilot study measuring the preferences of nine pairs of designers for different combinations of control modes and design tasks shows statistically significant differences between the task types and control modes. The types of tasks affect the preferences of users to the types of control modes. In an apparent contradiction, user preference of control modes contradicts task performance time.
keywords Parametric Design, Collaboration, Human Interaction
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email vrajus@sfu.ca
last changed 2010/11/10 06:27

_id cd85
authors Rall, Juan Carlos
year 2001
title EL INVALORABLE APORTE DEL PIXEL AL ANÁLISIS DINÁMICO URBANO (The Invaluable Contribution of the Pixel to the Urban Dynamic Analysis)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 328-330
summary Cities are growing out of control and with unforeseen complexity, with a lavish energy waste and an increasing life-quality loss. A possible approach to cope with these difficulties is the use of Urban Dynamic Analysis, a multidisciplinary body of knowledge allowing the holistic study of time-relationships between city structures and their related distinctive functions. A set of computer-aided tools is being developed following these guidelines. They are intended for the assessment of the behaviour of morphological layouts as regards to energy saving. Three such tools are described, using different pixel-counting approaches in order to simplify and facilitate their use.
series SIGRADI
email jrall@agatha.unr.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac20031306
id ijac20031306
authors Rall, Juan Carlos
year 2003
title The Digital Environment of Urban Dynamic Analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 1 - no. 3
summary Urban sprawl and complexity are increasing at an alarming rate causing huge energetic waste and affecting the quality of life of people and life on earth in general. This paper proposes Urban Dynamic Analysis as a feasible approach to address this negative phenomenon. Urban Dynamic Analysis is a multidisciplinary holistic method that inquires into temporal relations between structures and related characteristics in cities. A range of simulation tools are being adapted and developed aiming to assess different morphological configurations of urban spaces, to improve the welfare of citizens and to optimise energy consumption. All these tools are based on digital image utilization, with simple computational techniques.
series journal
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 44fe
authors Ramaekers, J.M.A.
year 1986
title Experiences with CAD at the Hogere Technische School te Heerlen
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 121-126
summary In comparison with the educational institutions abroad, the Hogere Technische School can be translated with "Higher Technical School". In Germany it would be"Fachhochschule" The highest level of education at'- the HTS is similar to the level in the second year of the university. Contrary the university study, the study at the HTS is directed at the professional practice. The HTS is national well-known because of her education in CAD-instructions. at the moment CAD-instruction is best developed at the department of building engineering.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:07

_id f851
authors Ramasubramanian, Pattanaik and Greenberg
year 1999
title A perceptually based physical error metric for realistic image synthesis
source Alyn Rockwood, editor, SIGGRAPH 99 Conference Proceedings, Annual Conference Series, ACM SIGGRAPH, Addison Wesley
summary We introduce a new concept for accelerating realistic image synthesis algorithms. At the core of this procedure is a novel physical error metric that correctly predicts the perceptual threshold for detecting artifacts in scene features. Built into this metric is a computational model of the human visual system's loss of sensitivity at high background illumination levels, high spatial frequencies, and high contrast levels (visual masking). An important feature of our model is that it handles the luminance-dependent processing and spatiallydependent processing independently. This allows us to precompute the expensive spatially-dependent component, making our model extremely efficient. We illustrate the utility of our procedure with global illumination algorithms used for realistic image synthesis. The expense of global illumination computations is many orders of magnitude higher than the expense of direct illumination computations and can greatly benefit by applying our perceptually based technique. Results show our method preserves visual quality while achieving significant computational gains in areas of images with high frequency texture patterns, geometric details, and lighting variations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2850
authors Ramer, Urs
year 1972
title An Iterative Procedure for the Polygonal Approximation of Plane Curves
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing. Academic Press Inc., August, 1972. vol. 1: pp. 244- 256 : ill. ; diagrams. includes bibliography
summary The approximation of arbitrary two-dimensional curves by polygons is an important technique in image processing. For many applications, the apparent ideal procedure is to represent lines and boundaries by means of polygons with minimum number of vertices and satisfying a given fit criterion. In this paper, an approximation algorithm is presented which uses an iterative method to produce polygons with a small-but not minimum-number of vertices that lie on the given curve. The maximum distance of the curve from the approximating polygon is chosen as the fit criterion. The results obtained justify the abandonment of the minimum- vertices criterion which is computationally much more expensive
keywords curves, polygons, image processing, approximation, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ascaad2014_005
id ascaad2014_005
authors Ramilo, Runddy and Mohamed Rashid Bin Embi
year 2014
title Digital Innovation in Architecture: Key determinants and barriers in the case of small architectural firms
source Digital Crafting [7th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2014 / ISBN 978-603-90142-5-6], Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia), 31 March - 3 April 2014, pp. 65-84
summary The rapid development of digital technology has made architecture a succession of different evolutionary design methodologies. As a result, the rise of computationally driven processes has gain popularity in research and shows a great potential to dramatically improve the design process and productivity that evoke innovations in design practices wherein computer-based project plays a vital role. However, as these technologies rapidly develops and increasingly used in practice, there is a realization that substantial organizational and technological barriers exist that inhibit the effective adoption of these technologies in architectural practices wherein complex projects are being handled. Undeniably it happens in small architectural practices whereby resources are very limited. Relevant literature of the subject shows that research in innovations in manufacturing, product design, technology, construction and engineering practices is substantially conducted but research in digital innovation in design practices is very limited. This paper investigates the factors that impede the effective adoption of emerging digital technologies for the efficient delivery of design projects that are computationally and digitally driven. This involves evaluating digital technologies, technical, financial and organizational barriers when digital innovation is implemented. In order to gain insights of these issues, a pilot study was conducted from several small architectural organizations, and found out relevant attributes and pattern of variables that can be used in establishing a framework for digital innovation. Keywords: Digital Innovation, Architectural Practices, Technologies, Challenges, Barriers
series ASCAAD
email rrunddy2@live.utm.my
last changed 2016/02/15 12:09

_id ecaade2007_162
id ecaade2007_162
authors Ramirez, Joaquin; Russell, Peter
year 2007
title Second City
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 359-365
summary In the era of communication, the participation in internet-communities has grown to become a motor for innovation in software and community platforms. The paper describes the hypothesis that, by creating a virtual city (or a second city) a new type of social, economic and scientific network is established, which is supported through visual communication technologies. The various users bring, per se, their own intrinsic motivation and requirements to the system. Nonetheless, a personal identification with a city/neighbourhood/house/apartment can be used to awake awareness and to foster participation. This is especially important when dealing with the city inhabitants. City modelling itself has been carried out for over a decade. Projects such as the city model of Graz have shown how city models can be established so as to be scalable for new information (Dokonal et al 2000). Furthermore, these city models have been used in the education of future architects and urban planners. The project described here moves in the opposite direction: the model moves out of the classroom to an interdisciplinary city-model-platform. The work described here is the conceptual model for a multi-dimensional data set that models the city. This has spawned a host of other projects using the model as a foundation for further interactivity development and the extension of the model itself. The paper describes the structure of the conceptual model and the first experience of incorporating diverse projects such those mentioned above. The model also is structured so as to be compatible with the XML standards being developed for city information (CityGML). The goal of the project is to create a data set describing the city that not only describes the geometry, but also the history (including planned histories) and nature of the city. In contrast to virtual realities, which attempt to create a separate world (e.g. Second Life), the Second City is intended as an interdisciplinary repository for the geometrical, historical and cultural information of the city.
keywords City modelling, virtual environments, web 2.0
series eCAADe
email ramirez@caad.arch.rwth-aachen.de, peter_russell@mac.com
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id acadia13_051
id acadia13_051
authors Ramirez-Figueroa, Carolina; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Hernan, Luis
year 2013
title Adaptive Morphologies: Toward a Morphogenesis of Material Construction
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 51-60
summary Architectural discourse has recently suggested a new material practice derived from advances in the field of synthetic biology. As biological organisms can now be designed and engineered for specific purposes, it is expected that, in the near future, it will be possible to program even more complex biologically based systems. One potential application is to literally grow buildings by programming cellular organisms to fabricate and deposit material into architecturally relevant patterns. Our current design methods do not anticipate the potentially challenging material practice involved in a biologically engineered architecture, where there is a loose and emergent relationship between design and material articulation. To tackle this conflict, we developed SynthMorph, a form-finding computational tool based on basic biological morphogenetic principles. A reflection is offered on its use, discussing the effect of multicellular morphogenesis on the production of shape. We conclude that such a strategy is an adaptive design method in two ways: (a) the mechanics of design using morphological constraints involve a practice of dynamic and continuous negotiation between a design intent and material emergence, and (b) the proposed design strategy hints at the production of a biologically produced architecture, which would potentially behave as an adaptive organism.
keywords complex systems, synthetic biology, self-assembly, emergence, morphogenesis, synthetic morphology
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email p.c.ramirez-figueroa@newcastle.ac.uk
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id acadia16_244
id acadia16_244
authors Ramirez-Figueroa, Carolina; Hernan, Luis; Guyet, Aurelie; Dade-Robertson, Martyn
year 2016
title Bacterial Hygromorphs: Experiments into the Integration of Soft Technologies into Building Skins
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 244-253
summary The last few years have seen an increase in the interest to bring living systems into the process of design. Work with living systems, nonetheless, presents several challenges. Aspects such as access to specialists’ labs, samples of living systems, and knowledge to conduct experiments in controlled settings become barriers which prevent designers from developing a direct, material engagement with the material. In this paper, we propose a design methodology which combines development of experiments in laboratory settings with the use of what we call material proxies, which refer to materials that operate in analogue to some of the behaviors observed in the target organism. We will propose that combining material proxies with basic scientific experimentation constitutes a form of direct material engagement, which encourages richer exploration of the design domain. We will develop this argument by reporting on our experience in designing and delivering the primer component of a themed design studio, structured around bacterial spores as hygroscopic components of building facades. The six-week design project asked students to consider the behavior of bacterial spores, and to imagine a number of systems in which they could be employed as actuators of a membrane system that responded to fluctuations in humidity. The module is interesting in that it negotiates some of the challenges often faced by designers who want to develop a material engagement with living systems, and to produce informed speculations about their potential in architectural design.
keywords actuators, architecture, building skins, artifical muscles, hygromorphs, bacterial spores
series ACADIA
type paper
email p.c.ramirez-figueroa@newcastle.ac.uk
last changed 2016/10/24 11:12

_id sigradi2016_614
id sigradi2016_614
authors Ramos, Fernando da Silva; Linardi, Ana Beatriz de Araújo; Damiani, Vitor; Garotti, Flávio Valverde
year 2016
title Design e Acessibilidade para Educaç?o: Um caso de produç?o de material didático inclusivo, para o ensino de ci?ncias [Design and Accessibility to Education: A case of production of science inclusive teaching material]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.865-871
summary This article describes the methods of an inclusive design project developed by FACAMP’s NIEDA , as demanded by the UNICAMP Science Museum (Brazil). The objective was to create a multi-sensorial interface that would be capable of describing the process of energy generation and distribution in a hydro-power plant. It began with a scheme based on images and a narration was built out of audible and tactile systems so that it would be comprehensible for the blind public as well, without compromising the aesthetic and informative aspects. It also reveals the challenge of combining the use of multiple technological resources, such as 3D printing and laser cutting.
keywords Design; Education; Accessibility; Tecnology; Science
series SIGraDi
email fernandala@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:20

_id sigradi2009_730
id sigradi2009_730
authors Ramos, Fernando Vázquez
year 2009
title Do Analógico ao Digital? [From analog to digital?]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary After admitting that the immersion of Architecture in digital environment happened in the last decade of the XX Century, this paper argues about the (im)possible links established between analogical and digital worlds. Discarding the possibility of a “transition” between them, the paper points the existence of a “jump” that, more than to tie, unlinks them leaving an emptiness that has to be analyzed. Coexisting in this emptiness we find hybrid structures of pragmatic approach, ruptures of paradigms and sprouting of new forms to project and to make architecture. Clarify this panorama is a basic task we need to do before facing the future, not only in a professional way, but also in the field of architectural education, because we have to know which architecture we desire to transmit.
keywords Architectural design; architectural representation; architectural drawings; cognition; analog thinking; digital universe; Modernity; Information Technology
series SIGRADI
email fernando@fv.arq.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac20109201
id ijac20109201
authors Ramsgard Thomsen, Mette; Martin Tamke, Jacob Riiber Nielsen
year 2011
title Generating a scalar logic: producing the "it's a SMALL world" exhibition
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 9 - no. 2, 115-132
summary This paper presents the design project “it’s a SMALL world”, an exhibition design developed for the Danish Design Centre in 2009.The project investigates the making of a generative design environment by which multiple design parameters as from program, site or the subsequent digital fabrication and assembly process can be negotiated. In this paper we discuss methods for understanding the emergent interrelationships between encoded parameters, how to manage these and their impact on design.The implementation of the design necessitated a novel design method that allowed to blend the qualities of a generative design approach, that can adapt through recursion gradually to local requirements, with explicit definitions.The project showcases with its new developed manufacturing system for non- standard element how customized digital design and production tools allow for a novel nearness to material and new ways of production and collaboration of architects, engineers and the crafts.
series journal
last changed 2011/10/12 06:31

_id b731
authors Ramstein, Christophe
year 1995
title An Architecture Model for Multimodal Interfaces with Force Feedback I.14 Virtual Reality 2
source Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995 v.I. Human and Future Computing pp. 455-460
summary Multimodal interfaces with force feedback pose new problems both in terms of their design and for hardware and software implementation. The first problem is to design and build force-feedback pointing devices that permit users both to select and manipulate interface objects (windows, menus and icons) and at the same time feel these objects with force and precision through their tactile and kinesthetic senses. The next problem is to model the interface such that it can be returned to the user via force-feedback devices: the task is to define the fields of force corresponding to interface objects and events, and to design algorithms to synthesize these forces in such a way as to provide optimum real-time operation. The final problem concerns the hardware and software architecture to be used to facilitate the integration of this technology with contemporary graphic interfaces. An architecture model for a multimodal interface is presented: it is based on the notion of a multiagent model and breaks down inputs and outputs according to multiple modalities (visual, auditory and haptic). These modalities are represented by independent software components that communicate with one another via a higher-level control agent.
keywords Multimodal Interface; Software Architecture Model; Force Feedback; Haptic Device; Physical Model
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id sigradi2010_434
id sigradi2010_434
authors Ramírez, Camacho Ángela; Robayo Gómez Jenny; Sotaquirá Gutiérrez Ricardo
year 2010
title Interfaz táctil que mejora la inmersión en un juego de simulación educativo [Touch interface which improves immersion in an educational simulation game]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 434-437
summary A major change in the way we interact with software and technology is taking place; it is both a technological and a conceptual change. This paper presents the design of a new touch - screen interface for a previously - created educational simulation game. This research shows that interactive designs and touch - screens improve the immersion level and learning of people using the game.
keywords educational simulation game, interaction design, touch - screen, human computer interaction, system dynamics
series SIGRADI
email angelaraca@unisabana.edu.co
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac20032108
id ijac20032108
authors Rana, Sanjay; Batty, Mike
year 2004
title Visualising the Structure of Architectural Open Spaces Based on Shape Analysis
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 1
summary This paper proposes the application of some well known two-dimensional geometrical shape descriptors for the visualisation of the structure of architectural open spaces. The paper demonstrates the use of visibility measures such as distance to obstacles and amount of visible space to calculate shape descriptors such as convexity and skeleton of the open space. The aim of the paper is to indicate a simple, objective and quantifiable approach to understand the structure of open spaces otherwise impossible due to the complex construction of built structures.
series journal
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 22bc
authors Randle, Jay
year 1993
title Light and Form: A Case Study
source Education and Practice: The Critical Interface [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-02-0] Texas (Texas / USA) 1993, pp. 21-38
summary The first great consideration in design is that the human world is irreducibly phenomenal; we are immersed in the overwhelming richness and sensuousness of the physical environment. And the first great task of design education is to put the student of design into a disciplined awareness of that phenomenal world, by development of categories of discrimination. The introductory experiences bring the student into vivid contact with compelling phenomena. The associated exercises structure and differentiate perception of nuance within these.

There is little doubt that texture, surface, extension, value, and color are in one sense basic categories of physical phenomena, constituting in essence a fundamental stratum of experience and the sensible world. Modern psychology and epistemology, however, cohere in saying that this stratum is not the sense world of everyday, the primary datum of the functioning societal member. Neither is the abstract world of the physicist's concepts an everyday world. What is given in our day-to-day life is neither very abstract, nor very concrete, but a sort of functionally-bound middle world of norms and stereotypes.

It takes the disciplined seeing characteristic of foundational training in the arts to drive this bourgeois view of physical reality back to elemental sense data. Just as it requires the supremely abstract language of mathematics and the rarified "experience" of modern scientific experimentation to drive that same view offcenter in the direction of abstraction. The first exercises of a program of design education begin to perform the former role.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/02/25 09:15

_id ga9810
id ga9810
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 1998
title From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Our minds follow familiar well trodden paths, and we sometimes need mechanical help to find new, undiscovered thoughts and ideas. Ramon Llull was a Christian philosopher who used a mechanical way of investigating truth, a set of concentric wheels on which words were written. By rotating the wheels, the words were combined in unexpected ways. A similar technique has been (re-)invented, randomised and changed by Edward de Bono and is called Lateral Thinking. Can we apply this technique to image idea generation? This paper describes a first attempt at building an image idea generator for use by artists and non-artists alike, and sets out plans for a new a more powerful version. An image idea generator takes no (or very few) instructions from the user and creates a set of images from which the user chooses those he likes best. The purpose of an image idea generator is to easily create previously un-thought of images, to easily explore the 2D world of color and form.
series other
email ransen@nemo.it
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0026
id ga0026
authors Ransen, Owen F.
year 2000
title Possible Futures in Computer Art Generation
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Years of trying to create an "Image Idea Generator" program have convinced me that the perfect solution would be to have an artificial artistic person, a design slave. This paper describes how I came to that conclusion, realistic alternatives, and briefly, how it could possibly happen. 1. The history of Repligator and Gliftic 1.1 Repligator In 1996 I had the idea of creating an “image idea generator”. I wanted something which would create images out of nothing, but guided by the user. The biggest conceptual problem I had was “out of nothing”. What does that mean? So I put aside that problem and forced the user to give the program a starting image. This program eventually turned into Repligator, commercially described as an “easy to use graphical effects program”, but actually, to my mind, an Image Idea Generator. The first release came out in October 1997. In December 1998 I described Repligator V4 [1] and how I thought it could be developed away from simply being an effects program. In July 1999 Repligator V4 won the Shareware Industry Awards Foundation prize for "Best Graphics Program of 1999". Prize winners are never told why they won, but I am sure that it was because of two things: 1) Easy of use 2) Ease of experimentation "Ease of experimentation" means that Repligator does in fact come up with new graphics ideas. Once you have input your original image you can generate new versions of that image simply by pushing a single key. Repligator is currently at version 6, but, apart from adding many new effects and a few new features, is basically the same program as version 4. Following on from the ideas in [1] I started to develop Gliftic, which is closer to my original thoughts of an image idea generator which "starts from nothing". The Gliftic model of images was that they are composed of three components: 1. Layout or form, for example the outline of a mandala is a form. 2. Color scheme, for example colors selected from autumn leaves from an oak tree. 3. Interpretation, for example Van Gogh would paint a mandala with oak tree colors in a different way to Andy Warhol. There is a Van Gogh interpretation and an Andy Warhol interpretation. Further I wanted to be able to genetically breed images, for example crossing two layouts to produce a child layout. And the same with interpretations and color schemes. If I could achieve this then the program would be very powerful. 1.2 Getting to Gliftic Programming has an amazing way of crystalising ideas. If you want to put an idea into practice via a computer program you really have to understand the idea not only globally, but just as importantly, in detail. You have to make hard design decisions, there can be no vagueness, and so implementing what I had decribed above turned out to be a considerable challenge. I soon found out that the hardest thing to do would be the breeding of forms. What are the "genes" of a form? What are the genes of a circle, say, and how do they compare to the genes of the outline of the UK? I wanted the genotype representation (inside the computer program's data) to be directly linked to the phenotype representation (on the computer screen). This seemed to be the best way of making sure that bred-forms would bare some visual relationship to their parents. I also wanted symmetry to be preserved. For example if two symmetrical objects were bred then their children should be symmetrical. I decided to represent shapes as simply closed polygonal shapes, and the "genes" of these shapes were simply the list of points defining the polygon. Thus a circle would have to be represented by a regular polygon of, say, 100 sides. The outline of the UK could easily be represented as a list of points every 10 Kilometers along the coast line. Now for the important question: what do you get when you cross a circle with the outline of the UK? I tried various ways of combining the "genes" (i.e. coordinates) of the shapes, but none of them really ended up producing interesting shapes. And of the methods I used, many of them, applied over several "generations" simply resulted in amorphous blobs, with no distinct family characteristics. Or rather maybe I should say that no single method of breeding shapes gave decent results for all types of images. Figure 1 shows an example of breeding a mandala with 6 regular polygons: Figure 1 Mandala bred with array of regular polygons I did not try out all my ideas, and maybe in the future I will return to the problem, but it was clear to me that it is a non-trivial problem. And if the breeding of shapes is a non-trivial problem, then what about the breeding of interpretations? I abandoned the genetic (breeding) model of generating designs but retained the idea of the three components (form, color scheme, interpretation). 1.3 Gliftic today Gliftic Version 1.0 was released in May 2000. It allows the user to change a form, a color scheme and an interpretation. The user can experiment with combining different components together and can thus home in on an personally pleasing image. Just as in Repligator, pushing the F7 key make the program choose all the options. Unlike Repligator however the user can also easily experiment with the form (only) by pushing F4, the color scheme (only) by pushing F5 and the interpretation (only) by pushing F6. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show some example images created by Gliftic. Figure 2 Mandala interpreted with arabesques   Figure 3 Trellis interpreted with "graphic ivy"   Figure 4 Regular dots interpreted as "sparks" 1.4 Forms in Gliftic V1 Forms are simply collections of graphics primitives (points, lines, ellipses and polygons). The program generates these collections according to the user's instructions. Currently the forms are: Mandala, Regular Polygon, Random Dots, Random Sticks, Random Shapes, Grid Of Polygons, Trellis, Flying Leap, Sticks And Waves, Spoked Wheel, Biological Growth, Chequer Squares, Regular Dots, Single Line, Paisley, Random Circles, Chevrons. 1.5 Color Schemes in Gliftic V1 When combining a form with an interpretation (described later) the program needs to know what colors it can use. The range of colors is called a color scheme. Gliftic has three color scheme types: 1. Random colors: Colors for the various parts of the image are chosen purely at random. 2. Hue Saturation Value (HSV) colors: The user can choose the main hue (e.g. red or yellow), the saturation (purity) of the color scheme and the value (brightness/darkness) . The user also has to choose how much variation is allowed in the color scheme. A wide variation allows the various colors of the final image to depart a long way from the HSV settings. A smaller variation results in the final image using almost a single color. 3. Colors chosen from an image: The user can choose an image (for example a JPG file of a famous painting, or a digital photograph he took while on holiday in Greece) and Gliftic will select colors from that image. Only colors from the selected image will appear in the output image. 1.6 Interpretations in Gliftic V1 Interpretation in Gliftic is best decribed with a few examples. A pure geometric line could be interpreted as: 1) the branch of a tree 2) a long thin arabesque 3) a sequence of disks 4) a chain, 5) a row of diamonds. An pure geometric ellipse could be interpreted as 1) a lake, 2) a planet, 3) an eye. Gliftic V1 has the following interpretations: Standard, Circles, Flying Leap, Graphic Ivy, Diamond Bar, Sparkz, Ess Disk, Ribbons, George Haite, Arabesque, ZigZag. 1.7 Applications of Gliftic Currently Gliftic is mostly used for creating WEB graphics, often backgrounds as it has an option to enable "tiling" of the generated images. There is also a possibility that it will be used in the custom textile business sometime within the next year or two. The real application of Gliftic is that of generating new graphics ideas, and I suspect that, like Repligator, many users will only understand this later. 2. The future of Gliftic, 3 possibilties Completing Gliftic V1 gave me the experience to understand what problems and opportunities there will be in future development of the program. Here I divide my many ideas into three oversimplified possibilities, and the real result may be a mix of two or all three of them. 2.1 Continue the current development "linearly" Gliftic could grow simply by the addition of more forms and interpretations. In fact I am sure that initially it will grow like this. However this limits the possibilities to what is inside the program itself. These limits can be mitigated by allowing the user to add forms (as vector files). The user can already add color schemes (as images). The biggest problem with leaving the program in its current state is that there is no easy way to add interpretations. 2.2 Allow the artist to program Gliftic It would be interesting to add a language to Gliftic which allows the user to program his own form generators and interpreters. In this way Gliftic becomes a "platform" for the development of dynamic graphics styles by the artist. The advantage of not having to deal with the complexities of Windows programming could attract the more adventurous artists and designers. The choice of programming language of course needs to take into account the fact that the "programmer" is probably not be an expert computer scientist. I have seen how LISP (an not exactly easy artificial intelligence language) has become very popular among non programming users of AutoCAD. If, to complete a job which you do manually and repeatedly, you can write a LISP macro of only 5 lines, then you may be tempted to learn enough LISP to write those 5 lines. Imagine also the ability to publish (and/or sell) "style generators". An artist could develop a particular interpretation function, it creates images of a given character which others find appealing. The interpretation (which runs inside Gliftic as a routine) could be offered to interior designers (for example) to unify carpets, wallpaper, furniture coverings for single projects. As Adrian Ward [3] says on his WEB site: "Programming is no less an artform than painting is a technical process." Learning a computer language to create a single image is overkill and impractical. Learning a computer language to create your own artistic style which generates an infinite series of images in that style may well be attractive. 2.3 Add an artificial conciousness to Gliftic This is a wild science fiction idea which comes into my head regularly. Gliftic manages to surprise the users with the images it makes, but, currently, is limited by what gets programmed into it or by pure chance. How about adding a real artifical conciousness to the program? Creating an intelligent artificial designer? According to Igor Aleksander [1] conciousness is required for programs (computers) to really become usefully intelligent. Aleksander thinks that "the line has been drawn under the philosophical discussion of conciousness, and the way is open to sound scientific investigation". Without going into the details, and with great over-simplification, there are roughly two sorts of artificial intelligence: 1) Programmed intelligence, where, to all intents and purposes, the programmer is the "intelligence". The program may perform well (but often, in practice, doesn't) and any learning which is done is simply statistical and pre-programmed. There is no way that this type of program could become concious. 2) Neural network intelligence, where the programs are based roughly on a simple model of the brain, and the network learns how to do specific tasks. It is this sort of program which, according to Aleksander, could, in the future, become concious, and thus usefully intelligent. What could the advantages of an artificial artist be? 1) There would be no need for programming. Presumbably the human artist would dialog with the artificial artist, directing its development. 2) The artificial artist could be used as an apprentice, doing the "drudge" work of art, which needs intelligence, but is, anyway, monotonous for the human artist. 3) The human artist imagines "concepts", the artificial artist makes them concrete. 4) An concious artificial artist may come up with ideas of its own. Is this science fiction? Arthur C. Clarke's 1st Law: "If a famous scientist says that something can be done, then he is in all probability correct. If a famous scientist says that something cannot be done, then he is in all probability wrong". Arthur C Clarke's 2nd Law: "Only by trying to go beyond the current limits can you find out what the real limits are." One of Bertrand Russell's 10 commandments: "Do not fear to be eccentric in opinion, for every opinion now accepted was once eccentric" 3. References 1. "From Ramon Llull to Image Idea Generation". Ransen, Owen. Proceedings of the 1998 Milan First International Conference on Generative Art. 2. "How To Build A Mind" Aleksander, Igor. Wiedenfeld and Nicolson, 1999 3. "How I Drew One of My Pictures: or, The Authorship of Generative Art" by Adrian Ward and Geof Cox. Proceedings of the 1999 Milan 2nd International Conference on Generative Art.
series other
email owen@ransen.com
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id c8bf
authors Ranulph Glanville
year 1994
title Remoteness and the Value of Sharing
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 210
summary The technology of the near future creates the possibility of the Virtual Studio. The Virtual Studio emphasises the importance of sharing (co-operative working, interaction, updating: the importance of “betweenness”). It also emphasises the means by which we create the Virtual Studio and its intersection with what we normally call “reality”. And the means by which we share.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:02

_id caadria2017_123
id caadria2017_123
authors Raonic, Aleksandra and Raonic, Milos
year 2017
title Digital Tools, Analogue Minds - A Project-based Framework for Understanding the Dialogue In-between
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 561-570
summary This paper is situated in a specific research by design setting, where the realised work of architecture has been generated with digital tools operated by analogue minds of designers. It examines the relation- ship between the two entities, the designer and the tools, in an attempt to understand their specific roles better, trusting that this can lead to anew ways of enhancing the design process. Through revisiting the processes, methods, techniques and tools employed within various design-cycles of the project, authors present their own /designerly/ experience, pointing to both the potentials and limitations of the digital tools used. The attention is drawn to the importance for a human designer to have a critical awareness of the true nature of the computational systems and the capacity of both to adapt to the given context, in order to be able to embrace them and use to their full potentials.
keywords project-based learning; design exploration; digital tools; design cognition; low-cost conditions
series CAADRIA
email aleksandra.raonic@xjtlu.edu.cn
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id a8d7
authors Rapaport, William J.
year 1990
title Predication, Fiction, and Artificial Intelligence
source 27 (21) p. : ill. May, 1990. 90-11. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes the SNePS knowledge-representation and reasoning system. SNePS is an intentional, propositional, semantic-network processing system used for research in AI. The author looks at how predication is represented in such a system when it is used for cognitive modeling and natural- language understanding and generation. In particular, the author discusses issues in the representation of fictional entities and the representation of propositions from fiction, using SNePS. A brief survey is given of four philosophical ontological theories of fiction and sketch an epistemological theory of fiction (implemented in SNePS) using a story operator and rules allowing propositions to 'migrate' into and out of story 'spaces.'
keywords knowledge, representation, systems, AI, semantic networks, cognition, natural languages, intentionallity
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0b61
authors Raper, Jonathan
year 2000
title Multidimensional Geographic Information Science
source London: Taylor & Francis
summary Contributed by Jose Ripper Kós (josekos@ufrj.br)
keywords 3D City modeling
series other
last changed 2001/06/04 18:27

_id 63d1
authors Rapid Prototyping Group Rapid Design and Manufacture Centre (RDM), Ryder, G., Ion, B., Green, G., Harrison, D. and Wood, Bruce
year 2002
title Rapid design and manufacture tools in architecture
source Automation in Construction 11 (3) (2002) pp. 279-290
summary The continuing development of Rapid Prototyping technologies and the introduction of Concept Modelling technologies means that their use is expanding into a greater range of applications. The primary aim of this paper is to give the reader an overview of the current state of the art in Layered Manufacturing (LM) technology and its applicability in the field of architecture. The paper reports on the findings of a benchmarking study, conducted by the Rapid Design and Manufacturing (RDM) Group in Glasgow [G.J. Ryder, A. McGown, W. Ion, G. Green, D. Harrison, B. Wood, Rapid Prototyping Feasibility Report, Rapid Prototyping Group, Glasgow School of Art, 1998.], which identified that the applicability of LM technologies in any application can be governed by a series of critical process and application specific issues. A further survey carried out by the RDM group investigated current model making practice, current 3D CAD use and current use of LM technologies within the field of architecture. The findings are then compared with the capabilities of LM technologies. Future research needs in this area are identified and briefly outlined.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 4112
authors Raposo, M., Sampio, M. and Raposo, P.
year 2001
title A City Simulator
source Reinventing the Discourse - How Digital Tools Help Bridge and Transform Research, Education and Practice in Architecture [Proceedings of the Twenty First Annual Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-10-1] Buffalo (New York) 11-14 October 2001, pp. 052-061
summary This paper presents a new computer model for city skyline simulation. It works by shaping medium and high-rise buildings to their best performance. This new tool was conceived to simulate and analyze cities where tall buildings are emerging on pre-existing urban schemes with irregular geometry and where inter-building spacing is proportional to the height of built blocks. The model is based on two main inputs, namely: the description of the network formed by land subdivision of the actual or irregular urban schemes, and the building regulations quantitative parameters based on solar obstruction angles and maximum usability rates. By combining data from these inputs, the computer model presents the dimensions of the building envelop for maximum profitability of each plot. That way the architect will immediately know the number of floors that leads to the maximum built area, for certain plots. In addition to this, the built blocks images are presented in the screen, as well as corresponding tables and Cartesian graphs. Furthermore, this model can also be used for analyzing city skyline for large urban areas. This analysis can range from a mere visual inspection of the variety of images built blocks will take under different legal constraints, to a more intricate analysis of how city skyline and built area, amongst others, are affected by different the regulations.
keywords Computing City Shape, Land use performance, Computing city skyline, Urban network design, Computing City Architecture.
series ACADIA
email arq@recife.softex.br
last changed 2002/04/25 17:30

_id acadia09_186
id acadia09_186
authors Rappaport, Nina
year 2009
title Real Time / Implication for Production Spaces
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 186-193
summary Systems of feedback loops and cybernetic methods have influenced for decades the production and consumption networks and supply and demand chains in computer-integrated manufacturing. These mechanisms contribute to the increased efficiency of production, expanding the ability of both manufacturers and production engineers to create a workplace with smoother supply-chain management, as well as economies of scale and scope that are contingent on increased capitalism in a networked, globalized world. Mobility and flexibility are both physical and philosophical imperatives, aided by new small-scaled controls such as handheld wireless devices, which also contribute to a rising culture of nomadism. The shrinking scale of technologies and facilities has provided the mobile worker with numerous opportunities within complexly networked systems, forming a new paradigm for urban production spaces of the future. This paper is an investigation of how technology is changing and reshaping the architectural potentials for the contemporary industrial workplace.
keywords Industry, technology, history, critique, automation
series ACADIA
type Normal paper
email nina@ninarappaport.com
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id e3c1
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1980
title Design Specification Representation and Analysis
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (2nd : 1980 : Baltimore, MD.). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 102- 111. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The conventional structures of decision tables, information networks, and outlines define the current methodology for the representation and use of design specifications. This paper explores the relationships at the interfaces between these three representational tools. New analysis strategies are presented that provide flexibility at the lower boundary of the information network by converting decision tables to subnetworks within the information network and by compressing multiple subtables into larger tables representing higher- level nodes in the network. Both generation and compression of the information network provide flexibility in organizing a specification. The ability to both generate and compress nodes and subnodes establishes a mean of representing all the relations among the data items of a specification and gives one more direct control over the level of detail of the information network. As a direct consequence of the ability to generate new nodes, new classifiers can be progressively attached to the nodes of the subnetwork, as well as to the nodes in the information network. As a result, specification requirements are more logically identified by the outline and requirements and data items which were previously hidden within decision table conditions and actions are now directly accessible from the outline. Conversely, items inconsequential to the outline can be compressed into nodes and removed from the outline. A computer program is presented that implements these network transformations. The program accurately represents the interface between the network and the decision table
keywords civil engineering, decision making, representation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 46b2
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1983
title Organization of a Structural Design Database
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (8th : 1983 : Houston, TX). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 559-571. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper proposes a database schema that supports structural engineering design of buildings. An evaluation and comparison of hierarchical, network, and relational databases shows that relational databases are especially suited to a structural engineering design database. The proposed database schema represents the complex relationships between the components of a building-design database. The schema consists of a structural system hierarchy that relates abstract database components to basic building elements. In addition, it combines topology with attributes to achieve an integration that allows the representation of a broad range of common building configurations and structural systems. The user can combine a basic set of constructs to generate either a general or a very detailed description of a structure. The high degree of integration of topology and attributes yields a database that possesses desirable relational characteristics. The database provides efficient access to components based both on their location and on their attribute values. It also allows the user to add, delete, retrieve, and modify database components and values. The versatility and flexibility of the relational model make it a useful tool for managing building engineering data
keywords building, details, database, civil engineering, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6105
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1986
title Constraint Enforcement in a Structural Design Database
source Journal of the Structural Division. American Society of Civil Engineers, December, 1986. vol. 112: pp. 2565-2577
summary During the design of a commercial structure, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it, provides one way to generate, represent, manage, and use this information. However, DBMSs are not presently structured in such a way that they can flexibly represent complex engineering constraint relationships, including those defined by codes, standards, and specifications. This paper examines structural design constraints and addresses the question of how they can be incorporated into DBMSs. It presents four representations of engineering constraints: the text of a design specification, the equations extracted from the specification, the dependency network among the constrained data items, and a relational DBMS model. The database model was implemented using a commercially available DBMS and the limitations of the implementation are explored. What is new in this DBMS model is that a constraint dependency subnetwork is associated directly with the stored data that it constrains. The implemented result is a new abstraction, consisting of a relation and a set of computations and checks, that enforces the relationships embodied in the dependency network. The database user need only initially define a set of rules and computed attributes. These are then used by the DBMS to automatically perform the appropriate checks and assignments. The database user is, to a significant degree, free of constraint checking concerns because the system itself knows what to do
keywords constraints management, civil engineering, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 27e8
authors Rasdorf, William J. and High, Stacey L.
year 1987
title Simplified Steel Compression Member Design
source Dynamics of Structures ASCE Structures Congress Proceedings. 1987. American Society of Civil Engineers, vol. D: pp. 352-367. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The American Institute of Steel Construction 'Specification for the Design, Fabrication, and Erection of Structural Steel Buildings' has made manual steel column design exceedingly time consuming and difficult. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified method of designing steel columns subjected to axial loads and moments for use in situations where automated design methods are inappropriate. Steel column design is based on the interaction equations of the AISC Specification. These equations are presented in terms of actual and allowable stresses and much time is required by a designer to manually determine the stresses and solve the equations. To simplify their solution, the interaction equations were reformulated and a set of parameters (multipliers) was introduced into them. The parameters were investigated to determine their validity, limits, and ranges of significant influence. They were then tabulated to provide quick and easy access for use. The modified interaction equations and the tabulated parameters constitute the results of this study. They are the physical tools that enable a designer to rapidly select initial steel column sections to satisfy design requirements and specification constraints. The analysis confirms that these tools can realistically and accurately be determined. The equations were algebraically derived and the tables were generated as a function of the properties of the sections. Thus, a new design method, combining the use of tabulated parameters with algebraically modified interaction equations, has been developed. This method greatly simplifies and speeds up the column section selection process
keywords civil engineering, structures, synthesis, design, methods
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4bae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Kutay, Ali R.
year 1982
title Maintenance of Integrity During Concurrent Access in a Building Design Database
source Computer Aided Design. Butterworth Scientific Ltd., July, 1982. vol. 14: pp. 201-207. includes bibliography
summary This paper proposes a building design database model that insures database integrity in a highly flexible relational structure while supporting disciplinary and interdisciplinary concurrent use. The model strongly supports designer-database interaction by providing extremely versatile data access mechanisms and an associated concurrency control mechanism. Building design components are represented in terms of their location, their attribute values, and combinations of the two. Both the logical and physical database models are illustrated. The relational model is vital for achieving the greatest flexibility in representing and accessing building design data. Its standard relations are ideal for information representation. In addition, the operators provided by the model enable the engineer to readily restructure the database to support building design needs. This paper introduces a database structuring mechanism referred to as catalogs. Catalogs provide a highly versatile mechanism for accessing database information by grouping building components into data units called modules. The modules provide convenient access to multiple design entities. Also included is a protection relation that provides a concurrency control environment for the catalog relations. The module concept is particularly important in design because it enables the ad hoc groupings of data which are so often necessary to support the design process. The module is recommended as the level to which a locking concurrency control mechanism be applied. It is a small enough data unit to support concurrency for interdisciplinary design activities, yet not so small as to require extensive overhead in the concurrency control implementation. Two different modes of locking are recommended for the catalog relations of a building design database to achieve maximum concurrency and efficiency of access by designers
keywords database, concurrency, access, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8a38
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1987
title Natural Language Prototypes for Analyzing Design Standards
source Southampton, U.K: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1987. pp. 147-160
summary CADLINE has abstract only. This paper addresses the use of natural language processing for acquiring, processing, and representing knowledge from design standards. A standard is a set of provisions providing principles, models, rules, limits, and particulars that are established by some authority for some purpose. In their textual form as written documents, design standards cannot directly be used in computer-aided design (CAD) systems. This paper demonstrates how standards can be transformed, using natural language processing techniques, from their textual form to alternative representations that more readily lend themselves to use in computer-aided design systems, supporting a variety of design applications. The language being transformed is the Building Officials and Code Administrators Building Code, one set of requirements that govern the design of buildings. Prototype computer subsystems have been developed that transform natural language sentences to case-grammar format and finally to subject-relationship- object triplets. The three prototypes that achieve these transformations are described: a parser, a semantic analyzer, and a query system. During one processing cycle, the system identifies that data items in a provision and the relationships between the data items. It also interacts with the user to add new data items to its knowledge bases, to verify data items found, and to add to its vocabulary. Alternatively, it responds to natural-language questions about the contents of the standard by identifying the relevant provisions within the standards. Processing formal documents requires knowledge about vocabulary, word-order, time, semantics, reference, and discourse. Despite the relative clarity of formal writing as it occurs in standards, the difficulties of implied responsibility, multiple meanings, and implied data items remain. A long-term research program at North Carolina State University has been defined that builds on these prototypes to further investigate knowledge acquisition and representation for standards
keywords design, standards, analysis, AI, natural languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 81ae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Parks, Linda M.
year 1986
title Expert Systems and Engineering Design Knowledge
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (9th : 1986 : Birmingham, AL) American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 28-42. CADLINE has abstract only.
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. An expert system provides a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI-oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible engineering tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Prototype expert systems have been developed for civil engineering applications to assist with interpretation, design, planning, diagnosis, control, and other engineering system functions. A number of these are described herein. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system took, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and use of the expert system
keywords design, knowledge, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a127
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Salley, George C.
year 1985
title Generative Engineering Databases - Toward Expert Systems
source Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, 1985. vol. 22: pp. 11-15
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention. Research in this area promises advantages for many engineering applications, particularly those which use data innovatively. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base (KB) of design constraints with a database (DB) of engineering data items to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. Thus, in addition to the designer and engineering design and analysis application programs, the database itself contributes to the design process. The KB/DB framework proposed here requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The framework also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. The goal sought is a central integrated repository of data, supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining integrity while generating new data. The resulting system permits the unaided generation of constrained data values, thereby serving as an active design assistant. This paper suggests this new conceptual framework as a means of improving engineering data representation, generation, use, and management
keywords management, optimization, synthesis, database, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6ed3
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1985
title The Role of Computing in Engineering Education
source Toward Expert Systems, Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, July, 1985. vol. 20: pp. 11-15. Also published in: Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics edited by A. K. Noor and R. J. Hayduk
summary Pergamon Press, 1985. --- Also Published in : Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics, Pergamon Press, George Washington University and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. pp. 11-15, Oct.1984. The rapid advances occurring in interactive micro-computing and computer science have provided the engineer with a powerful means of processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying data. The effective use of computer technology in engineering processes and applications is recognized by many as the key to increased individual, company, and national productivity. The implications of this observation for the academic community are clear: we must prepare our students to use computer methods and applications as part of their fundamental education. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science principles and practices is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The components of an education should include operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures. It is critically important for engineering students to receive an education that teaches them these fundamentals. This paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires, in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computing content of many other courses so that students come to treat the computer as a fundamental component of their work. This is a major undertaking, but new engineers graduating with advanced computing knowledge will provide potentially significant future innovations in the engineering profession
keywords CAE, education, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a18d
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1987
title Educational Fundamentals of Computer-Aided Engineering
source International Journal of Applied Engineering Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1987. vol. 3: pp. 247-254
summary The role of computer science is increasing in nearly every engineering discipline. One of the dilemmas in engineering education today is how future engineers can best assimilate the advanced, yet fundamental, knowledge of computer science appropriate for their professional engineering career. This paper suggests that the role of the academic community must be to prepare engineering students to use computer methods and applications as a part of their fundamental engineering education. It is the responsibility of colleges and universities to incorporate contemporary computing fundamentals into their academic curriculum to improve the professional qualifications of their engineering graduates. This paper discusses current educational practices and their shortcomings as well as new options to reinforce and enhance the role of computing in engineering. The key ingredients, operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures (relative to concurrent processing) are discussed. The paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computational content of many others so that the student comes to treat the computer as a fundamental component of his work. Indeed this is a major undertaking but the benefits of advanced computer knowledge by new engineering graduates promises to provide significant future innovations in the engineering profession. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The impact of advances in computer technology on engineering education are therefore discussed. Several of the benefits of enhanced computational expertise by engineers are enumerated and case studies of recent NASA initiatives whose success required that engineers possess an in-depth knowledge of computer science are presented
keywords CAE, civil engineering, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8312
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title CDIS: An Engineering Constraint Definition and Integrity Enforcement System for Relational Databases
source Computers in Engineering International Conference Proceedings. 1986. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, vol. 2: pp. 273-280. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Database management systems (DBMS) are an essential component of the computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) environment. A database management system provides a powerful functionality for the storage, management, and use of engineering data. It is lacking, however, in its ability to deal with engineering constraints. In the past, constraint checking was performed by application programs. More recently DBMS's have been incorporating into their structure specifications for enforcing a limited set of integrity constraints and the mechanisms for invoking them automatically. To ensure the correctness of engineering data, an effective constraint management capability must be incorporated into any proposed engineering DBMS. This paper demonstrates how this can be done, proposes a systematic way to classify constraints so that integrity can be maintained efficiently, and discusses a prototype called CDIS which implements the concepts. This paper uses the relational database model to represent both engineering data and engineering constraints. Data integrity is defined and its enforcement through the use of engineering constraints is described. Existing methods for handling constraints are discussed. A new model that enables the engineer to associate design constraints with a relational database is presented and an example is given that demonstrates the model. Extensions to a DBMS to implement the concepts presented are described. No currently available DBMS provides the much needed capabilities proposed here
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cc5a
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title Expert System Integrity Maintenance for the Use of Engineering Data
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (4th : 1986 : Boston, MA). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 654-668. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper describes a mechanism that enables one to automatically monitor and evaluate the use of engineering design data. The framework, associated with a relational database management system, combines a database with a set of constraints on the use of engineering data. This requires a database that stores all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as all of the domain-dependent constraints imposed upon the use of the design data. Such a framework has been successfully constructed and is described in this paper. An example, based on constraints extracted from the AISC Specification, is presented and the performance of the framework is discussed. The proposed framework resides between a DBMS and its users and serves as an experienced expert consultant to the users. It embodies the knowledge of the specific domain of interest; in this case, allowable stresses in steel members. Whenever a user retrieves data from the database, the mechanism is activated. It interprets data request, applies the appropriate constraints, and provides the correct data. Its understanding of the semantics of both the data request and its own constraints insures the validity of data it selects to return to the user. All previous database integrity research concentrated on maintaining the integrity of the stored data, i.e., on guaranteeing the integrity of any static state of the database. This paper advocates a mechanism for checking data being retrieved from the database as well as for checking data being inserted into the database. It deals, therefore, with the correctness of data being selected for use
keywords information, civil engineering, expert systems, relational database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 66e5
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Generic Design Standards Processing in a Knowledge-based expert system Environment
source Design Process, National Science Foundation Workshop Proceedings. 1987. pp. 267-291. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In the past, standards were interpreted and converted into application program written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords knowledge base, standards, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6683
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1987
title Spike : A Generic Design Standards Processing Expert System
source Southampton, UK: Computational Mechanics Publications, pp. 241-257. Also published in : Applications of Artificial Intelligence in Engineering International Conference Proceedings (2nd. : 1987 : Boston, MA.)
summary Standards, codes, and specifications play an important role in the design of buildings, bridges, and other engineering systems. A design configuration must be checked against all standards to ensure that it is acceptable. This process of design conformance checking using standards is often very tedious. The successful automation of conformance checking is one of the components of a comprehensive computer-aided design system. In that past, standards were interpreted and converted into application programs written in procedural programming languages such as FORTRAN. This approach is extremely inflexible and often error-prone. To support a fully automated computer-aided design system, standards must be incorporated into the design process in a more generic and flexible manner. This paper investigates the feasibility of alternatively casting standards in a form suitable for processing in a knowledge-based expert system environment. The emergence of expert systems from artificial intelligence research has provided a technology that readily lends itself to the automation of design standards. Knowledge-based expert systems have become a powerful tool in tackling domains like design where some of the problem-solving knowledge is diverse and ill-structured. Using an expert system tool, a standard can be represented and processed independent of a CAD application program. Two prototype standards processing systems utilizing the production system approach have been constructed and are presented herein. Although the obvious direct translation casting the provisions of a standard as rules in a production system has its advantages, a more generic and flexible representation scheme is proposed herein. The approach advocated in this paper is to represent standards as databases of facts which can be readily and generically processed by an expert system. The database representation is derived from a unified view of standards obtained by using the standards modeling tools proposed by previous researchers in this field during the past decade. Building on this existing technology resulted in a knowledge- based standards processing architecture which is generic, modular, and flexible. An implementation of this architecture is presented and described
keywords standards, civil engineering, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3ca
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1986
title ADI : An Adaptive Database Interface for Dynamic Databases
source ASME Symposium Proceedings on Knowledge based Expert Systems for Manufacturing. Anaheim, CA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division, December, 1986. pp. 119-130. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The operation of a manufacturing organization often depends on its underlying design and manufacturing databases. In a manufacturing environment, many users, both individuals and application programs, must have access to one or more of the organization's databases to provide, use, or modify data, to control information flow, and to facilitate information management. Such databases routinely undergo dynamic changes in both their content and their structure. These changes commonly result from the design of new products, the introduction of new materials, and the introduction of new machines and processes on the shop floor. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuous basis. The problem addressed in this paper is that it is difficult for users and application programs to get the information that they need, when they need it, from the multiple heterogeneous database management system (DBMS) environments that have evolved in design and manufacturing organizations. The solution proposed here is to build a general, extendable interface between database users and the many sources of data available to them. This in itself is not a new suggestion; a number of researchers have addressed portions of this problem. In general, the interfaces that they have developed to date are best suited to environments where the structure of the database is static and does not change over time. One of the things that this paper proposes that is different from existing work is an interface which handles the dynamic restructuring nature of manufacturing databases, enabling a user to obtain the most accurate and up to date information as the structure and content of the underlying databases change. Another unique aspect of the DBMS interface proposed herein is that the interface attempts to capture the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact identity of the required entities that are stored in the database
keywords engineering, database, manufacturing, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4910
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1987
title A Knowledge-Based Approach to Engineering Information Retrieval and Management
source London, UK: Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1987. pp. 267-295
summary Building design, construction, operation, maintenance, and control are all processes that have achieved various levels of computer use. Although the degree of computerization varies significantly, one common aspect of the computing needs of each process is an abundance of data in the form of tables, standards, project definition information, catalogs, etc. In most cases this data is stored in files which are independently used for input to stand-alone single-process application programs, such as a structural analysis application. The utility of these independent files is therefore limited to a single application. As concepts of integration of engineering applications evolved, the use of databases and database management systems (DBMS) increased. A number of issues of significant concern emerged. First, there is a need to retrieve data from many independent, possibly widely distributed databases. Second, there is a need for a uniform means of doing so. Third, such databases routinely undergo dynamic change. Changes in a database schema commonly result from the evolution of a design, from changes in the design process itself, and from changes in other subsequent downstream processes. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and they subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuing basis. This chapter describes a knowledge-based expert system that provides access to and integration of the many underlying databases needed to support the building design/construction process. The unique aspect of the expert system presented in this chapter is its capture of the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS to retrieve data. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact name by which it is stored in the database. In doing so it formalizes the levels of complexity of that knowledge and points out the multidisciplinary applications of the research results
keywords civil engineering, knowledge base, database, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8331
authors Rasdorf, William J., Ulberg, Karen J. and Baugh, John W. Jr.
year 1987
title A Structure-Based Model of Semantic Integrity Constraints for Relational Databases
source International Journal of Engineering with Computers. Springer-Verlag, Spring, 1987. vol. 2: pp. 31- 39
summary Database management systems (DBMSs) are in widespread use because of the ease and flexibility with which they enable users to access large volumes of data. The use of DBMSs has spread from its origin in business applications to scientific and engineering applications as well. As engineers rely more and more on the computer for data storage, our ability to manually keep track of relationships between data and to ensure data accuracy is severely limited. The inherent fluctuations in engineering design data as well as its large volume, increase the difficulty of doing so. Ensuring data accuracy through the use of integrity constraints which limit or constrain the values of the data is a central aspect of DBMS use. Enforcing constraints (to the extend possible) is a job for the DBMS. This alleviates some of the burden placed on the user and database administrator to maintain the integrity of the database. In addition, it enables integrity constraints to be conceptually centralized and made available for inspection and modification instead of being scattered among application programs. Despite their importance, however, capabilities for handling integrity constraints in commercial DBMSs are limited and they lack adequate integrity maintenance support. In addition, a comprehensive theoretical basis for such support-the role of a constraint classification, representation, invocation, and use methodology-has yet to be developed. This paper presents a formalism that classifies semantic integrity constraints based on the structure of the relational database model. Integrity constraints are characterized by the portion of the database structure they access, whether one or more relations, attributes, or tuples. Thus, the model is completely general, allowing the identification, definition, and arbitrary specification of any constraint on a relational database. It also provides a basis for the implementation of a database integrity subsystem. Examples of each type of constraint are illustrated using a small engineering database, and various implementation issues are discussed
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8844
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1984
title Relational Database Modeling of Building Design Data
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (3rd : 1984 : San Diego). American Society Of Civil Engineers, pp. 364-371. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper discusses the use of a relational database for representing the data gathered and derived during the building design process. In doing so, it considers the complexity of the relationships among a structure's topology, geometry, and attributes, and the critical requirements they impose on the development of a building design database. In the broad arena of computer-aided design, relational database management systems are establishing themselves as useful engineering tools. This is occurring at a time when engineers and architects are moving toward centralized and integrated databases of design information. In such a database, information is directly and readily available to all members of the design team, allowing them to work concurrently on an accurate representation of a wide variety of engineering design data. This paper presents the use of a relational database to model building design data and shows that the relationships among topology, geometry, and attributes can be successfully modeled relationally. The feasibility of interaction between engineering applications programs and the database is also indicated. Although the paper concentrates on structural design data for buildings, the relational model can also be used to represent the data of other engineering design disciplines as well as the data for other structures, assemblies, systems, and processes
keywords relational database, civil engineering, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a36a
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Perspectives on Knowledge in Engineering Design
source Proceedings of the International Computers in Engineering Conference. Boston, MA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, August, 1985. Vol. 2: pp. 249-253. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. Expert systems provide a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI- oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system tool, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and the use of the expert system
keywords knowledge, AI, civil engineering, expert systems, CAE, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ee8f
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1987
title Extending Database Management Systems for Engineering Applications
source Computers in Mechanical Engineering (CIME). American Society of Mechanical Engineers, March, 1987. vol. 5: pp. 62-69
summary During the design of a manufactured component, large amounts of information pertaining to all aspects of the design must be stored, accessed, and operated upon. A database management system (DBMS), composed of a central repository of data and the associated software for controlling accesses to it and operations on it, provides one way to uniformly store, manage, and use this information. This paper presents a framework for an extension to relational database management systems that combines a set of engineering constraints with a database of engineering data items. The representation requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. A powerful and flexible constraint processing system is needed to adequately ensure that engineering data conforms to the limitations imposed upon it by the design process. Such a system must be capable of allowing constraints to be invoked at a variety of times, and provide numerous options for the user when violations are detected. This paper introduces a concept called structured constraints that integrates state- of-the-art advances in DBMSs and current research in engineering constraint processing to further enhance CAD system capabilities. It discusses the extensions to relational database theory that are needed to achieve such a constraint handling capability for mechanical engineering applications. The goal sought is a managed repository of data supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining data integrity by incorporating engineering constraints. The Structured Constraint model is a general method for classifying semantic integrity constraints. It is based on the structure of the relational model and is therefore independent of any particular query language. In addition, it is a formalism that possesses conceptual clarity and generality which make it useful for representing and communicating arbitrary constraints. The key contribution of this formalism is its basis for a completely definable implementation of an engineering integrity system
keywords civil engineering, relational database, constraints management, management, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ascaad2009_haitham_rashed
id ascaad2009_haitham_rashed
authors Rashed, Haitham and Heba Elsharkawy
year 2009
title Virtual Museum: Towards a new typology of the museum in the future
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 269-279
summary Architecture is affected by the information technology, one must consider two conditions: that the physical spaces of architecture as we have always known it (enclosure, form and permanence) will without a doubt persevere, and that it will exist alongside the virtual architecture, surfacing in the digital domain of the internet. Museums are now being constructed, navigated, experienced, comprehended, and altered in their virtual states by countless people across global networks. This new architecture of liquidity, flux and mutability is predicated on technological advances and fuelled by basic human desire to probe the unknown. The path that both types of architecture, the real and the virtual, take will be one of convergence. VR seems to be the next logical step in the path laid by CAD, but it will have a more extensive impact, since it not only transforms the way architects design and visualize, but can also be integrated into the final product of architecture itself: such as museums. The main goal of this paper is to emphasize the new typology of museums of the future in which digital technologies support all kinds of museum activities such as gathering, preserving, researching, exhibiting, and educating. Also, to introduce digital technologies for the digital museum such as media and new human interface technologies for novel exhibition styles and data processing technologies for digital archiving of cultural or historical artifacts. The paper highlights the technology used in this new typology of museums; the virtual museum. It also discusses the advantages and the disadvantages of the virtual museum.
series ASCAAD
email laxhfmr@nottingham.ac.uk
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id 1fda
authors Rashid, Hani and Couture, Lise Anne
year 2002
title Virtual Architecture – Real Space
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 005-8
summary We are in the very early stages of a digital revolution whose direction we will not be certain of for sometime, much in the same way that Enlightenment-era architects, theologians, and thinkers did not quite comprehend the profound changes taking place in their own time. Today’s digital technologies are having profound effects on many different aspects of our contemporary understanding from the human genome to the mapping of the cosmos. Digital manipulations that use virtual-reality technologies form a major part of this revolution. As architects we are responding in a number of ways, by conceiving of entirely new geometric principles, new methodologies, and entirely novel approaches to representation beyond perspectival geometry.
series CAADRIA
email info@asymptote.net
more http://www.asymptote.net
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ijac201210103
id ijac201210103
authors Rashid, Mahbub
year 2012
title Shape-Sensitive Configurational Descriptions of Building Plans
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 10 - no. 1, 33-52
summary While the traditional graph-theoretic techniques of space syntax are able to provide a rich description of the spatial configuration of buildings, they are not sufficiently shape sensitive. Therefore, techniques are proposed to describe building plans as configurations of spaces taking into consideration the elements of shape explicitly. First, the traditional space syntax techniques are applied to a more shape-sensitive partition of a plan in order to find out if these techniques would reveal any interesting shape property of the plan. Following this, a technique to characterize the spatial units of a plan is suggested taking into consideration how surfaces become visible from these units. Finally, a plan is described as the configuration of triangles defined by the vertices of the shape of the plan, and triangulation is used as a technique for a shape-sensitive description of spatial configuration.
series journal
last changed 2012/04/05 06:42

_id caadria2017_190
id caadria2017_190
authors Rasmussen, Troels A. and Merritt, Timothy R.
year 2017
title ProjecTables - Augmented CNC Tools for Sustainable Creative Practices
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 757-766
summary CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper understanding of current work practices and sustainability issues with CNC cutting-machines, and identified useful features for interactive packing to reduce waste while supporting aesthetic concerns for exhibition quality design projects.
keywords CNC cutting; sustainability; digital fabrication; visual augmentation
series CAADRIA
email tmerrit@eng.au.dk
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id caadria2018_215
id caadria2018_215
authors Raspall, Felix and Banon, Carlos
year 2018
title 3D Printing Architecture: Towards Functional Space Frames
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 215-224
summary In architecture, the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies has been primarily limited to the production of scale models. Its application for functional buildings components has been typically undermined by the long production time, elevated cost to manufacture parts and the low mechanical properties of 3D printed components. As AM becomes faster, cheaper and stronger, opportunities for architectures that make creative use of AM to produce functional architectural pieces are emerging. In this paper, we propose and discuss the application of AM in complex space frames and the theoretical and practical implications. Three built projects by the authors support our hypothesis that AM has a clear application in architecture and that space frames constitutes a promising structural typology. In addition, we investigate how AM can be used to resolve architectural systems beyond structure and enclosure, such as data and power transmission. The paper presents background research and our contribution to the digital design tools, the manufacturing and assembly processes, and the analysis of the performances of the building components and the final built pieces.
keywords Additive Manufacturing; Digital Design; Space frames
series CAADRIA
email carlos_banon@sutd.edu.sg
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id sigradi2016_771
id sigradi2016_771
authors Raspall, Felix; Ba?ón, Carlos
year 2016
title vMESH : How to print Architecture?
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.394-398
summary The use of 3D printing in architectural research, education and practice has been almost exclusively destined to produce physical representations – models— of designed building. Recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) have exponentially increased the mechanical properties of 3D printed parts, opening new opportunities for this technology to be directly applied to functional architectural components at an increasingly larger scale. Thus, this paper examines the design, structural and aesthetic implications, as well as the feasibility of advanced 3D printing technologies in the production of functional architectural components through the design and prototyping of a customized, non-regular spatial frame system.
keywords Metal 3D Printing, Volumetric Mesh, Digital Fabrication, Parametric Design, Spatial Frames
series SIGraDi
email felix_raspall@sutd.edu.sg
last changed 2017/06/21 12:21

_id acadia13_327
id acadia13_327
authors Raspall, Felix; Imbern, Matías; Choi, William
year 2013
title Adaptive Tectonic Systems: Parametric Modeling and Digital Fabrication of Precast Roofing Assemblies Toward Site-Specific Design Response
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 327-336
summary In order to design adaptable systems, the requirements include flexible models to generate a range of alternative configurations, analytical engines to evaluate performance, and well-defined selection criteria to identify suitable options. In most cases, design processes driven by performance concentrate on environmental or structural parameters; fabrication often remains disconnected from the generative process. Nonetheless, as design-to-fabrication methods become more robust, it is possible to extend the digital process to introduce fabrication variables to the definition of the project. The main focus of the research presented in this paper is the development of a digital and material workflow that connects design, structural and climate-specific topics (such as sun lighting and water drainage) toward producing a range of efficient structural and spatial assemblies.A case study serves as the main support for this investigation. Miguel Fisac’s “bones” is a light-weight roof system developed during the 1960’s, which had a very well-calibrated structural, natural-lighting, drainage and construction performance, as well as a highly refined spatial output. The system, despite its intelligence, lacked the flexibility possible today: using digital technologies, it can adapt to a significantly wider range of applications. Using “bones” as a starting point, this research develops a design-to-fabrication workflow that attempts to move forward tools, material systems and processes to enable an adaptable tectonic system.This paper describes the background research, concept, form-finding, construction process, methodology, results and conclusions of the investigation.
keywords complex systems, parametric design, integrated design and fabrication, mass customization, Miguel Fisac bones, adaptive material system
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email willchoi@willchoi.com
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id caadria2013_076
id caadria2013_076
authors Raspall, Felix; Matias Imbern and William Choi
year 2013
title Fisac Variations: An Integrated Design and Fabrication Strategy for Adaptable Building Systems
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 55-64
summary The promise of robotic fabrication as an enabler for mass-customization in Architecture has been hindered by the intricate workflow required to go from parametric modelling to CNC fabrication. The lack of integration between highly-specialized proprietary software, normally required to operate the machines, and most of the design tools constitutes a major limitation. One way to tackle this constraint is by developing simple tools that directly link parametric modelling to robotic coding. Accordingly, “Fisac Variations” develops an uninterrupted digital workflow from form-generation to robotic fabrication. This innovative approach to Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing was tested by studying and reengineering a specific historic construction system -Miguel Fisac’s Bones System was used as a case study- and by enabling it to address problems of contemporary architectural agenda such as flexibility, variability and mass-customization. The proposed workflow threads form-finding, structural analysis, geometric definition, CNC code generation and digital fabrication within the same open-source computational environment. In this way, this innovative procedure aims to increase design freedom while ensuring fabrication feasibility. This paper describes background research, concept, form-finding, construction process, methodology, results and conclusions.  
wos WOS:000351496100006
keywords Parametric design, Digital fabrication and construction, Integrated design and fabrication, Mass-customization, Miguel fisac bones system 
series CAADRIA
email craspall@gsd.harvard.edu
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 4511
authors Ratti, Carlo and Richens, Paul
year 1999
title Urban Texture Analysis with Image Processing Techniques
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 49-64
summary A new paradigm for investigating the environmental consequences of urban texture is proposed. Using raster-based models and software algorithms derived from image processing, efficient methods of measuring geometric parameters and predicting radiation exchange are developed. The possibilities of generating synthetic urban textures, and integrating cellular automata, are explored. Results suggest the possibility of a raster-based urban model to inform planning and design.
keywords Urban Texture, Image Processing, Urban Environmental Analysis, Urban Morphology, Cellular Automata
series CAAD Futures
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade03_631_135_rauhala
id ecaade03_631_135_rauhala
authors Rauhala, Kari
year 2003
title Playing Games: the Role of Computers in Sketching
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 631-635
summary Why computers are not yet used in the early phases of architectural design? This question requires a closer examination of the sketching process itself. Looking it from the hermeneutical point of view, it becomes quite obvious that sketching really is and probably should remain the last fortress resisting the computerization of design. Sketching is an intimate dialogue between drawings and language. It is a dynamic and circular process of understanding. Also its intrinsic methods to search solutions cause wicked problems for computer programming. Nevertheless, computers could be used more for assisting sketching. Their proper role would be in validating tentative solutions.
keywords Sketching, hermeneutics, language, metaphor, computers
series eCAADe
email kari.rauhala@vtt.fi
more http://www.vtt.fi/rte/
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id caadria2005_b_4a_a
id caadria2005_b_4a_a
authors Ravi S. Srinivasan, Ali M. Malkawi
year 2005
title Reinforcement Learning and Real-time Building Thermal Performance Data Visualization
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 2, pp. 141-148
summary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to predict the fluid behavior and particle systems-in-action in three-dimensional space, allowing experts to evaluate a series of environmental decisions in designing buildings. Although computing power has increased in the past decade, detailed CFD simulations introduce time-delay that defeats the notion of real-time data visualization. A method that can bypass the time-consuming simulations and generate results comparable to detailed CFD simulations will allow such visualizations to be constructed. This paper discusses a pilot project that utilizes a Reinforcement Learning (RL) algorithm coupled with a simplified fluid dynamics equation to generate thermal performance data for real-time visualization.
series CAADRIA
email sravi@design.upenn.edu
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id sigradi2004_329
id sigradi2004_329
authors Ravi S. Srinivasan; Ali M. Malkawi
year 2004
title The use of learning algorithms for real-time immersive data visualization in buildings
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations are used to predict indoor thermal environments and assess their response to specific internal/external conditions. Although computing power has increased exponentially in the past decade, CFD simulations are time consuming and their prediction results cannot be used for real-time immersive visualization in buildings. A method that can bypass the time consuming simulations and generate .acceptable. results will allow such visualization to be constructed. This paper discusses a project that utilizes Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as a learning algorithm to predict post-processed CFD data to ensure rapid data visualization. The technique has been integrated with an immersive Augmented Reality (AR) system to visualize CFD results in buildings. ANN was also evaluated against a linear regression model. Both models were tested and validated with datasets to determine their degree of accuracy. Initial tests, conducted to evaluate the user.s experience of the system, indicated satisfactory results.
series SIGRADI
email sravi.malkawi@design.upenn.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2015_320
id ecaade2015_320
authors Rayo, Diego Alejandro Velandia
year 2015
title Option One: A Model of Participatory Design to Construct a Rural Social Housing From Digital Fabrication
source Martens, B, Wurzer, G, Grasl T, Lorenz, WE and Schaffranek, R (eds.), Real Time - Proceedings of the 33rd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria, 16-18 September 2015, pp. 531-539
summary Option one is the first prototype in the process of construction, based on the application of integrated processes of digital fabrication: This methodology was developed through a research project which explores options of rural public housing. The design process is integrated with other variables such as: participative design, directed self-build and the integration of tangible and intangible aspects. Parametric modeling was used as a strategy to create an integrated process of design, production and assembly based on a code created in grasshopper. Once finished, the housing unit will be handed over to a rural family. This will allow for doing follow-up and evaluation.
wos WOS:000372316000060
series eCAADe
email dvelandi@uniandes.edu.co
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2009_061
id ecaade2009_061
authors Razali, Fairuz Reza; Zubir, Syed Sobri; Ab. Rahman, Rashidah; Sulaiman, Wan Azhar
year 2009
title Associative Architectural Design: The Potential of Land Economical and Ecological Factors in Determining Variations in Housing Design
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 181-188
summary Capitalism does play a decisive role in the planning and generation of countless generic typologies in the urban landscape to a certain extent. This also includes the planning and generation of housing models. As a result of conventional planning that is based on ‘entrepreneurship subdivision’, only similar housing model for a specific income group is sometimes offered. In the long term, this kind of development occupies massive land, which is not suitable for sustainable growth and creates social segregation. This paper suggests an alternative approach of ‘associative design’. Parametric design software is utilized to generate the housing diversity. It aims to construct a population of housing units that together form a new neigh­borhood model based on the land specificity that emphasizes its economic and ecological factors.
wos WOS:000334282200022
keywords Associative design, parametric, housing, ecology, land specificity
series eCAADe
email berangkap@yahoo.co.uk, sszubir@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade03_287_199_rebelo
id ecaade03_287_199_rebelo
authors Rebelo, Pedro and Coyne, Richard
year 2003
title Resisting the smooth - Time-based interactive media in the production of distressed space
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 287-291
summary Time is central to architectural design, but to date has not been fully investigated through computational media. The works of Heidegger, Bergson, Virilio and Deleuze suggest that the study of the elusive concept of time has more to contribute to an understanding of the human condition than space. One can argue that contemporary society is being governed increasingly by temporal structures, as the space of the town square is replaced by time-based broadcasting and digital communications. This shift from space to time is commonly associated with the ideal of smoothing boundaries and developing seamless environments. Contrary to this supposition, we propose that the putative “collapse” of time and space exposes disjunction and disruption. We develop the notion of “distressed space” as part of a design strategy in the context of time-based media. We draw on examples from real-time 3D animation using the MAX/MSP/Jitter programming environment and discuss some of its implications for design.
keywords Jitter; time-based architecture; distressed space
series eCAADe
email P.Rebelo@ed.ac.uk
more http://www.lautnet.net
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id 5fdc
authors Reber, A.S.
year 1993
title Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge: An Essay on the Cognitive Unconscious
source New York: Oxford University Press
summary In this new volume in the Oxford Psychology Series, the author presents a highly readable account of the cognitive unconscious, focusing in particular on the problem of implicit learning. Implicit learning is defined as the acquisition of knowledge that takes place independently of the conscious attempts to learn and largely in the absence of explicit knowledge about what was acquired. One of the core assumptions of this argument is that implicit learning is a fundamental, "root" process, one that lies at the very heart of the adaptive behavioral repertoire of every complex organism. The author's goals are to outline the essential features of implicit learning that have emerged from the many studies that have been carried out in a variety of experimental laboratories over the past several decades; to present the various alternative perspectives on this issue that have been proposed by other researchers and to try to accommodate these views with his own; to structure the literature so that it can be seen in the context of standard heuristics of evolutionary biology; to present the material within a functionalist approach and to try to show why the experimental data should be seen as entailing particular epistemological perspectives; and to present implicit processing as encompassing a general and ubiquitous set of operations that have wide currency and several possible applications. Chapter 1 begins with the core problem under consideration in this book, a characterization of "implicit learning" as it has come to be used in the literature. Reber puts this seemingly specialized topic into a general framework and suggests a theoretical model based on standard heuristics of evolutionary biology. In his account, Reber weaves a capsule history of interest in and work on the cognitive unconscious. Chapter 2 turns to a detailed overview of the experimental work on the acquisition of implicit knowledge, which currently is of great interest. Chapter 3 develops the evolutionary model within which one can see learning and cognition as richly intertwining issues and not as two distinct fields with one dominating the other. Finally, Chapter 4 explores a variety of entailments and speculations concerning implicit cognitive processes and their general role in the larger scope of human performance
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e0a2
authors Recayte, María Patricia and Bolognini, Susana
year 2001
title EFECTOS DE LA GENERACIÓN HIPERMEDIAL EN LA FORMA ARQUITECTÓNICA (Effects of the Hypermedial Generation in the Architectonic Form)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 282-284
summary Incorporation of digital image in proyectual process have been not substitutive of traditional practices, but interacts with them, producing hipermedial proceedings of morphologic generation. Present work explains the methodology used to measurement and evaluation about changes on form produced by this proceedings, and results obtained. Present study was made from an laboratory experimental design, with several proceedings, both traditional (composition and invention) and hipermedial, comparing their results. Conclusion allows affirm that form passes from being understood as structure, to be perceived as image, and critics its material condition.
series SIGRADI
email precayte@mdp.edu.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id e1cb
authors Reddy, M., Leclerc, Y.G., Iverson, L., Bletter, N. and Vidimce, K.
year 1998
title Modeling the Digital Earth in VRML
source Technical Note no. 559, SRI International, Menlo Park
summary This paper describes the representation and navigation of large, multi-resolution, georeferenced datasets in VRML97. This requires resolving nontrivial issues such as how to represent deep level of detail hierarchies efficiently in VRML; how to model terrain using geographic coordinate systems instead of only VRML's Cartesian representation; how to model georeferenced coordinates to sub-meter accuracy with only single-precision floating point support; how to enable the integration of multiple terrain datasets for a region, as well as cultural features such as buildings and roads; how to navigate efficiently around a large, global terrain dataset; and finally, how to encode metadata describing the terrain. We present solutions to all of these problems. Consequently, we are able to visualize geographic data in the order of terabytes or more, from the globe down to millimeter resolution, and in real-time, using standard VRML97.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ac91
authors Reddy, Raj D.
year 1976
title Speech Recognition by Machine : A Review
source April 1976. pp. 501-529 : tables and diagrams. includes bibliography
summary This paper provides a review of recent developments in speech recognition research. The concept of sources of knowledge is introduced and the use of knowledge to generate and verify hypotheses is discussed. The difficulties that arise in the construction of different types of speech recognition systems are discussed and the structure and performance of several such systems is presented. Aspects of component subsystems at the acoustic, phonetic, syntactic, and semantic levels are presented. System organizations that are required for effective interaction and use of various component subsystems in the presence of error and ambiguity are discussed
keywords AI, speech recognition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e7ee
authors Redondo, E.
year 1997
title Analysis and Interpretation in the Architectonics
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The graphic intention is a peculiarity of the architectural drawing. It is enough to compare the ground plan of an unifamiliar housing insulated of Le Corbusier with another of Mies van der Rohe to realise the diversity of graphic styles, but is important to take conscience of the complexity that carries to interpret the symbols that appear in those documents, because as architects we either realize plans that the instructions are described or measures to be able to execute the work and in other occations representations for his edition aimed to a especialized public.

For this reason, and because not always is arranged the best possible documentation, we consider that the majority of vectorisations they exist in the market don’t plenty satisfied our needs as teaching staff of graphic expression and CAD, althoug we can always be using the same systems of projection or codified representations, it is imposed a lot of times to interpret acording the context the different signs and graphic registers used.

We know experimental applications that go beyond, they even arrive to generate a 3D model from a lifted hand draw that represents three orthogonal projections of it, but it isn’t less certain that its utility is restricted to fields very specialised and the option that we propose, there is not knowledge at least to us that it exist; commercially speaking.

Our porpose has been to develope a symple metedology of vectorisation but adapted to the special idiosyncrasy of the needs of an architecture student that with frequency for his formation requires to generate with CAD models 2D and 3D of architectural projects from the information contented in magazines, and with them create several formas analysis.

The most important difference in the matter to other systems is the interactivity of the procedure that let personify the exit file, even the wide diversity of graphic registers that it exist in the entrance, being the user only once has to identify and interpret the signs to detect, and then the process is realized automatically to any plant of the building or equivalent projection.

series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/redondo/redondo.htm
last changed 2001/08/10 06:18

_id 0c59
authors Redondo, Ernest and Monedero, Javier
year 1992
title Electronic Collage
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 241-250
summary A painting is always a potential form of collage. The discovery made by Braque and Picasso was already implied in the carefully-done executions of tapestries backgrounds and mural decorating of all the italian and flemish paintings which started to be produced since Giotto's, where the represented and the presented were mixed up. And also, in a more pedantic way, in a famous painting of Courbet "L'Atelier du Peintre, allegorie reelle" (1885). In this work, the artist is shown sitting in front of his work, grasping a brush with his right hand while holding a palette, which is at the centre of the composition, in his left hand. There are some figures surrounding the master, some nearer, others further away; in the corners of the atelier one can still see silhouettes which we don't really know whether they belong to real characters or to painted ones on the master's canvases. This ambiguity brings us back to the foreground, to this central palette where the colours, distributed in heaps are, simultaneously, concretion and representation, real matter and figurative matter.

series eCAADe
email javier.monedero@ega1.upc.es
last changed 1998/08/18 14:19

_id ae5c
authors Redondo, Ernest and Sanchez, F. Xavier
year 1998
title Apprendre des machines
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 208-217
summary Nous qui devons enseigner à nos élèves les techniques du dessin traditionnel avons trop souvent recours à des recettes et normes mnémotechniques venues des ateliers et studios d'art traditionnels. De telles stratégies, souvent personnelles et intransférables, s'appuyant sur de longues heures de pratique, sont difficilement assimilables pour des élèves qui ne disposent pas de tant de temps pour s'entraîner, ni d'une telle expérience perceptive; dans le meilleur des cas, il en résulte un dessin stéréotypé ou, s'il est brillant, c'est que l'élève savait déjà dessiner. Comme nous considérons que le dessin traditionnel et le CAD sont les deux outils fondamentaux qui permettent à tout architecte d'exprimer ses idées, il nous a semblé opportun de chercher les points communs entre ces deux disciplines. Dans un discours illustré de dessins d'auteurs divers, nous essaierons de démontrer comment, si nous utilisons exactement les mêmes critères que ceux qui régissent un ordinateur dans l'interprétation de ce qu'il voit, le résultat de la représentation est pleinement expressif et efficace. Si nous sommes capables de rationaliser cette méthodologie et de la transmettre à nos élèves, nous aurons répondu à notre double objectif: leur enseigner à dessiner par des techniques traditionnelles, dûment rationalisées et comprendre un peu mieux le fonctionnement des ordinateurs.
series eCAADe
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/07redondo/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/26 08:42

_id 0e5d
authors Reed, Raymond D.
year 1988
title The Teaching of Computer Assisted Sustainable Architectural Design
source Computing in Design Education [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Ann Arbor (Michigan / USA) 28-30 October 1988, pp. 111-122
summary Sustainable architecture is high-tech, energy and resource conserving architecture that sustains and increases the human and natural carrying capacity of the host environment. This paper presents a computer assisted design process to teach sustainable architectural design.

The energy performance of a base case building in each of four climates and cultures is presented. The climates are: Phoenix (hotdry), Minneapolis (cold-dry), Boston (cold-humid), and New Orleans ( hot- humid). Keeping the host climate, site, building size and function constant: but varying materials, shape and design concepts, each base case is iterated through a series of computer assisted re-designs to transform each base case building into an architecture representative of its regional climate and culture.

Traditional technologies and concepts produce traditional regional architecture. New technologies and concepts produce forms expressive of an emerging high-tech, high-touch, low energy society.

The paper presents computer generated work by the author and his students. It also presents an interim evaluation of the successes and difficulties of conducting a 'paper free' design studio.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:27

_id 3888
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2000
title Computational Situated Learning in Designing - Application to Architectural Shape Semantics
source The University of Sydney, Faculty of Architecture
summary Learning the situatedness (applicability conditions), of design knowledge recognised from design compositions is the central tenet of the research presented in this thesis. This thesis develops and implements a computational system of situated learning and investigates its utility in designing. Situated learning is based on the concept that "knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by its situation". In this sense learning is tuned to the situations within which "what you do when you do matters". Designing cannot be predicted and the results of designing are not based on actions independent of what is being designed or independent of when, where and how it was designed. Designers' actions are situation dependent (situated), such that designers work actively with the design environment within the specific conditions of the situation where neither the goal state nor the solution space is completely predetermined. In designing, design solutions are fluid and emergent entities generated by dynamic and situated activities instead of fixed design plans. Since it is not possible in advance to know what knowledge to use in relation to any situation we need to learn knowledge in relation to its situation, i.e. learn the applicability conditions of knowledge. This leads towards the notion of the situation as having the potential role of guiding the use of knowledge.

Situated Learning in Designing (SLiDe) is developed and implemented within the domain of architectural shape composition (in the form of floor plans), to construct the situatedness of shape semantics. An architectural shape semantic is a set of characteristics with a semantic meaning based on a particular view of a shape such as reflection symmetry, adjacency, rotation and linearity. Each shape semantic has preconditions without which it cannot be recognised. Such preconditions indicate nothing about the situation within which this shape semantic was recognised. The situatedness or the applicability conditions of a shape semantic is viewed as, the interdependent relationships between this shape semantic as the design knowledge in focus, and other shape semantics across the observations of a design composition. While designing, various shape semantics and relationships among them emerge in different representations of a design composition. Multiple representations of a design composition by re-interpretation have been proposed to serve as a platform for SLiDe. Multiple representations provide the opportunity for different shape semantics and relationships among them to be found from a single design composition. This is important if these relationships are to be used later because it is not known in advance which of the possible relationships could be constructed are likely to be useful. Hence, multiple representations provide a platform for different situations to be encountered. A symbolic representation of shape and shape semantics is used in which the infinite maximal lines form the representative primitives of the shape.

SLiDe is concerned with learning the applicability conditions (situatedness), of shape semantics locating them in relation to situations within which they were recognised (situation dependent), and updating the situatedness of shape semantics in response to new observations of the design composition. SLiDe consists of three primary modules: Generator, Recogniser and Incremental Situator. The Generator is used by the designer to develop a set of multiple representations of a design composition. This set of representations forms the initial design environment of SLiDe. The Recogniser detects shape semantics in each representation and produces a set of observations, each of which is comprised of a group of shape semantics recognised at each corresponding representation. The Incremental Situator module consists of two sub-modules, Situator and Restructuring Situator, and utilises an unsupervised incremental clustering mechanism not affected by concept drift. The Situator module locates recognised shape semantics in relation to their situations by finding regularities of relationships among them across observations of a design composition and clustering them into situational categories organised in a hierarchical tree structure. Such relationships change over time due to the changes taken place in the design environment whenever further representations are developed using the Generator module and new observations are constructed by the Recogniser module. The Restructuring Situator module updates previously learned situational categories and restructures the hierarchical tree accordingly in response to new observations.

Learning the situatedness shape semantics may play a crucial role in designing if designers pursue further some of these shape semantics. This thesis illustrates an approach in which SLiDe can be utilised in designing to explore the shapes in a design composition in various ways; bring designers! attention to potentially hidden features and shape semantics of their designs; and maintain the integrity of the design composition by using the situatedness of shape semantics. The thesis concludes by outlining future directions for this research to learn and update the situatedness of design knowledge within the context of use; considering the role of functional knowledge while learning the situatedness of design knowledge; and developing an autonomous situated agent-based designing system.

series thesis:PhD
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/06 09:34

_id ecaade03_133_119_reffat
id ecaade03_133_119_reffat
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2003
title Semantic-Based Virtual Design Environments for Architecture
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 133-140
summary 3D Virtual Environments (VEs) have the potential to reach beyond the limitations of CAD systems and can be utilised as design tools for architecture. This paper introduces a framework of semantic-based Virtual Design Environment(VDE) that aims to provides designers of VEs with virtual observers of designers’ actions (intelligent design agents and collaborative assistant agent) to investigate the current design and respond to these actions when the need arises. The paper presents the development of a representation structure of building-objects and their relationships to be used in constructing building designs in the 3D VDE and outlines sets of design semantics to be incorporated within the VDE.
series eCAADe
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id ecaade03_181_127_reffat
id ecaade03_181_127_reffat
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2003
title Architectural Exploration and Creativity using Intelligent Design Agents
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 181-186
summary Architects and designers are normally interested in situations where differences make a difference. This paper presents the results of the developed system of intelligent design agents that supports design exploration and creativity within the domain of architectural shapes. Creativity in architectural design compositions can be viewed as an emergence of new forms and shapes or relationships between forms and shapes from which new concepts can be discovered.
series eCAADe
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id eb16
authors Reffat, Rabee M. and Gero, John S.
year 1998
title Learning About Shape Semantics: A Situated Learning Approach
source CAADRIA ‘98 [Proceedings of The Third Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 4-907662-009] Osaka (Japan) 22-24 April 1998, pp. 375-384
summary Designers recognise or make sense of objects in the context "situations" of other things. Design cannot be predicted and you have to be “at a particular set of states” in order to decide what to do. The inability to determine a priori all design states implies that any design process cannot be pre-planned and design actions cannot be pre-defined. Situated learning is based on the notion that knowledge is contextually situated and is fundamentally influenced by the context in which it is used. We propose a situated learning approach in the domain of architectural shapes design. This paper elaborates the concept of situated learning and demonstrates what it produces in the domain of shape semantics.
keywords Architectural Shape Semantics, Situated Learning, Design Knowledge, Design Situations
series CAADRIA
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au, john@arch.usyd.edu.au
more http://www.caadria.org
last changed 1998/12/02 13:16

_id 36dc
authors Reffat, Rabee M. and Gero, John S.
year 1999
title Situatedness: A New Dimension for Learning Systems in Design
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 252-261
summary In this paper we adopt the approach that designing is a series of situated acts, ie designing cannot be pre-planned to completion. This is based on ideas from situated cognition theory that claims that what people perceive, how they conceive and what they do develop together and are adapted to the environment. For a system to be useful for human designers it must have the ability to associate what is learned to its environment. In order for a system to do that such a system must be able to acquire knowledge of the environment that a design constructs. Therefore, acknowledging the notion of situatedness is of importance to provide a system with such capability and add on a new dimension to existing learning systems in design. We will call such a learning system within the design domain a Situated Learning Design System (SLDS). A SLDS should be able to create its own situational categories from its perceptual experiences and modify them if encountered again to link the learned knowledge to its corresponding situation. We have chosen architectural shapes as the vehicle to demonstrate our ideas and used multiple representations to build a platform for a SLDS to learn from. In this paper the notion of situatedness and its role in both designing and learning is discussed. The overall architecture of a SLDS is introduced and how the potential outcome of such a system will support human designers while designing is discussed.
keywords Designing, Situated Knowledge, Multiple Representations, Situated Learning
series eCAADe
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 2005_589
id 2005_589
authors Reffat, Rabee M. and Gero, John S.
year 2005
title A Virtual Mining Environment for Providing Dynamic Decision Support for Building Maintenance
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 589-596
summary A virtual mining environment aims to provide dynamic decision support to improve building life-cycle modelling and management. This paper presents the system architecture of a virtual mining environment, its interfaces and a user scenario. This virtual mining environment integrates data mining with agent-based technology, database management systems, object-based CAD systems, and 3D virtual environments. A system prototype has been developed and implemented to support the automated feed back for building life cycle modelling, planning and decision-making.
keywords Data Mining; Virtual Environment; Dynamic Decision Support; Building Maintenance
series eCAADe
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id e995
authors Reffat, Rabee M., and Gero, John S.
year 2000
title Towards Active Support Systems for Architectural Designing
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 143-147
summary This paper proposes the application of a situated learning approach in designing integrated with a conventional CAD system. The approach is implemented in SLiDe (Situated Learning in Designing) and integrated as SLiDe-CAAD, to provide interactive support in designing exemplified within the composition of architectural shapes. SLiDe-CAAD is proposed to assist in maintaining the integrity of shape semantics or desired design concepts of interest in the design composition. SLiDe-CAAD is introduced to provide a collaboration between the designer and the computer during the process of designing.
keywords CAAD Systems, Active Designing Support, Situatedness.
series eCAADe
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 68f3
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2002
title Designing with Computers in a Paperless Design Computing Studio
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 347-354
summary The advancements in digital design and communications are reshaping the economics of architecture and design practices. Designing with computers is based on establishing a fruitful dialogue between the designer and the tool. The "digital imperative" to switch from analogue to digital mode have already begun to manifest itself at the schools of design and architecture in the form of the paperless Design Computing Studio (DCS). This paper describes and reflects on the designing and teaching approach implemented in a paperless DCS within the domain of architectural design. The paper presents the implementation of this approach, on the first year students of the new degree of Design Computing at the University of Sydney and analyses the students’ design learning experience in the DCS.
series CAADRIA
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id 33ba
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2002
title Intelligent Agents for Concept Invention of Design Forms
source Gero JS and Brazier FMT (eds) (2002) Agents in Design 2002. Key Centre of Design Computing and Cognition, University of Sydney, pp. 55-68
summary Concept invention refers to the act of discovering new concepts for the first time. Concept invention may require a new interpretation that motivates new mappings of the situation prior to the discovery of a new concept. This paper is concerned with developing intelligent design agents that would be capable of inventing creative concepts of design forms, shapes and compositions while involved in the design process. A new approach of exploiting the old notion of "displacement of concepts" with regard to concept invention in designing in the form of mobile design agents is adopted and utilised in developing the structure of intelligent mobile agentbased system.
series other
email rabee@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/10 08:16

_id ecaade2008_088
id ecaade2008_088
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2008
title Investigating Patterns of Contemporary Architecture using Data Mining Techniques
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 601-608
summary This paper addresses the utilization of Data Mining as an advanced technique of information technologies to investigate and identify the patterns of architectural features of contemporary architecture in Saudi Arabia in two suggested building types: houses and commercial office buildings. Such patterns will help in developing a model of patterns of architectural features that can be utilized to augment the architectural context of Saudi Arabia. The paper presents a constructed framework that provides a comprehensive analysis of recognition criteria for identifying each architectural feature of the nominated set of nine features. These architectural features include: spatial relationships, space allocation, circulation, building form, façade treatment, building structure, external finishes, environmental aspects, and cultural features. The recognition criteria for these architectural features are expressed in the attribute-value format. Such criteria are extracted for houses and commercial office buildings specifically within the context of Saudi contemporary architecture based on extensive case analysis that represents the diversity of architectural designs of houses and commercial office buildings. The paper also, introduces a process model of applying Data Mining for investigating patterns of contemporary architecture.
keywords Architectural Patterns, Data Mining, Architectural Features
series eCAADe
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2011_058
id caadria2011_058
authors Reffat, Rabee M.
year 2011
title Impact analysis of digital-based architecture curriculum on students’ learning
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 609-618
summary This paper reports the findings of assessing the impact of current digital-based architecture curriculum in architecture at KFUPM on students’ learning primarily from students’ perspectives. The paper addresses both generic and specific impacts of current digital-based architecture curriculum on students’ learning. The specific impacts include: level of achieving better understanding of the architectural issues of buildings, and impacts of media qualities on understanding architecture. The paper introduces a performance improvement plan aimed at enhancing students’ learning in the digital-based architecture curriculum and to accommodate the evolving nature of information technology applications in the building and construction industry.
keywords Digital architecture curriculum; students’ learning; impact analysis; digital design education
series CAADRIA
email rabee.reffat@gmail.com
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id caadria2008_71_session7a_587
id caadria2008_71_session7a_587
authors Reffat, Rabee M.; Yaman Khaeruzzaman, Emad El-Sebakhy, I Putu Raharja
year 2008
title Interactive Architectural Compositions in 3D Real-Time Virtual Environments
source CAADRIA 2008 [Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Chiang Mai (Thailand) 9-12 April 2008, pp. 587-593
summary This paper presents an interactive computational system for developing architectural compositions within a 3D real-time virtual environment. The features of implemented system within the interface of Activeworlds platform includes (a) providing a set of 3D building objects that are made available within the virtual environment and can be utilized by the user to construct architectural compositions; (b) allowing users to modify both geometrical and non-geometrical properties of these objects; and (c) maintaining interrelationships between these objects using constrain-based rules automated by the developed system in real-time. The developed IAMVE (Interactive Architectural Modeling in Virtual Environments) system provides more flexibility to architectural designers and develops an edge to multi-user real time 3D virtual environments to be better utilized in the context of architectural design
keywords 3D Virtual Environments, 3D Modeling; Architectural Compositions, User Interactivity
series CAADRIA
email rabee@kfupm.edu.sa
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 8b51
authors Refvem, Sharon
year 1996
title Constructive Learning Techniques and Color Application in Design
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 371-380
summary This paper presents some of the results of my work in the area of architectural education and color application. "Constructive Learning" techniques are the framework within which a course in color theory and application has been developed for architectural students and professionals. Constructive learning theory designates three main learning phases: introductory, advanced and experienced; each of which has a unique set of requirements that must be addressed by those seeking to teach or develop meaningful tools for a given task. The introductory level is represented by those who posses little if any prior skills or knowledge in the subject area. Here it is advantageous to carefully guide the knowledge acquisition process in order to help build a knowledge foundation upon which a personalized learning process can take place. Advanced students are those that are ready, through a more focused, context related approach, to expand their capabilities. Finally, experienced learners can be defined as those capable of critically applying and innovatively using the knowledge, skills and tools that they have obtained through the introductory and advanced phases of the learning process. Because computers introduce the issue of color at a much earlier stage of design than might previously have been the case, a new set of skills and tools are needed. The proposed course seeks to define an appropriate learning methodology for designers that can provide them with not only knowledge of the subject area being covered, but also skills with which to approach it.

series eCAADe
email refvem@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 1998/08/17 14:00

_id aeec
authors Regenbrecht, H., Kruijff, E., Donath, D., Seichter, H. and Beetz, J.
year 2000
title VRAM - A Virtual Reality Aided Modeller
source Promise and Reality: State of the Art versus State of Practice in Computing for the Design and Planning Process [18th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-6-5] Weimar (Germany) 22-24 June 2000, pp. 235-237
summary This article describes VRAM, short for Virtual Reality Aided Modeler. VRAM is a conceptual design tool supported by Virtual Reality technology and an ongoing testbed for theory and methodology in the field of three dimensional user interfaces (3DUIs). The outcomes from the project should consist of an intuitive and comprehensive immersive surface modeler, next to a set of taxonomies and guidelines for the development of 3DUIs. Based on a modular structure, VRAMs program architecture allows the easy extension of functionality. The application consists of the seamless integration of four main functionality modules, namely system control, viewing & browsing, editing and modeling. Based on the premise of portability, the software environment runs on both SGI Irix and MS Windows NT platforms. To be relatively independent in developing 3DUI techniques, the VRAM environment supports a multiplicity of input and output devices. Due to the focus on immersive modeling, tracking devices, head mounted displays and stereoprojection devices are the main I/O channels. In this article, we will primary focus on the functionality of the virtual modeller.
series eCAADe
email caad@archit.uni-weimar.de
more http://www.uni-weimar.de/ecaade/
last changed 2002/11/23 05:59

_id 6d19
authors Reggini, Horacio C.
year 1974
title A Computer Program for Drawing Non- Classical Perspectives
source International Conference and Exhibition on Computers in Engineering and Building Design September, 1974. 5 p. ; [2]p. of ill.
summary This article deals with a new way of portraying a three- dimensional object on a two-dimensional plane surface. In classical perspective each point of an object or scene is projected upon a plane by means of a bundle of straight projection rays departing from a unique point or point of view. The author proposes a similar procedure except that the straight projection rays of classical perspective are replaced with special curved ones
keywords drawings, perspective, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 05b8
authors Reggini, Horacio C.
year 1975
title Perspective Using Curved Projection Rays and its Computer Application
source Leonardo. England: Pergamon Press, 1975. vol. 8: pp. 307-312 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The author describes a novel way for generating line drawings of 3-dimensional objects and describes a computer program that he used in plotting such drawings. Instead of being confined by the rules of linear perspective, which governs retinal and photographic images, he employs a more general mathematical model that provides a family of perspectives. Each member of the family is designated individually by a numerical value (between 0 and 1) for its index i. The lowest value, i=0, leads to the linear equation that applies to linear perspective; application of the highest value, i=1, results in axonometric projection. Sometimes linear perspective leads to a drawing or to a photographic image that seems grossly distorted in comparison with what one perceives in looking at an object. The author's method, employed with fractional values for i and with the same viewpoint, may be used to produce more acceptable drawings
keywords drawings, perspective, rendering, computer graphics, projective geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 028f
authors Reggini, Horacio C.
year 1976
title A Generalized Perspective Involving Visual Size Constancy
source Estudos Cognitivos. San-Paulo, Argentine: December, 1976. vol. 1: pp. [71]-101 : ill. Written in spanish. --- includes bibliography
summary This article deals with a new idea for generating plane representation figures of three dimensional objects and describes a corresponding computer program. Instead of using the classical perspective rules that govern retinal images as well as common cameras, a different projection method is elaborated based upon the use of a particular kind of curved projection rays instead of the usual straight ones. Curvature of projection lines is made depending on an index variable between zero and one. Meanwhile conical and parallel classical images are obtained for the limit values, compromise images result with intermediate values. Fundamentals, analytical procedure and program for displaying images are presented. Finally, examples are shown and the development possibility of a new type of camera with the property of producing pictures according to different indexes is raised
keywords computer graphics, perspective, rendering, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2004_265
id sigradi2004_265
authors Regina C. Ruschel; Alessandra A. S. de Oliveira
year 2004
title O potencial da animação digital como ferramenta de verificação de projeto [The Potential of Digital Animation as a Tool for Design Evaluation]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The digital animation provides the exploration of virtual expression making it possible to undertand complexities in architectural design. The purpose of this research was to verify user perception of the architectonic project through computerized animation. An experiment was developed to identify the user architectonic perception when watching the project animation compared to the reality of the accomplished kitchen project. Two kinds of digital animation were experimented: a simplified animation (using standard shading and render preview) and a realistic animation (using scanline resource for digital scenes rendering). It was verified that the simplified digital animation presents satisfactory cost-benefit relation in order to obtain design understanding for both, user and designer. Based on this experiment, directives were specified for the creation and aplication of a questionary together with design digital animation in order to verify architectonic program requeriments, for increased design compreehation.
keywords Animation, visualization, architectonic project process, kitchen
series SIGRADI
email regina@fec.unicamp.br, arenales@directnet.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2016_647
id sigradi2016_647
authors Reginato, Bruna Rovere; Pereira, Alice Theresinha Cybis
year 2016
title Definiç?o do plano de escopo do projeto TEAR_AD - Tecnologia no Ensino e Aprendizagem em Rede nas a?rea de Arquitetura e Design [Scope plan definition of TEAR_AD project – Technology in Teaching and Learning Network in Architecture and Design Area]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.802-807
summary This paper aims to present the construction of the scope plan of TEAR_AD and presents structured through four main topics: (1) the introduction, which is the contextualization of TEAR_AD project and shows what was built until now, (2) methodology, the presentation of Garret's (2011) methodology for scope construction together with techniques based on agile development and Scrum; (3) results, showing the objects constructed from the presented methodology and (4) discussion about the difficulties encountered in the process, strengths and the next steps for the project.
keywords User centered design, interface design, design method, scrum
series SIGraDi
email brunareginato@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:20

_id 93d5
authors Regis, Héctor and Cardozo, Julio
year 2001
title MULTI-MEDIA-MIRADA / CONECTA-DESCONECTA (Multi-Media-Watched / Connect-Disconnects)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 246-247
summary This work studies the creative process as information that must be recovered, redefined and recreated, using different multimedia tools. The Club de Grabado de Montevideo has made exploratory works combining images, texts and music in an apparently connectionless juxtaposition. For the text, we summoned contemporary national poets of different generations. And, we use digitally manipulated photographies and computer graphics that register, in the work, its creative process. This lead to a new dynamics in the way to read “virtual books”: it unfolds in a succession of “pages” in which each page constitutes a microcosm that finds unit in the diversity.
series SIGRADI
email hregis@clubdegrabado.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id fe54
authors Regli, W.C. and Cicirello, V.A.
year 2000
title Managing digital libraries for computer-aided design
source Computer-Aided Design, Vol. 32 (2) (2000) pp. 119-132
summary This paper describes our initial efforts to deploy a digital library to support computer-aided collaborative design. At present, this experimental testbed, The EngineeringDesign Knowledge Repository, is an effort to collect and archive public domain engineering data for use by researchers and engineering professionals. We envision thiseffort expanding to facilitate collaboration and process archival for distributed design and manufacturing teams.CAD knowledge-bases are vital to engineers, who search through vast amounts of corporate legacy data and navigate on-line catalogs to retrieve precisely the rightcomponents for assembly into new products. This research attempts to begin addressing the critical need for improved computational methods for reasoning about complexgeometric and engineering information. In particular, we focus on archival and reuse of design and manufacturing data for mechatronic systems. This paper presents adescription of the research problems, an overview of the initial architecture of the testbed and a description of some of our preliminary results on conceptual design anddesign retrieval.
keywords Computer-Aided Design, Computer-Aided Engineering, Engineering Knowledge-Bases, Product Data Management, World Wide Web, Network-Enabled,CAD,CAE
series journal paper
email regli@.drexel.edu
last changed 2003/05/15 19:33

_id 8999
authors Regot, J., De Mesa, A. and García, N.
year 2001
title EL ANÁLISIS DE LAS FORMAS DE LA ARQUITECTURA A PARTIR DE LA GENERACIÓN DIGITAL DE SUPERFICIES. RONCHAMP (The Analysis of Architectural Forms with departure on the Digital Generation of Surfaces. Ronchamp)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 295-298
summary Continuing with our research in free-form surface models, this paper proposes a methodology that analyzes the basic entities of architectural forms to generate virtual models with a high range of accuracy. We use NURBS technology because this kind of entities has very large characteristics of generation, transformation and modification in front of mesh’s entities. The complexity of free form models generation it can be reduced substantially, if an accurate analysis of the object allows define its basic entities. In the architectural surface generation, it is possible to define the required parameters to build complex models designed by architects. An experience with the three-dimensional modeling of Ronchamp chapel roof allows applies the proposed methodology.
series SIGRADI
email joaquin.regot@ega1.upc.es
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 34
authors Regot, Joaquin and De Mesa, Andres
year 1998
title Modelado de Superficies Complejas. La Casa Mila de Antonio Gaudi (Modeling of Complex Surfaces. The House Mila of Antonio Gaudi)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 258-265
summary This paper explains the three-dimensional representation procedure of one fragment of Mil· house elevation designed by the architect Antoni GaudÌ. The generation process of an architectonic virtual model constituted by free form surfaces like this, represents a paradigm of high level difficulty in CAD modeling. The main objective of our research has been not only construct a model that shows the complex form of its architecture, but also verify the performance of the different tools supported by computer aided design programs in the management of surface modeling.We obtained an accurate information of the real surface elevation with a photogrammetric survey using contour lines. The transformation of this kind of data in a three-dimensional model was not immediately Thus, we have had study different ways to generate the three-dimensional model solution. The process began with the construction of different surface models supported by analytic functions, but the obtained surfaces made with this system were deficient and not too much satisfactory. That's why, we use a polyhedron mesh surface method in order to improve these results.in spite of this methodology reductive performance, (compared with analytic function systems), the obtained surface demonstrated that this technique was the best way to satisfy the requirement of a free form surface previously established as we want to construct. From this point the principal problem was generate a surface defined by two-dimensional data, (contour lines), applying an automatic process sufficiently fast to compete with the analytic function systems.To satisfy the demand was necessary make complementary software to improve the process and allow more fluidity to resolve this typology of surfaces. We achieved this phase thanks to Joan Miquel Quilez collaboration and the constant dedication in the elaboration of complementary software to computer aided design. Finally, the introduction of render systems with lights, shadows, textures and reflected images, allowed show the studied elevation area of Mil· house with more accuracy. Thus, the limits and contours of the finally surface were more evident and help us to known the properties of a non- materialized free form surface successfully.
series SIGRADI
email joaquin.regot@ega1.upc.es
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 8307
authors Rehak, Daniel R. and Howard, Craig H.
year 1985
title Interfacing Expert Systems with Design Databases in Integrated CAD Systems
source Computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 443-454 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A model of a distributed network DBMS, using knowledge-base programming techniques, for interfacing KBS-to-DBMS is presented. In this model, the description of the data model of each KBS and DBMS component of the CAD system is represented as knowledge describing the components, making the components independent of each other. KADBASE, a prototype of such a flexible interface is demonstrating an approach to developing an integrated, distributed CAD system containing a variety of heterogeneous expert systems and design databases
keywords expert systems, design, database, user interface, integration, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6c93
authors Rehg, J., Elfes, A. and Talukdar, S.N. (et al)
year 1988
title CASE : Computer-Aided Simultaneous Engineering
source 13 p. : ill
summary Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, 1988. EDRC 05-22-88. This paper presents a new system for computer-aided mechanical design known as CASE, which stands for Computer- Aided Simultaneous Engineering. CASE was developed to support mechanical design at the project level, and serve as a means of integrating into the design process concerns from other parts of the lifecycle of a product. CASE is composed of an integrated framework of synthesis, analysis, and translation programs, and is designed to serve as a testbed for research in representation, problem-solving, and systems integration for computer-aided mechanical design. A prototype version of CASE has been applied to the domain of window regulator design, and is capable of automatically synthesizing regulators to meet a set of specifications and performing tolerance and stress analysis on developing designs
keywords representation, problem solving, constraints, reasoning, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id sigradi2016_611
id sigradi2016_611
authors Reial, Clara; Ribeiro, Clarissa; Nobre, Emanuelle; Nunes, Yasmin; Medeiros, Petrick; Freitas, Lara
year 2016
title Estruturas Complexas Adaptativas: Modelagem Analógica integrada ? Parametrizaç?o e Comutaç?o Física [Complex Adaptive Structures: Analog Modeling combined with Parametricism and Physical Computing]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.743-747
summary The present article presents an academic experiment that was designed to promote a productive dialogue between Architecture and Mechatronics. Structured as a joint initiative the project involves fist year students from Architecture and Urban Planning and from Automation and Control Engineering. The process was directed and supervised by professors of both disciplines at the University of Fortaleza, Brazil. The teams of students were invited to explore and mastering basic knowledge in electronics, physical computing and modeling strategies for complex geometries considering real life problems involving both areas. Here we present an open critique to the didactic experiment from the perspective of a group of students.
keywords Crowdthinking; adaptive architecture; robotics in architecture; transdisciplinary strategies; modeling strategies for complex geometries
series SIGraDi
email clarareial@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:20

_id 252a
authors Reich, Yoram
year 1988
title Machine Learning for Expert Systems : Motivation and Techniques
source i-iii, 51 p. : some ill Pittsburgh, PA: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, June, 1988. EDRC 12-27-88. includes bibliography. First generation expert systems suffer from two major problems: they are brittle and their development is a long, effortful process. Few successful expert systems for real world problems have been demonstrated. In this paper, learning, the key to intelligent behavior and expertise, is described as the answer to both expert systems deficiencies. Machine learning techniques are described, with their applicability to expert systems. A framework to organize machine learning techniques is provided. The description is followed by examples taken from the structural design domain. AI / learning / expert systems / structures / techniques. 37. Requicha, Aristides A. G. 'Mathematical Models of Rigid Solid Objects -- Production Automation Project.' Rochester, NY: College of Engineering & Applied Science, University of Rochester, November, 1977. [3], 37 p. : ill.
summary Computational models of solid objects are potentially useful in a variety of scientific and engineering fields, and in particular in the field of design and manufacturing automation for the mechanical industries. In recent years a multitude of modelling systems have been implemented both by research laboratories and commercial vendors, but little attention has been paid to the fundamental theoretical issues in geometric modelling. This has led to severe difficulties in assessing current and proposed systems, and in distinguishing essential capabilities and limitations from user conveniences and efficiency considerations. This paper seeks a sharp mathematical characterization of 'rigid solids' in a manner that is suitable for studies in design and production automation. It draws heavily on established results in modern geometry and topology. Relevant results scattered throughout the mathematical literature are placed in a coherent framework and presented in a form accessible to engineers and computer scientists. A companion paper is devoted to a discussion of representational issues in the context set forth by this paper
keywords solid modeling, geometric modeling
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ecaade03_099_18_reichard
id ecaade03_099_18_reichard
authors Reichard, G., Al-Mumin, A. and Papamichael, K.
year 2003
title INSTRUCTOR - Let the Experts Guide the Use of Simulation Software
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 99-102
summary A new guidance concept is presented, which encourages third parties, like educators, to provide additional, comprehensive information to users of highly complex (e.g. simulation-) software, helping them to flatten the steep learning curve by understanding the impact of decisions made during the input/design process.
keywords Software; Simulation; Education; Instruction; Guidance
series eCAADe
email kostas@ucla.edu
more http://eetd.lbl.gov/BT
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id ecaade03_103_23_reichard
id ecaade03_103_23_reichard
authors Reichard, Georg and Papamichael, Konstantinos
year 2003
title Decision-making through performance simulation and code compliance from the early, schematic phases of building design
source Digital Design [21th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-1-6] Graz (Austria) 17-20 September 2003, pp. 103-110
summary This paper is about the merging of two software applications that allows building decision makers to consider code compliance and to use performance simulation tools from the early, schematic phases of building design. By making the capabilities of a code compliance tool available at the early schematic phases of building design, the hope and expectation is that users will use this software to address the mandatory code compliance issues and thus have an opportunity to address other performance issues as well.
keywords Decision-making, Energy, Codes, Simulation, EN832
series eCAADe
email kostas@ucla.edu
more http://eetd.lbl.gov/BT
last changed 2003/09/18 07:13

_id sigradi2011_320
id sigradi2011_320
authors Reichert Andres, Carolina; Berguenmayer Minuzzi, Reinilda de Fátima
year 2011
title Bookmarks urbanos: poéticas cartografadas [Urban bookmarks: poetic mapped]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 269-272
summary This research focuses on research that interrelates the physical, geographical and electronic space for artistic creation of a map based on the appropriability of works in urban space rented in Santa Maria, RS. The research project is based on developing a proposal for web art, which is based on the hybridization of the art geo. Suggesting, through a network of collaborative art, the interactivity of Internet users seeking the manipulation of the works cataloged.
series SIGRADI
email reichertcarolina@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ascaad2007_011
id ascaad2007_011
authors Reichrath, M. and P. Zeile
year 2007
title Illumination of urban space using digital simulation methods: Exemplified on the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Bamberg
source Em‘body’ing Virtual Architecture: The Third International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2007), 28-30 November 2007, Alexandria, Egypt, pp. 127-140
summary The photorealistic visualisation of lighting-scenarios with the help of virtual 3d city models is gaining importance as a tool, helping to make decisions in the process of planning. This form of presentation makes sense to every spectator very quickly and in a definite way, thus it makes collaboration easy especially in interdisciplinary planning teams. Moreover the light-planner has the possibility to check his design in a virtual surrounding and therefore gain additional reliability for his planning. The displayed, exemplary, workflow and the techniques belonging to it, allow to show situations during the course of planning and to present the current state of planning realistically. Hence the quality of planning can be enduringly improved, through experimental use of new materials and ideas. Moreover alternative planning that does not show the right results can be eliminated very early in planning process, with not need for special investments to do so.
series ASCAAD
email martin.reichrath@gmx.de
last changed 2008/01/21 21:00

_id ca57
authors Reid, Elizabeth
year 1994
title Cultural formations in text-based virtual realities
source University of Melbourne
summary Beginning with an understanding of virtual reality as an imaginative experience and thus a cultural construct rather than a technical construction, this thesis discusses cultural and social issues raised by interaction on 'MUDs', which are text-based virtual reality systems run on the international computer network known as the Internet. MUD usage forces users to deconstruct many of the cultural tools and understandings that form the basis of more conventional systems of interaction. Unable to rely on physical cues as a channel of meaning, users of MUDs have developed ways of substituting for or by-passing them, resulting in novel methods of textualising the non- verbal. The nature of the body and sexuality are problematised in these virtual environments, since the physical is never fixed and gender is a self-selected attribute. In coming to terms with these aspects of virtual interaction, new systems of significance have been developed by users, along with methods of enforcing that cultural hegemony through power structures dependent upon manipulation of the virtual environment. These new systems of meaning and social control define those who use MUDs as constituting a distinct cultural group.
keywords Subject Social Evolution; Virtual Reality; Interactive Multimedia; Internet
series thesis:MSc
email emr@ee.mu.oz.au
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ecaade2014_019
id ecaade2014_019
authors Reinhard Koenig, Matthias Standfest and Gerhard Schmitt
year 2014
title Evolutionary multi-criteria optimization for building layout planning - Exemplary application based on the PSSA framework
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 567-574
summary When working on urban planning projects there are usually multiple aspects to consider. Often these aspects are contradictory and it is not possible to choose one over the other; instead, they each need to be fulfilled as well as possible. Planners typically draw on past experience when subjectively prioritising which aspects to consider with which degree of importance for their planning concepts. This practice, although understandable, places power and authority in the hands of people who have varying degrees of expertise, which means that the best possible solution is not always found, because it is either not sought or the problem is regarded as being too complex for human capabilities. To improve this situation, the project presented here shows the potential of multi-criteria optimisation algorithms using the example of a new housing layout for an urban block. In addition it is shown, how Self-Organizing-Maps can be used to visualise multi-dimensional solution spaces in an easy analysable and comprehensible form.
wos WOS:000361385100059
keywords Planning synthesis; evolutionary algorithms; multi-criteria optimization; isovist; computational design
series eCAADe
email reinhard.koenig@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ecaade2012_292
id ecaade2012_292
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar ; Martens, William ; Miranda, Luis
year 2012
title Acoustic Consequences of Performative Structures Modelling Dependencies between Spatial Formation and Acoustic Behaviour
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-2-0, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 577-586
summary The paper discusses an interdisciplinary exchange between parametric design and acoustic simulation. It reviews a strategic development of temporary dynamic structures that can be manipulated by intersecting variations of formation in generative architecture with acoustic simulation. The research investigates drivers that interface knowledge between parametric design, structural engineering and fabrication, interaction design and acoustics, and theatre and performance. It reviews the simulation of a temporary theatre installation into an existent industrial hall, whereby different formation of a modular structure are explored, and the acoustic effects of this installation are evaluated in relation to an enhancement of the audiences spatial and acoustic experience. The research goes beyond the morphological, aesthetic or structural values that have become key aspects of contemporary digital architecture, and relates them to the field of auralisation (forecasting acoustic behaviour). In that manner, the simulation and analysis of a future (material, spatial) objects is developed through the communication of an interdisciplinary team, thus exploring synergetic qualities of the physical and the digital.
wos WOS:000330322400059
keywords Computational design; generative geometries; acoustic simulation
series eCAADe
email dagmar.reinhardt@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id caadria2017_189
id caadria2017_189
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar and Cabrera, Densil
year 2017
title Randomness in Robotically Fabricated Micro-Acoustic Patterns
source P. Janssen, P. Loh, A. Raonic, M. A. Schnabel (eds.), Protocols, Flows, and Glitches - Proceedings of the 22nd CAADRIA Conference, Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Suzhou, China, 5-8 April 2017, pp. 853-862
summary Randomness can introduce degrees of variation as part of a highly controlled design process, which can be of particular significance in the context of acoustic performance in architecture. This paper presents research into robotic fabrication of surfaces with acoustic micro-patterns that can change the acoustic response of space. It explores the design affordances for acoustically efficient 1:10 scale model prototypes, from parametric modeling to scale model production to physical evaluation. Acoustic reflective properties of surface patterns are investigated for scattering coefficients, in order to derive statistical data on acoustic properties of these surfaces, and to deduce design rules. The robotic subtractive process particularly invests variations and disturbances to originally coded fabrication sequences that lead to different pattern outcomes. Changes to protocols and workflows change the equations of design through shuffling of multiple criteria: from multiple sequences in a production process to intuitive impacts of the designer on a preset tooling and workpath; from computational design code to acoustic effect.
keywords robotic subtractive manufacturing; micro-acoustic patterns; sound scattering; design thinking
series CAADRIA
email dagmar.reinhardt@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2017/05/09 08:05

_id caadria2018_198
id caadria2018_198
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar, Candido, Christhina, Cabrera, Densil, Wozniak-O'Connor, Dylan, Watt, Rodney, Bickerton, Chris, Titchkosky, Ninotschka and Houda, Maryam
year 2018
title Onsite Robotic Fabrication for Flexible Workspaces - Towards Design and Robotic Fabrication of an Integrated Responsive Ceiling System for A Workspace Environment
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 1, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 59-68
summary Open, flexible workspaces were introduced decades ago, but architectural design approaches to ceiling systems have not changed substantially. This paper discusses the development of strategies and prototypes for a lightweight, integrated ceiling structure that is robotically woven. Through geometrically complex, fibre-reinforced building elements that are produced onsite, a new distribution system for data and light can be provided and support individual and multi-group collaborations in an contemporary open-plan office for maximum flexibility. The paper introduces applied design research with case studies that test robotic weaving on an architectural ceiling. The second part contextualises the presented work by linking it to workspace scenarios and an on-site robotic process with a resulting data distribution that is designed to produce degrees of freedom for high flexibility in use, allowing occupants to organise the workspace layout autonomously so that workflow constellations in different teams can be adequately expressed through space. The paper concludes with a discussion of a framework for robotic methods developed for the carbon-fibre overhead weaving processes, followed by conclusions and outlook towards future potentials.
keywords open collaborative workspace; robotic onsite weaving; carbon fiber; integrated ceiling systems
series CAADRIA
email dagmar.reinhardt@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2018/05/17 07:07

_id cf2017_150
id cf2017_150
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar; Cabrera, Densil; Hunter, Matthew
year 2017
title A Mathematical Model Linking Form and Material for Sound Scattering: Design, Robotic Fabrication and Evaluation of Sound Scattering Discs: Relating Surface Form to Acoustic Performance
source Gülen Çagdas, Mine Özkar, Leman F. Gül and Ethem Gürer (Eds.) Future Trajectories of Computation in Design [17th International Conference, CAAD Futures 2017, Proceedings / ISBN 978-975-561-482-3] Istanbul, Turkey, July 12-14, 2017, pp. 150-163.
summary This paper presents empirical research into the acoustic performance of randomized robotically fabricated patterns. Randomness is introduced as degrees of variations in code, both supported by quasi-predictable variations in a computational process, and the select changes through multiple variables in precise robotic fabrication that extend the spectrum for manufacturing diversity in micro-geometries that can change the acoustic response of space. Through physical acoustic testing of scale model 1:10 prototypes in a scale model reverberant box, and consecutive re-modelling of sound discs based on root mean square and depth comparison, a tendency for acoustic behaviours both for scattering and absorption could be demonstrated that relates low spatial frequency magnitude of surface modulation closely to scattering coefficient in a limited case study of six samples. As a result, the study presents a mathematical model that links form and material for sound scattering.
keywords Acoustic Micro-Patterns, Design Robotics, Scattering Coefficient
series CAAD Futures
email dagmar.reinhardt, densil.cabrera}@sydney.edu.au, matthewhunterjames@gmail.com
last changed 2017/12/01 13:37

_id caadria2013_258
id caadria2013_258
authors Reinhardt, Dagmar; William Martens and Luis Miranda
year 2013
title Sonic Domes – Solving Acoustic Performance of Curved Surfaces by Interfacing Parametric Design, Structural Engineering and Acoustic Analysis
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 529-538
summary This paper addresses the acoustic performance of complex curved surface geometries that are commonly known to pose problems of sound concentration, thus affecting speech intelligibility and audience experience in spaces of temporal arts performance. It reviews an open system of design research in which parametric design process, structural analysis and acoustic analysis are deployed to improve the sound of ellipsoidal structures in relation to sound source and audience positions, by adapting the height, dimension and centre point of a dome structure, consequently improving the acoustic behaviour of the performance space. The paper discusses an iterative design, analysis and optimization processes, in which a number of generative form variations were developed in Grasshopper, and reworked in McNeel Rhino, tested in engineering software (Strand7), and evaluated in acoustic simulation (ODEON). This allowed an interdisciplinary team to develop, test and evolve a design proposal that shows one solution for avoiding sound concentration and consequently improving acoustic performance in complex intersecting and curved geometries of a multifunctional building.  
wos WOS:000351496100052
keywords Parametric design, Sound concentration, Curved surfaces, Structural engineering, Acoustic simulation  
series CAADRIA
email dagmar.reinhardt@sydney.edu.au
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 90e3
authors Reinschmidt, K. and Finn, G.A.
year 1994
title Smarter computer-aided design
source IEEE Expert, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 50-55
summary CAD systems with embedded, integrated knowledge-based components can make users more productive by leveraging knowledge about the design, engineering, and manufacture of the system or part being designed. We discuss some of the results of our experience, including the embedding of a knowledge-based systems tool in three commercial CAD systems using a special integration software program. This software, called Stonerule, acts as an integration mechanism between the CAD system and the knowledge-based design application.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2557
authors Reisig, W.
year 1998
title Elements of Distributed Algorithms: Modeling and Analysis with Petri Nets
source Springer Verlag, Berlin
summary A variety of distributed algorithms are presented and proven correct in this book. A (Petri net based) technique to model and to analyze distributed algorithms is coincidently presented. This technique focusses on local states, independent actions, and synchronization of distributed threads of control. This book's scope is modest, as it sticks to a choice of small and medium size distributed algorithms. Compositionality, stepwise refinement, interface specification, abstraction, etc., are not covered. Nevertheless, this book's claims are ambitious: Just as PASCAL-like programming structures and Hoare-style proof techniques appear optimal for a wide class of sequential algorithms, this book's formalism is suggested to be optimal for a wide class of distributed algorithms. Particular preliminary knowledge is not assumed in this text, besides basics in formal concepts and a general intuitive understanding of computer science. The text provides a basis for university courses and can help the practitioner to design distributed algorithms. The hurried reader may just study the pictures.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 25f4
authors Reisman, S.
year 1994
title Multimedia computing: preparing for the 21st century
source Idea Group Publishing, Harrisburg, USA
summary Four sections sketch the main themes in multimedia: technology; application and use; application and development; end users. Each main theme is explained in a small collection of essays by different authors. Many of these essays present specific projects, whilst others simply sketch principal lines of development. The following topics are dealt with, for example: intellectual property, entrepreneurship and quality management in multimedia. Chapter 11 applies concepts from film theory to both video games and multimedia.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2004_424
id sigradi2004_424
authors Rejane Spitz
year 2004
title Você tem fome de que? [You Have Hunger of What?]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary This project . presented in the form of an artistic installation . focuses on the social, economic and political causes of hunger, its challenges, consequences and possible solutions. Those issues are discussed through the views, ideas and perceptions of 100 people we interviewed. People who live in diverse economic contexts, who face different challenges, eat different types of food . or who don.t have anything to eat. They discuss their different needs, desires, requisites and willingness. They talk about their awareness (or their lack of knowledge) of the dramatic figures of hunger, they share their thoughts and ideas on how we can reduce or eliminate hunger, on what are they doing for that to happen, and on what they believe can be done. We believe that a more realistic framework of understanding of hunger enables people to make real choices, choices that can contribute to ending this spreading human suffering.
series SIGRADI
email rejane@rdc.puc-rio.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2016_142
id ecaade2016_142
authors Rejepava, Alina, Haring, Mario and Gruber, Anna
year 2016
title AMA - Additive Merged Appliance
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 179-184
summary The production of concrete structure components is often a backbreaking process due to the inconvenient and time-consuming process of producing the formwork. Depending on the geometry, this can be a very time-consuming activity. A trial will be made to solve these problems within the manufacturing process using adapted binder jetting technology. First of all, the research will deal with the behavior of concrete as well as the bond between the cement paste and the aggregate. Various additives and grain sizes will be determined to find an appropriate result. On the other hand, different spray and drop systems will be analyzed to compare the new method and the common binder jetting setup. After fabricating some geometrical shapes manually the study is going to be continued using computer-aided manufacturing.
wos WOS:000402063700020
keywords 3D Print ; Binder Jetting; Concrete; Robotics; Additive Fabrication
series eCAADe
email an.gruber@student.tugraz.at
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id cf2003_k_001
id cf2003_k_001
authors Rekimoto, Jun
year 2003
title Interacting with a Computer Augmented Environment
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 3-7
summary In Sony CSL Interaction Laboratory, we are investigating future human-computer interaction technologies that augment real world environments. In such an environment, as we can combine many physical tools to perform a task in a real world, we consider that it should be possible to dynamically combine multiple digital devices. We should also be able to use our trained physical skills, as well as logical skills, to interact with an environment. In this presentation I will introduce several examples of new user interface technologies.
keywords augmented, interaction
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/09/22 10:21

_id caadria2013_004
id caadria2013_004
authors Rekittke, Joerg; Yazid Ninsalam and Philip Paar
year 2013
title Open to Ridicule – Deploying Plaything Technology for 3D Modelling of Urban Informal Settlements in Asia 
source Open Systems: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2013) / Singapore 15-18 May 2013, pp. 541-550
summary As technology affine urban landscape researchers,working in Asian mega cities, we roam through crowded and narrow, widely informal city layouts, where we apply digitalfieldwork equipment and conduct design work. We use low cost cameras and camera drones, tools that had been developed asgadgets for outdoor freaks or plaything for nerds. In this paper, we describe recent advances in the development of amethod of on-site data and image gathering, which allows the processing of concrete 3D models of informal city spaces. Thevisual quality of these models is still moderate, but the resulting three-dimensional spatial puzzlemakes a widelyinaccessible and undocumented piece of city terrain visible, understandable and designable. The software used is free.
wos WOS:000351496100053
keywords Fieldwork tools, Mapping, 3D modelling  
series CAADRIA
email rekittke@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id ijac201412102
id ijac201412102
authors Rekittke, Joerg; Yazid Ninsalam, Philip Paar
year 2014
title No Fear of Ridicule - deploying plaything technology for credible representations of urban landscape
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 1, 27-46
summary As technology affine urban landscape architects, working in Asian mega cities, we conduct research on urbanity beyond prime premises and nice neighbourhoods with maximum tourist potential. We roam through crowded and super narrow, widely informal city layouts, where we apply our digital fieldwork equipment and conduct design work. In these places we test low cost cameras and camera drones, tools that had been developed as documentation equipment for outdoor sportspersons respectively playthings for all the world. Technically limited, if not insufficient and physically labile, these basic tools help us to experiment in the field without problematic loss risks and without scaring people on site. In this paper, we describe a method of on-site data and image gathering, which allows the processing of 3D models of labyrinthine informal city spaces. The result of our study is a three-dimensional puzzle of sufficient precision, making a widely inaccessible and undocumented piece of city terrain visible, understandable and designable.
series journal
last changed 2014/04/25 05:09

_id caadria2018_264
id caadria2018_264
authors Ren, Hui, Han, Yunsong and Sun, Cheng
year 2018
title transDATA: A Data Recording and Exchanging Plug-in for Architectural Computational Design
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 51-60
summary Building form has a profound influence on the green performance of buildings. And the modeling tools are one of the factors can affect the building forms which play an important role in the design process. Nowadays, parametric modeling tools become popular in the architectural area. However, the functions of data processing and data comparison cannot meet the current modeling data processing requirements which need to be improved urgently. This paper developed the transDATA, which is a plugin based on python to realize the data exchanging and data visualization functions between Grasshopper, Excel and the Figure of python. This plugin allows architects to compare the history design parameters of the building and help architects to select the most ideal scheme efficiently.
keywords TransDATA; Data processing; Data visualization; Computational design
series CAADRIA
email hui12066119@163.com
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id sigradi2004_132
id sigradi2004_132
authors Renata La Rocca; Anja Pratschke
year 2004
title Estruturando o inestruturável: A metáfora do teatro da memória de giulio camilo na construção do espaço virtual [Structuring the Unstructural: The Metaphor of the Theater of the Memory from Giulio Camilo in the Construction of Virtual Space]
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary The subject of this article starts from studies that come being developed regarding the use of Mnemonic structures in relation to the conception of spaces, architectural projects, and its correlations with the images languages and the signs and its occurrences, applications and uses in spacial uses. Great part of the current examples of memorization structures applications in spacialities design are related to experimental virtual environments, mainly tied with the artistic production and/or the studies of design of user-computer interfaces. Our research suggests a new look at this subject, considering to investigate, beyond the virtual spacialities, applications in the concrete and hybrid spaces. In this article we propose to argue the subject from two metaphors related to the theater: the metaphor proposal for Brenda Laurel in Computer as a Theatre and the boarding of Giulio Camilo [ 1480-1544 ] in its Theater of the Memory.
keywords Mnemonic structures; conception of space; virtual environments; Computer as a Theatre; Theater of the Memory
series SIGRADI
email complexus@complexus.com.br, anjaprat@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ecaade2017_026
id ecaade2017_026
authors Renev, Ivan, Chechurin, Leonid and Perlova, Elena
year 2017
title Early design stage automation in Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC) projects
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 373-382
summary The paper is dedicated to conceptual design stage in AEC projects since this stage defines most of further design and even construction. Conceptual design is less automated and more human depended part of a complex design process. It is reasonable to link modern construction design software with ideas generation techniques in order to enhance and automate design creativity and effectiveness. In the article we propose computer-aided automation of searching for new conceptual ideas and nontrivial solutions during early design stage in AEC projects using such TRIZ tools as Function Modelling and Trimming in BIM technology. For description of our approach we consider framed buildings.
keywords TRIZ; BIM; AEC; Function analysis; Trimming
series eCAADe
email msc.irenev@gmail.com
last changed 2017/09/13 13:13

_id ddss2006-pb-19
id DDSS2006-PB-19
authors Renni Anggraini, Theo Arentze, and Harry Timmermans
year 2006
title A Model of Within-Households Travel Activity Decisions Capturing Interactions between Household Heads
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Progress in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN-10: 90-386-1756-9, ISBN-13: 978-90-386-1756-5, p. 19-33
summary This paper describes a conceptual framework for modeling activity interactions between household heads in conducting out-of-home maintenance activities. It is comprised of several steps; generation of household activities, task allocation of household activities, trip-chaining choices, resource allocation and mode choice. The models are specified for different household types: worker and non-worker households, with or without children. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the modeling framework for household travel activity decision making processes so that it can capture interactions between household heads.
keywords Activity-based modeling, Travel demand, Maintenance activities, Within-household interaction
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id af26
authors Renson, Michel
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Université de Liege (Belgium, Southern Part)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Belgium there are two possibilities to study architecture, it can either be done at a higher institute or academy, or at a university. At the higher schools of architecture the computer equipment has just been installed during the last years, and teaching of CAAD is not yet integrated. There exists only a general computer course. At the universities hardware has been available since several years, and software has been developed. The following programs have been implemented in Liege : LPB1, LPB2, LPB3, LPB4 (energy analysis), FEASIBILITY (to obtain acceptable values for the main global parameters of a design), VOLUME, (3D modelling for building modelisation and manipulation) and TYPOLOGIE (for the determination of classes for the energetic behaviour of residential buildings).

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/12 06:04

_id b522
id b522
authors Rentema, D. and Jansen, E.
year 2001
title AN AI TOOL FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF COMPLEX PRODUCTS
source Achten, H.H., de Vries, B. and Hennessey, J. (eds). Design Research in the Netherlands 2000, 119-131
series book
type normal paper
email H.H.Achten@tue.nl
more http://www.designresearch.nl/PDF/DRN2000_Rentema_Jansen.pdf
last changed 2005/10/12 13:39

_id ecec
authors Requicha, Aristides A.G. and Voelcker, H.B.
year 1977
title Constructive Solid Geometry
source November, 1977. [3] 36 p. : ill. includes bibliography: p. 31-33
summary The term 'constructive solid geometry' denotes a class of schemes for describing solid objects as compositions (usually 'additions' and 'subtractions') of primitive solid 'building blocks.' The notion of adding and subtracting solids has been used by mechanical designers and others for generations, but attempts to embody it in computer-based modelling systems have been hindered by the absence of a firm mathematical foundation. This paper provides such a foundation by drawing on established results in modern axiomatic geometry and point set topology. The paper also initiates a broader discussion, to be continued in subsequent papers, of three seminal topics: mathematical modelling of solids, representation of solids, and calculation of geometrical properties of solids
keywords solid modeling, computational geometry, geometric modeling, CSG, topology, mathematics, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 08ba
authors Requicha, Aristides A.G.
year 1980
title Representations for Rigid Solids : Theory, Methods, and Systems
source Computing Surveys December, 1980. vol. 12: pp. 437-464 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Computer-based systems for modeling the geometry of rigid solid objects are becoming increasingly important in mechanical and civil engineering, architecture, computer graphics, computer vision, and other fields that deal with spatial phenomena. At the heart of such systems are symbol structures (representations) designating 'abstract solids' (subsets of Euclidean space) that model physical solids. Representations are the sources of data for procedures which compute useful properties of objects. The variety and uses of systems embodying representations of solids are growing rapidly, but so are the difficulties in assessing current designs, specifying the characteristics that future systems should exhibit, and designing systems to meet such specifications. This paper resolves many of these difficulties by providing a coherent view, based on sound theoretical principles, of what is presently known about the representation of solids. The paper is divided into three parts. The first introduces a simple mathematical framework for characterizing certain important aspects of representations, for example, their semantic (geometric) integrity. The second part uses the framework to describe and compare all of the major known schemes for representing solids. The third part briefly surveys extant geometric modeling systems and then applies the concepts developed in the paper to the high-level design of a multiple- representation geometric modeling system which exhibits a level of reliability and versatility superior to that of systems currently used in industrial computer-aided design and manufacturing
keywords CAD, CAM, computational geometry, geometric modeling, representation,CSG, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1408
authors Resnick, M.
year 1994
title Turtles, Termites, and Traffic Jams: Explorations in massively parallel microworlds
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
summary Mitchel Resnick's book is one of the very few in the field of computing with an interdisciplinary discourse that can reach beyond the technical community to philsoophers, psychologists, and historians and sociologists of science. -- Sherry Turkle, Professor, Program in Science, Technology, and Society, Massachusetts Institute of Technology "Resnick's work provides a rare glimpse of what I am sure will become a new paradigm for research in education." -- Seymour Papert How does a bird flock...
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c37f
authors Resnick, M., Bruckman, A. and Martin, F.
year 1996
title Pianos Not Stereos: Creating Computational Construction Kits
source Interactions, 3 (6)
summary The stereo has many attractions: it is easier to play and it provides immediate access to a wide range of music. But "ease of use" should not be the only criterion. Playing the piano can be a much richer experience. By learning to play the piano, you can become a creator (not just a consumer) of music, expressing yourself musically in ever-more complex ways. As a result, you can develop a much deeper relationship with (and deeper understanding of) music. So too with computers. In the field of educational technology, there has been too much emphasis on the equivalent of stereos and CDs, and not enough emphasis on computational pianos. In our research group at the MIT Media Lab, we are developing a new generation of "computational construction kits" that, like pianos, enable people to express themselves in ever-more complex ways, deepening their relationships with new domains of knowledge.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6743
authors Retik, A
year 1989
title Computer-Aided Design of Precast Building System
source Proceedings of the International Conference on CAD/CAM and AMT. December, 1989. pp. 1-5 : some ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes an expert system for computerized design of precast building components for a given architectural solution. The system receives the layouts and evaluations of the building as input, indicates the location of structural supports, breaks down the floors and walls into the elements to be prefabricated, and finally generates detailed production drawings for each element. Design stages are governed by the specific features of the prefabrications system to be employed. Design alternatives are also evaluated in the course of the process. The paper reviews the principles of the system and the particular features of the computer program employed for this purpose
keywords building, layout, floor plans, structures, construction, design, details, expert systems, prefabrication
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ae20
authors Retik, A., Warszawski, A. and Banai, A.
year 1989
title The Use of Computer Graphics as a Scheduling Tool
source Building and Environment. England: Pergamon Press, 1989. 10 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes a potential application of computer graphics to construction scheduling. A computer program receives, as its input a geometrical representation of the building to be constructed, and a schedule for the erection of its main components. Subsequently, the actual construction progress is also recorded. The outputs of the program include a graphical representation of the total schedule, of the construction status at any given date, and of the difference between the scheduled and the actual performance. Other possible features of the program are also discussed
keywords computer graphics, construction, scheduling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id ecaade2016_221
id ecaade2016_221
authors Retsin, Gilles
year 2016
title Discrete Assembly and Digital Materials in Architecture
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 143-151
summary The paper will discuss two projects which explore the territory of discrete or digital material organisations in an architectural context. Taking inspiration from the field of Digital Materials, this paper presents an approach to architectural design which is fundamentally "digital" - not just in the process but also in its physical organisation. The use of discrete and digital materials in architecture is argued for from both an architectonic point of view, as well as from efficiencies related to automation of construction. Experiments with robotic assembly are caught between on the one hand the desire to increase speed, and on the other hand increased complexity. This paper argues that robotic assembly on the scale of architecture is only feasible and scalable in the context of digital materials and discrete computation, which has a limited set of connectivity problems. The two projects are a first attempt to translate the concept of Digital Materials to the domain of architecture. The result is an architecture which is digital in its physical organisation. It demonstrates how differentiated, complex and heterogeneous spaces can be achieved with just serialised, discrete elements.
wos WOS:000402063700016
keywords Discrete Computation; Robotic Assembly; mereology; Digital Materials; Additive Assembly
series eCAADe
email gilles.retsin@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id acadia16_332
id acadia16_332
authors Retsin, Gilles; Garcia, Manuel Jimenez
year 2016
title Discrete Computational Methods for Robotic Additive Manufacturing: Combinatorial Toolpaths
source ACADIA // 2016: POSTHUMAN FRONTIERS: Data, Designers, and Cognitive Machines [Proceedings of the 36th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-77095-5] Ann Arbor 27-29 October, 2016, pp. 332-341
summary The research presented in this paper is part of a larger, emerging body of research into large-scale 3D printing. The research attempts to develop a computational design method specifically for large-scale 3D printing of architecture. Influenced by the concept of Digital Materials, this research is situated within a critical discussion of what fundamentally constitutes a digital object and process. This requires a holistic understanding, taking into account both computational design and fabrication. The intrinsic constraints of the fabrication process are used as opportunities and generative drivers in the design process. The paper argues that a design method specifically for 3D printing should revolve around the question of how to organize toolpaths for the continuous addition or layering of material. Two case-study projects advance discrete methods as efficient ways to compute a continuous printing process. In contrast to continuous models, discrete models allow users to serialize problems and errors in toolpaths. This allows a local optimization of the structure, avoiding the use of global, computationally expensive, problem-solving algorithms. Both projects make use of a voxel-based approach, where a design is generated directly from the combination of thousands of serialized toolpath fragments. The understanding that serially repeated elements can be assembled into highly complex and heterogeneous structures has implications stretching beyond 3D printing. This combinatorial approach for example also becomes highly valuable for construction systems based on modularity and prefabrication.
keywords prgrammable materials, simulation and design optimization, digital fabrication, big data
series ACADIA
type paper
email jg.manuel@gmail.com
last changed 2016/11/17 09:20

_id c939
authors Rettig, Mark
year 1990
title Software Teams
source Communications of the ACM
summary October, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 23-27. includes a short bibliography. The author describes the development group organized as a 'structure open team.' The social organization of the software team, the different roles of the team members and the affect of it on the decision making and productivity of the team
keywords software, design, programming, management
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ddss9477
id ddss9477
authors Reuter, Wolf
year 1994
title Design As Argumentation and Power-Acting - Theory and Methods
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The process of design is seen as the generation, transformation and communication of knowledge in the brains of the professional designers and other persons and groups, who are interested in or concerned by the design output and who would or should participate in the design process. Only if it is known how these kinds of information and communication processes work, computer support is possible. Design thinking follows a microstructural scheme. A steady change of the understan-ding of the problem also changes the sight of the solution and also changes the need for knowled-ge contributing to the solution. In all stages of the design process alternatives or alternative ways of action are generated. The participants communicate about questions feasibility, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages, expected consequences, and other possibilities. They exchange positions and arguments, upon which finally they base their weighting of aspects and their personal judgement. The process of argumentation and evaluation is considered, it can be formalized and supported by formal methods. The decision about a design alternative by different people is not only based on explicit argumentation and/or formal evaluation procedures, but also on the use of power. Different means of power are stated. Some decision making procedures which control the misuse of power, are discussed.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 30ea
authors Revett, M., Boyd, I. and Stephens, C.
year 2001
title Network Computing: A Tutorial Review
source IEE Electron. Commun. Eng. J., February 2001, 13, (1), pp. 5-15
summary Network computing is not synonymous with the overhyped network computer that failed to capture a significant market share from PCs. One of its major benefits is the ability to tailor applications to the capabilities of heterogeneous client devices. Given the very fast growing mobile computing market, with its numerous and diverse terminal types, network computing could at last realise its full potential. Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2011_097
id sigradi2011_097
authors Reyes García, Everardo
year 2011
title Unpersonified displacements
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 242-244
summary "Unpersonified displacements" deals with the question of virtualization of individuals. We argue that virtual worlds are a combination of both physical and electronic environments that focus especially on processes and actions, rather than on objects and perceptual signs. Our piece is more contemplative than interactive. Indeed, it has been designed to run indefinitely. Simple shapes with simple behavior may provoke unlimited semiosis in persons. We believe this fact is because we identify ourselves within the process of movement, not with the media that conveys the action.
series SIGRADI
email everardo.reyes@itesm.mx
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ddss9845
id ddss9845
authors Reymen, Isabelle M.M.J.
year 1998
title Design in Architecture, Software Engineering and Mechanical EngineeringA comparative study
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The awareness about the gap between general design theory and design practice is increasing. Design practice is not really served with the results of current design theory. To build a bridge between theory and practice, design researchers should know what is really going on in practice. To explore design practice and to find the most important characteristics of design situations, I have chosen an empirical approach based on case studies in which design projects in different disciplines are compared. In each case study, an individual designer is interviewed and the design documents are analysed. The results in this article are based on two architectural projects, two software-engineering projects and two mechanical-engineering projects. The cross-case analysis has resulted indescriptions of design situations in these disciplines. A preliminary design frame to describe design situations in different disciplines has been derived. Based on similarities and differences in the descriptions, conclusions concerning design theory, design education and design practice are given. The most important conclusions are the following. First, designers are often not aware of their design process, but focus mainly on the product. Second, software designers more often than architects andmechanical engineers use methods to structure their overall design process.
series DDSS
email isabelle@win.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4dd3
authors Reymen, Isabelle M.M.J.
year 2001
title Improving design processes through structured reflection : a domain-independent approach
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary In the world of designing, three fields of attention can be recognised, namely design research, design practice, and design education. Gaps exist between these three fields. In this thesis about designing, the focus is on the gap between design research and design practice. Design practice includes many design disciplines and an increasing number of multidisciplinary teams. Main problems in design practice are the communication between designers with a different background and the integration and co-ordination of important aspects during a design process. By tackling these problems, the effectiveness and efficiency of design processes in practice can be improved. The study of similarities and differences between design processes in several design disciplines and the development of support for reflection on design processes are topics that can improve design practice and that deserve more attention in design research. The goal of my research is to decrease the gap between design research and design practice in order to improve design processes. Reflection on design processes can help designers to improve their design process, its results, and the designer’s proficiency: By reflecting explicitly on the current design situation and on the performed design activities, in a systematic way and on a regular basis, designers can plan next design activities that can be performed effectively and efficiently given the design goal at that moment. In this thesis, the combination of systematic and regular reflection is called structured reflection. To improve design processes in various design disciplines in practice, the study of similarities and differences between design processes in several disciplines can be useful. Similarities between design processes are the basis for domain-independent design knowledge (as distinguished from domain-specific design knowledge). To reach the goal of my research, I have chosen to combine, in a broad explorative study, the development of support for structured reflection on design processes and the development of domain-independent design knowledge. This thesis describes a domain-independent approach to improve design processes through structured reflection. My research process can be summarised as follows. I studied three design disciplines, namely architecture, mechanical engineering, and software engineering. To get input from design practice, I did qualitative empirical research: I performed twelve case studies in the three disciplines to inventory characteristics of design processes and I compared the cases for similarities and differences. The similarities, together with the results of a literature study, have been the basis for the development of domain-independent descriptive design knowledge. The developed descriptive knowledge, in turn, formed the basis for developing domain-independent prescriptive design knowledge. At the end of the project, I confronted all results with design practice to get feedback on the results in another empirical study and I performed a literature study to position the results in the design literature. My design philosophy and design frame are the descriptive results developed to answer the first research question, namely “How to describe design processes in a domain-independent way?”. My design philosophy is a set of domain-independent concepts and terms for describing a design process. The concepts and terms are based on an application of the general theory of state-transition systems to the context of designing; the concepts of state and state transition correspond to the main concepts of design situation and design activity in my design philosophy. The answer to the first research question given by the design philosophy is refined in a design frame: The design frame offers a means to structure the description of a design process in a domain-independent way. Major structuring concepts of the design frame are dimensions and subjects. I define three dimensions, namely level, perspective, and time. These dimensions define a three-dimensional space, called a positioning space, in which important aspects of design processes can be positioned. A positioning space must be defined for each subject, being the three parts of a design situation: the product being designed, the design process, and the design context. My design frame is a domain-independent structure formed by the combination of the three dimensions for each subject. My design method is the prescriptive result developed to answer the second research question, namely “How to support structured reflection on design processes in a domain-independent way?”. My design method is a domain-independent aid that offers designers support for reflecting on design processes in a structured way. Reflection on design processes is defined as an introspective contemplation on the designer’s perception of the design situation and on the remembered design activities. A reflection process is described as a process that consists of three steps that are called preparation, image forming, and conclusion drawing. The design method is based on two main concepts: The first concept is the systematic description and analysis of design situations and design activities by means of forms and checklists; only systematic support for the preparation step of a reflection process is developed. The second concept is the idea of design sessions, introduced to stimulate designers to reflect regularly during a design process. A design session is defined as a period of time during which one or more designers are working on a subtask of a certain design task, for example, one afternoon, a whole day, or a week. Both concepts are combined to support structured reflection on design processes. The complete design method consists of five steps for each design session, namely planning a design session, defining the subtask of the design session, reflecting at the beginning of a design session, designing during the core of a design session, and reflecting at the end of a design session. A prototype software tool, called ECHO, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Together, the design philosophy and the design frame offer concepts, a vocabulary, and a structure to describe design processes in a domain-independent way. The design method is a first proposal of a method that supports structured reflection on design processes. My results are thus possible answers to the mentioned research questions and are starting points to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of design processes. Based on the feedback I collected, I am optimistic about the applicability of my results in design practice. By asking input from design practice and by developing results that are useful for design practice and that contribute to design research, I contribute to decrease the gap between design research and design practice. The most important recommendations for further research are to test all results extensively in design practice and to investigate how to apply the results in design education.
series thesis:PhD
email isabelle@win.tue.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cd74
authors Rezgui, Y., Brown, A., Cooper, G., Yip, J., Brandon, P. and Kirkham, J.
year 1996
title An information management model for concurrent construction engineering
source Automation in Construction 5 (4) (1996) pp. 343-355
summary Projects in the construction industry are increasingly characterised by large numbers of actors working concurrently at different locations and using heterogeneous technologies. In order to support this kind of collaborative engineering, project information needs to be conceptually modelled throughout its lifecycle, along with the events that impact upon it by causing state changes. There exists, therefore, an urgent need to provide a flexible framework in which the highly interleaved and interactive events and transactions inherent in complex construction projects can be managed effectively. This paper addresses these issues by proposing such a conceptual framework consisting of four levels of abstraction and functionality governed by the COMMIT (Construction Modelling and Methodologies for Intelligent inTegration of information) Information Management Model (CIMM). A comprehensive presentation of the CIMM (which tackles issues such as versioning, notification, object rights and ownership) is given. The CIMM also facilitates the recording of the intent behind construction project decisions, thereby providing a complete project history. Finally, the model is illustrated through two proposed scenarios dealing with selected objects' lifecycles during design stages and actor transaction management.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id 430a
authors Rheingold, H.
year 2000
title The Virtual Community
source MIT Press
summary Cyberculture authority Howard Rheingold was the first to write about online communities in this style that is part-travelogue and part-anthropological guide. This groundbreaking classic explores the entire virtual community, beginning with a selective but probing look at the author's original online home, The Well. Rheingold relates plenty of anecdotes that demonstrate the upsides of online life, such as how he was able to get information on removing a tick from his child before his doctor could respond to his phone call. But the bulk of the material relates to how individuals interact online much as they do in a face-to-face community. Rheingold speaks to how both friendships and enmities are formed online and how people come together to support each other through misfortune. He gives the example of how computer-moderated communication enabled members of one Well community to send vital medical aid to a friend hospitalized halfway around the world. Rheingold goes on to show how communities can form by various electronic communication methods, using the conferencing system of The Well as one example. He also examines how people interact through mailing lists, live chat, and the fantasy cyberenvironments of online role-playing games. In the process, he questions what kind of relationships can really be formed in a medium where people can change their apparent identity at will. This book questions whether a distinction between "virtual" communities and "real-life" communities is entirely valid. The Virtual Community argues that real relationships happen and real communities develop when people communicate upon virtual common ground. Rheingold also shares his far-reaching knowledge of how technology effects our social constructs. If you are involved in an online community, here is your cultural heritage.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cebc
authors Rhodes, Michael L.
year 1979
title An Algorithmic Approach to Controlling Search in Three-Dimensional Image Data
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 134- 141 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In many three-dimensional imaging applications random shaped objects, reconstructed from serial sections, are isolated to display their overall structure in a single view. This paper presents an algorithm to control an ordered search strategy for locating all contours of random shaped objects intersected by a series of cross-section image planes. Classic search techniques in AI problem solving and software for image processing and computer graphics are combined here to aid program initialization and automate the search process thereafter. Using three-dimensional region growing, this method isolates all spatially connected pixels forming a structure's volume and enters image planes the least number of times to do so. An algorithmic description is given to generalize the process for controlling search in 3-D image data where little core memory is available. Phantom and medical computer tomographic data are used to illustrate the algorithm's performance
keywords algorithms, AI, image processing, computer graphics, methods, search
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id acadia14_549
id acadia14_549
authors Rhomberg, Daniel
year 2014
title Towards a Digital Anisotropic Materiality
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 549-554
summary The presented paper outlines an ongoing research project focusing on generating and fabricating a functionally graded digital materiality in an accessible format.
keywords Material Logics and Tectonics, Generative Design, Tooling, Digital Materiality, Material Voxel, Extrusion Based Production
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email daniel.rhomberg@gmail.com
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id ascaad2009_mahmoud_riad
id ascaad2009_mahmoud_riad
authors Riad, Mahmoud
year 2009
title Musical Deconstruction / Reconstruction: Visualizing architectonic spaces through music
source Digitizing Architecture: Formalization and Content [4th International Conference Proceedings of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2009) / ISBN 978-99901-06-77-0], Manama (Kingdom of Bahrain), 11-12 May 2009, pp. 225-233
summary There is a common belief that music and architecture are connected through a hidden a dimension. Both arts, when abstracted intellectually (through mathematics) or emotionally (through phenomenological experience), share a number of ordering principles, having the same notion of crescendo in sequence and progression. Many have sought to unlock this hidden dimension to create artwork that lets our souls transcend up to the heavens. There are five different methods where architects have used music in their design approach: there are those who use harmonic proportions found in musical consonances as room dimensions to create harmonic spaces, flowing into each other like musical chords (Palladio, Steven Holl); those who believe that music is ‘design in time’ use rhythmic elements of music and apply it to their vertical surfaces and structural grids (Iannis Xenakis, Le Corbusier); those who use architecture as a musical instrument experiment with sound and acoustics to create a phenomenological environment (Bernhard Leitner, Peter Zumthor); those gifted with synethsesia (stimulating one sensory preceptor with another, e.g. seeing colors by listening to music, or vice versa) use certain musical pieces as an inspiration for form generation (Wassily Kandinsky, Steven Holl); and there are those who deconstruct an element in music and reconstruct it to architectural form, highlighting common themes between both arts (Iannis Xenakis, Daniel Libeskind). These five different methods have been the topic of research of many architectural scholars using western music as reference. The question becomes what if the musical reference is changed? Classical, rock, pop, country, jazz, and blues music are very different from one another, yet they share similar foundational musical structures. One may go further and experiment with various world music as reference, which is very different than western music in terms of musical structure. Linguists and musicologists have discussed the origins of music in relation to language. They hypothesize that cognitive elements found in language are somehow carried into the region's music. This paper documents the research of the author in this topic, discussing the digital modeling applications adopted that make such an investigation possible. The interest here is exploring how the visual space is altered when the musical reference is changed, and whether properties of the musical reference are evident in the architectural visualization. The musical references will be limited to Western Classical and Arabic music.
series ASCAAD
email theprogster@hotmail.com
last changed 2009/06/30 06:12

_id 041226_ribaudo-m
id 041226_ribaudo-m
authors Ribaudo,
year 2004
title Parametric Construction Stylesheets
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary The present thesis is centred on the use of programmed tools as alternative or as support of the classical computer aided architectural design methods.This thesis shows among other things how were programmed/generated the mathematical descriptions of the frames, the joints and the production drawings using MEL (Maya Embedded Language).Further will be discussed pros and cons of the imported and exported digital data structures for their respective purpose like the generation of the joint details, the model visualizations, the different prototypes and the generation of the construction stylesheets.The result of this work will be shown by visualizations of digital models as well as by using rapid prototyping methods and CNC machines.Moreover this thesis will deal with the programming of stylesheets which were used to generate variants of constructions.The NDS2004 prototype represents such a variant and was produced with the above mentioned programmed tools.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id sigradi2011_286
id sigradi2011_286
authors Ribeiro Cardoso, Daniel; Magalhaes Leite, Raquel; Fortes de Sousa, Beker A.
year 2011
title A forma da emergência: linguagens na arquitetura vernacular [The shape of emergence: languages in vernacular architecture]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 564-567
summary This paper compares two formal languages, from the observation of the composing process of a vernacular set of houses. These languages have distinct natures. The first one is symbolic: L-system as proposed by Aristid Lindenmayer. The second one is the iconic Shape Grammar, as developed by George Stiny. After formalization, comparison and analysis, they are going to be implemented in Grasshopper.
keywords Shape grammar; process representation; morphogenesis; vernacular architecture
series SIGRADI
email raquelml@arquitetura.ufc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2011_305
id sigradi2011_305
authors Ribeiro Cardoso, Daniel; Rodrigues de Souza, André Felipe; Costa Lima, Mariana Quezado; de Freitas Rodrigues, Marina; Maciel Miranda, Natália
year 2011
title Uma análise dos meios de representação a partir da Teoria Geral dos Signos [An analysis of the means of representation from the general theory of signs]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 147-150
summary The purpose of this paper is to do an analysis of the graphic representation techniques in architecture, seeking in Peirce's Theory of Signs an interpretation of the conventional steps of the architectural design process. A research was conducted in the architecture course in pursuit of a systematization of the information generated at each step of the design process. Finally, it emphasizes the importance of the ability to adapt to the environment, of awareness of the languages, giving the student autonomy to choose the suitable feature.
keywords Peirce's Theory of Signs; Graphic Representation Techniques; Architectural Design Process; Language
series SIGRADI
email andrefelipers@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 246d
authors Ribeiro, C.T.
year 1997
title A Dynamic Display of the Work Breakdown in Civil Engineering Projects
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Displaying the progress of projects has been achieved by the use of planning outputs. Planning software, namely the well known WinProject™ , Time Line™ or Primavera™, allow chart displays, generally in the form of bar charts, logic diagrams and schedule reports to show it.

The aim of linking Planning and CAD systems is to display in real-time the progress of engineering projects, according its planning and control through their 2D or 3D architectural and engineering models.

This paper describes and illustrates, the development of an innovative software, that, in this way, links data from any Planning software to the popular AutoCAD producing colored 2D or 3D models of the multiple activities of an engineering project according the foreseen or real stages - not yet done, being done, completely done.

Same application examples to different engineering projects through some screen-shots of this software use, are illustrated.

 

series eCAADe
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/ribeiro/ribeiro.htm
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id sigradi2010_181
id sigradi2010_181
authors Ribeiro, Cardoso Daniel; Gadelha Maia Hortênsia; Quezado Costa Lima Mariana; Maciel Miranda
year 2010
title Pensar dispositivo: a emergência de novas formas na arquitetura [Thinking device: the emergence of new forms in architecture]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 181-184
summary The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the emergence of new forms, on the possibility of the new. We propose a reflection on the poetics of disruption, like creating strategies to break from the predictable, and we analyze devices adopted in art, media art and architecture. We understand a device as the set of practices that trace imbalanced processes that may create the new. Thus, by broaching the creative process, one must realize that thinking devices already represent a notable strategy of the arts, and that such devices, engendered by new media, are gradually incorporated by contemporary architects.
keywords device; art; architecture; new media; crisis
series SIGRADI
email danielcardoso@ufc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2010_85
id sigradi2010_85
authors Ribeiro, Cardoso Daniel; Moreira Nobre Bonfim Cibele; dos Santos Barros Ana Carolina; Rodrigues de Souza André Felipe
year 2010
title Imagens espaço - imagens objeto: o recurso da imersão nos processos de ensino_aprendizagem em arquitetura [Images, space - images, objects: use of immersion in the teaching - learning processes of architecture ]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 85-87
summary This paper reflects on the use of immersive environments associated with virtual reality in design exercises. Following from the experience of implementing the Imagem Espaço - Imagem Objeto project in the Architecture and Urbanism course at the Federal University of Ceara, we seek to develop considerations of how the development of new media (especially the immersive media) makes use of digital equipment and systems to open new possibilities of conception, perception and representation in architecture. In addition, we explore the possible impacts of this phenomenon in teaching - learning in our course.
keywords immersion; architecture; teaching
series SIGRADI
email danielcardoso@ufc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2003_049
id sigradi2003_049
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa and Goulart, Roberto
year 2003
title Túnel para Interação com o Ciberespaço [TIC] (Tunel for interaction with the cyberspace [TIC])
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary Starting of the reflections on the contributions of the Complex Thinking to the adoption of a new optic, able to embrace questions related to the conception of spacialties in architecture, this project constitutes an experiment of space-time relations enlargement, between subjects and objects, in the design of hybrid spacialities. The project try to put the architect, not only as a conceiver of concrete structures, but also as the subject that conceives hybrid spacialities, the designer of virtual spacialities integrated to the concrete.
series SIGRADI
email assiralc1@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2003_064
id sigradi2003_064
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa and Pratschke, Anja
year 2003
title Arquitetura e Pensamento Complexo (Architecture and complex thinking)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary This research aims to verify the possibility to apply principles of Complexity Thinking as appointed by Edgar Morin, in the conception of Virtual Architectures. His researches are directed by the preoccupation with a nonmutilated knowledge, connecting fraction and totality, subject and object. To support the intention to built an immersive virtual environment applying this principles, the basic object of this research is to understand how the Complex Theory affects the Virtual Environment Architecture, analyzing its history and the possibilities of application; illustrating virtual or hybrid architectural examples which where influenced by the Complex Theory and its capability to support interaction.
series SIGRADI
email assiralc1@yahoo.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2006_p019a
id sigradi2006_p019a
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa and Pratschke, Anja
year 2006
title Arquitetura Irreversível_ Tempo e Complexidade [Irreversible Architecture_ Time and Complexity]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 90-94
summary This paper aims at discussing how computational environments could give support to complex approaches of architectural design process. Focusing on generative design, the main goal is to allow the perception of architecture more as system than as object: form, structure and organization as emergences in non-linear, autoorganizational processes. It involves the interaction of a vast universe of factors and flows that performs as attractors or repellers for the architecture-systems evolution in time. The ideas presented here are results of the Master Research in Architecture and Complex Thought of Clarissa Ribeiro, and are part of a larger questioning about the relation of architectural design process and digital culture, discussed in our research group Nomads.USP [Center for Interactive Living Studies, http://www.eesc. usp. br/nomads].
series SIGRADI
email clarissa@complexus.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2007_af67
id sigradi2007_af67
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa
year 2007
title Designing the Flow - Between, Across, and Beyond [Diseñando el flujo - Entre, a travéz y más allá]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 89-92
summary The present approach regards the discussion of matters related to the design of space as a complex system. The main question is how to design space as emergence from subject’s trans-actions in mixed realities environments. The central goal is to produce a methodology based on systemic measures of complexity and self-organization to help architects designing for mixed realities environments. The present work is part of the Clarissa Ribeiro’s PhD research at ECA.USP – School of Arts and Communications, University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Clarissa Ribeiro is a researcher of the Digital Poetics group, headed by her tutor, Professor Gilberto Prado.
keywords Complexity; design methodology; systemic measures; emergence; trans-actions in mixed realities environments
series SIGRADI
email almeida.clarissa@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2010_150
id sigradi2010_150
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa; La Rocca Renata; Lautenschlaeger Graziele
year 2010
title Instants of Metamorphosis: An Interactive Video Installation
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 150-152
summary Instants of Metamorphosis 01 is an interactive video installation that is the first emergence of a process - based collective work by the Double Collective. Using a methodology - based on systemic measures of complexity and organization, the work is being documented and analyzed by focusing on the connections, the dialogue between the elements, and the emergences. The methodological parameters contribute to the conceiving and designing of the installation in a performative and process - based collective way, focusing the role of the audience in mixing the virtual and the material dimensions as part of a delicate network dialogue that happens between, through and beyond this dimension, allowing the subject to became a trans – actor.
keywords complex adaptive systems, interactive digital art installations, storied spaces, mnemonic
series SIGRADI
email almeida.clarissa@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2010_157
id sigradi2010_157
authors Ribeiro, Clarissa; Prado Gilbertto
year 2010
title Performative Consciousness Dialogues
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 157-160
summary The aim of this paper is to discuss some points of a methodology based on systemic measures of organization and complexity as a way to capture the invisible movements of information and meaning through creative processes—information and meaning that generates both the process and the artwork itself. The intention is to help the ones involved in creative artistic practices (considering contemporary digital arts’ panorama) in dealing with emergences, incorporating it as a way to go through processes of perception and consciousness in a continuous dynamic.
keywords creative process in digital arts, systemic measures of complexity and organization, information, meaning, storied spaces
series SIGRADI
email almeida.clarissa@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2005_453
id sigradi2005_453
authors Ribeiro, Fabíola M.; Rejane Spitz
year 2005
title Archigram: an analogical way of looking at the digital
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 453-458
summary In this article we investigate how the Archigram Group used computer logics and concepts as inspiration for architectural projects without ever actually using computers. By developing principles as varied and as pop as expendable architecture, customization, individualism, consumerism and mutation, the architects managed to work with concepts like software architecture, space of flux and dematerialization. When compared to the writings of contemporary theorists and designers of computer-mediated architecture, we see that the Archigram Group has been able to forecast much of the current concerns of the architecture that deal with digital and virtual spaces. Without literally digitalizing their projects or spaces, they have been able to achieve information-based architectural design. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email xxfabixx@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac20064302
id ijac20064302
authors Ribeiro, Fabíola M.; Spitz, Rejane
year 2006
title Archigram's Analogical Approach to Digitality
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 4 - no. 3, 19-32
summary The Archigram Group produced a number of design projects on the subject of computers, either imagining how computers might affect the life of city dwellers, or investigating what changes such machines would bring to architecture. Working with analogical tools and thinking about an abstract digital future, the Archigram architects deployed concepts that would have come to be crucial in recent discussions in architecture based on digital reality. Their research into things digital - without the aid of computers - led them into inquiring about individuality, expendability, interactivity, customisation and even virtualisation. Rendered in some of their design projects we find a number of architectural proposals which offer a new approach towards the relationship between time, space and architecture - an approach which is currently central for contemporary architecture conceived in cyberspace.
series journal
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id sigradi2009_1060
id sigradi2009_1060
authors Ribeiro, Julio Tollendal; Neander Furtado Silva; Ecilamar Maciel Lima
year 2009
title Building Information Modeling" como instrumento de projetos aeroportuários [Building Information Modeling as an instrument for designing airports]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary Building Information Modeling may have obvious implications in the process of architectural design and construction at the present stage of technological development. However, BIM has rarely been really assessed and its benefits are often described in generic terms. In this paper we describe an experiment in which such benefits are identified from a comparison between two design processes of the same airport building, one run in a conventional way and the other in a BIM-based approach. The practical advantages of BIM to airport design were remarkable.
keywords Airport Design; BIM; Benefits; Design Performance
series SIGRADI
email juliotolendal@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 206caadria2004
id 206caadria2004
authors Ricardo Sosa and John S. Gero
year 2004
title Diffusion of Design Ideas: Gatekeeping Effects
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 287-302
summary Designers and design managers are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the complexities of creativity and innovation (Langdon and Rothwell 1985). These two phenomena can be seen as complementary dimensions of a differentiation cycle where design plays a key value-adding role that gradually reduces through commoditisation. However, there is a lack of relevant evidence to explain the link between creativity and innovation. Creativity is increasingly considered as occurring in the interaction between the individual generator of an idea and a group of evaluators (Sawyer et al 2003). However, most studies have regarded the generation of a solution -and not its social impact- as the outcome of the creative process (Runco and Pritzker 1999). Accordingly, computational modelling of creativity has been mainly conducted in a social void (Boden 1999).
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2004/05/20 16:46

_id 2004_222
id 2004_222
authors Rice, G.G., Akleman, E., Özener, O.Ö. and Naz, A.
year 2004
title Caricaturing Buildings for Effective Visualization
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 222-227
summary In this paper, we show that the concepts of abstraction, simplification and exaggeration, which are very common in traditional art and caricature, can directly be applied to the 3D architectural visualization and modeling for interactive media applications and effective visualization.
keywords 3D Modeling, Visualization, Caricatures
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id caadria2006_605
id caadria2006_605
authors RICHARD DANK, ANDREAS GRUBER
year 2006
title RYUGYONG.ORG: Other Levels to the Ryugyong Hotel: An idea on architecture and geopolitics
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 605-607
summary The prestigious international monthly architecture periodical Domus opens its June 2005 issue with the lines: "A ruin of the future? The 330-metre-tall skeleton of an unfinished hotel towers like a concrete pyramid over North Korea's capital, Pyongyang." The magazine's call "to transform the Ryugyong Hotel into a worldwide antenna for ideas" (Boeri et al. 2005, cover) was a pronunciamento we could not resist.
series CAADRIA
email office@ryugyong.org
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id caadria2011_049
id caadria2011_049
authors Richards, Daniel
year 2011
title Towards morphogenetic assemblies: Evolving performance within component-based structures
source Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / The University of Newcastle, Australia 27-29 April 2011, pp. 515-524
summary Performative design can be understood as the combined usage of spatial analysis simulations and form generation procedures to imbue architectural form with material characteristics and behaviours which define desirable structural, environmental and economic performance. However, to date, design processes that facilitate the integration of ‘form generation’ and ‘spatial analysis’ remain under-developed, making existing performative design methodologies highly reliant upon the manual execution of analysis and evaluation procedures. This paper presents an evolutionary design process that uses integrative computational pipelines and generatively defined component-based assemblies to produce performative structures in response to solar performance. The resulting structures demonstrate how performative composite behaviour can emerge within ‘disassociated’ componential assemblies and produce complex formal interrelationships which surpass simplistic parametric logics. This offers new possibilities for conceiving highly integrated ‘morphogenetic assemblies’ and suggests trajectories for further research within the field of morphogenetic design.
keywords Morphogenetic; evolution; performative, assemblies
series CAADRIA
email D.Richards@mmu.ac.uk
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id acadia14_101
id acadia14_101
authors Richards, Daniel;Amos, Martyn
year 2014
title Designing with Gradients: Bio-Inspired Computation for Digital Fabrication
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 101-110
summary This paper presents a novel generative model that can create functional and expressive geometries by evolving volumetric gradient patterns. We demonstrate that our model is useful for performance-driven form finding tasks such as structural optimisation, and holds vast potential for designing exotic multi-material and functionally graded materials in future applications.
keywords Artificial Intelligence in Design, Material Agency, Biomimicry and Biological Models in Design, Generative, Parametric, and Evolutionary Design, Digital fabrication and construction, New digital design concepts and strategies
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email D.Richards@mmu.ac.uk
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id cf2005_1_66_173
id cf2005_1_66_173
authors RICHENS Paul and NITSCHE Michael
year 2005
title Mindstage: Towards a Functional Virtual Architecture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2005 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-3460-1] Vienna (Austria) 20–22 June 2005, pp. 331-340
summary Mindstage is a multi-user real-time 3D environment in which is embedded a lecture on film design by Christopher Hobbs. The spatial design follows the structure of the lecture, and is richly illustrated with stills and film clips. The environment, implemented in Virtools, proved to be a visually intriguing combination of architectural, filmic and virtual space, though it was found that co-presence induced some problems with the concept of time.
keywords virtual learning environment, knowledge spatialisation, film design
series CAAD Futures
email pnr12@cam.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:27

_id f016
authors Richens, P. and Evans, M.
year 1991
title GDS and AutoCAD – An Independent Perspective
source Cambashi, Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 4c2a
authors Richens, P. and Schofield, S.
year 1995
title Interactive Computer Rendering
source Architectural Research Quarterly Vol 1 No1. EMAP, London
summary Interactive Rendering combines the geometrical precision of classical computer graphics with the representational freedom of a paint program. It is more sympathetic to the ways in which designers use images, and overcomes many of the frustrations experienced in rendering from CAD models. The scene is generated in a standard viewing application, but saved as a specially enhanced raster image. The extra information allows the Interactive Renderer to apply brushed-on rendering effects which are sensitive to the perspective of the image. Effects can be applied locally or overall, and may be overlaid, blended and erased to create complex combinations. A huge range of treatments are obtainable, both photorealistic and not.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/html/rich95b/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id a05a
authors Richens, P. and Schofield, S.
year 1996
title Interactive Image Editing (PCT Patent Application)
source Beresford & Co., London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 5799
authors Richens, P. and Trinder, M.
year 1999
title Design Participation through the Internet: A Case Study
source Architectural Research Quarterly Vol 3 No 4. CUP, Cambridge
summary Cambridge University and Microsoft are planning a shared computer research and teaching laboratory on a green-field site to the west of the city. The clients wished to use internet based communication between themselves and their architects, including email, a web site and virtual reality. We explain how this is to be achieved, and describe experiences during the first half of a two-year project. Particularly successful has been the use of games software (QuakeII) for 3D presentation of the emerging building design.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 33f9
authors Richens, P.
year 1974
title Summary of OXSYS Commands
source ARC Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 49ce
authors Richens, P.
year 1974
title Proposal for a Combined Drafting and Scheduling System
source Design Office Consortium, Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id f951
authors Richens, P.
year 1975
title Geometry and Numbers in Building Systems
source Hawkes, D. U. (Ed.) Models and Systems in Architecture and Building LUBFS Conference Proceedings No 2. Construction Press
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id e9aa
authors Richens, P.
year 1976
title New Developments in the OXSYS System
source Proceedings CAD76, Second International Conference of Computer in Engineering and Building Design. IPC London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 01e2
authors Richens, P.
year 1977
title OXSYS BDS Basic Principles
source ARC Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 26df
authors Richens, P.
year 1978
title The OXSYS System for the Design of Buildings
source Proceedings CAD78, Third International Conference on Computers in Engineering and Building Design. IPC, London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 5d5a
authors Richens, P.
year 1980
title The Design of a General Drafting System
source CAD80, 4th International Conference and Exhibition of Computers in Design Engineering, Brighton
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 91d4
authors Richens, P.
year 1980
title GDS User’s Manual
source ARC Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1d1e
authors Richens, P.
year 1983
title Extending the Drawing Database into other Applications
source RIBA Conference, London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 596b
authors Richens, P.
year 1983
title Dis-integrated Models for Building Design
source Proceedings PARC83 International Conference on the Use of Computers in Architecture. Berlin
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 46e7
authors Richens, P.
year 1984
title Experiences in Building CAD
source Seminar of the Joint Committee of the Scandinavia Research Institutes. Copenhagen
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id cdc5
id cdc5
authors Richens, P.
year 1988
title Automation of Drafting and Building Modelling – Historical Review of Commercial Development since the Seventies
source CIB-W78 Conference, Lund
summary The present day GDS system has its roots in BDS, started in 1970, BDS was a 3D data-centered system for design, analysis and documentation of system-built buildings. GDS started as a 2D drafting system, and proved more effective and marketable. Specialized applications and 3D capabilities were added gradually. Current interest is in simplifying the software, especially its user interface.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/12/03 07:33

_id 8c1f
authors Richens, P.
year 1988
title GDS Past, GDS in the Future
source Proceedings First GDS World User Conference. McDonnell Douglas, Cambridge.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 7648
authors Richens, P.
year 1989
title Desktop Jury
source CAD/CAM International 8:11.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1f1b
authors Richens, P.
year 1989
title MicroCAD Software Evaluated
source Construction Industry Computer Association, Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 0ec5
authors Richens, P.
year 1990
title Micro CAD
source The Scottish Construction Industry Computer Exhibition and Conference, RIAS, Glasgow June 1990
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 5dd3
authors Richens, P.
year 1990
title Computer Aided Design into the 90’s
source Seminar for RIAI, Dublin
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id a1d5
authors Richens, P.
year 1990
title Trends in Architectural CAD
source Building Technical File No 31.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 8847
authors Richens, P.
year 1991
title 3D Interface
source Human Interfaces for Design and Visualisation, British Computer Society, London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/13 19:32

_id dfa8
authors Richens, P.
year 1991
title The ABCs of CAD - What You really Need to Know when You Buy a System
source 3D Magazine 3/91, 4/91
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 1c06
authors Richens, P.
year 1991
title Hazards of Computing
source CICE ’91 Conference Programme. RIBA, London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 7384
authors Richens, P.
year 1992
title CAD Systems
source PC Direct 2/92
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 31c7
authors Richens, P.
year 1992
title The Next Ten Years
source Penz, F. (Ed.), Computers in Architecture. Longmans
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id a65b
authors Richens, P.
year 1993
title 3D Design
source RIAS Computer Conference, Glasgow
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/13 19:33

_id c804
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title Does Knowledge really Help?
source G. Carrara and Y.E. Kalay (Eds.), Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design, Elsevier
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series other
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2003/03/05 12:19

_id daff
authors Richens, P.
year 1994
title CAD Research at the Martin Centre
source Automation in Construction, No. 3
summary The Martin Centre CADLAB has recently been established to investigate software techniques that could be of practical importance to architects within the next five years. In common with most CAD researchers, we are interested in the earlier, conceptual, stages of design, where commercial CAD systems have had little impact. Our approach is not Knowledge-Based, but rather focuses on using the computer as a medium for design and communication. This leads to a concentration on apparently superficial aspects such as visual appearance, the dynamics of interaction, immediate feedback, plasticity. We try to avoid building-in theoretical attitudes, and to reduce the semantic content of our systems to a low level on the basis that flexibility and intelligence are inversely related; and that flexibility is more important. The CADLAB became operational in January 1992. First year work in three areas – building models, experiencing architecture, and making drawings – is discussed.
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich94a.pdf
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 2be8
authors Richens, P.
year 1995
title Interactive computer rendering
source Architectural research quarterly 1: 1 Autumn 1995. London, Emap press, pp. 82-95
summary Interactive Rendering combines the geometrical precision of classical computer graphics with the representational freedom of a paint program. It is more sympathetic to the ways in which designers use images, and overcomes many of the frustrations experienced in rendering from CAD models. The scene is generated in a standard viewing application, but saved as a specially enhanced raster image. The extra information allows the Interactive Renderer to apply brushed-on rendering effects which are sensitive to the perspective of the image. Effects can be applied locally or overall, and may be overlaid, blended and erased to create complex combinations. A huge range of treatments are obtainable, both photorealistic and not.
series journal paper
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 91af
authors Richens, P.
year 1996
title Developments in Object Technology
source CICA Annual Convention, Cambridge
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 321b
authors Richens, P.
year 1996
title Computer Representation Techniques for Historic Buildings
source National Trust Conservation Seminar, London
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 7446
authors Richens, P.
year 1996
title CAD and the Internet
source GDS Distributors Conference, 1996
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 4ec6
authors Richens, P.
year 1997
title Computer-aided Art Direction
source F. Penz and M. Thomas (Eds.) , Cinema & Architecture: Méliès, Mallet-Stevens, Multimedia, British Film Institute, London
summary Computer-aided design for architects began to be possible about 25 years ago; in the last five it has become commonplace. In a few years time, it will be as ubiquitous as the word-processor is today. But the construction industry as a whole is not a sophisticated user of Information Technology. The state of affairs in the film industry is quite different; computer graphics of the utmost sophistication plays an increasingly important part in the production of film, but very little in their design. Is it possible that an opportunity is being missed? This paper is written from the standpoint of a designer of architectural CAD software, and seeks to explore the extent to which computer graphics techniques, which have proved useful in architecture, could be used in Production Design, and the simulation of Cinematography. Several experiments, using commercial software of the sort that architects find useful, have lead to the realisation that much is possible, but that a full realisation of the benefits would require software specially adapted to the task. The bulk of this paper describes the nature of this adaptation; it is in the nature of a preliminary specification for software for Computer-aided art direction. The initial investigation centred on the needs of film students; it has since broadened to look at the needs of established practitioners.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/pdfs/rich97a.pdf
last changed 2003/03/05 12:10

_id cc8e
authors Richens, P.
year 1997
title Image Processing for Urban Scale Environmental Modelling
source Proceedings Fifth International IBPSA Conference: Building Simulation ’97 (Prague). International Building Performance Simulation Association
summary If a map of a city is encoded as a Digital Elevation Model, it becomes amenable to image-processing software, such as the public-domain NIH Image application. Standard techniques can be used to measure plan areas and volumes and simple macros can be devised to measure perimeter length and wall areas. A macro for calculating shadow volumes is elaborated for the simulation of solar gains and daylight, including indirect lighting, leading to the possibility of an image-based urban-scale environmental model.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/html/rich97b/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id e43a
authors Richens, P.
year 1997
title Beyond Photorealism
source Architects’ Journal, 12/6/97
summary Computer rendering has come a long way in the last twenty years. But is it going in the right direction? Is the glossy photo-realistic image the only goal worth pursuing? And does the process of making it contribute enough to the design, or the ongoing dialogue with the client? There certainly are alternative modes of image-making. Frank Lloyd Wright, according to legend, could conceive a whole building in his head, and set it down rapidly, in plan and section. He would leave these drawings overnight to his assistant, who would set up a perspective. In the morning, FLW would spend an hour or two completing the rendering, ready for a lunch-time meeting with his clients. Today, many architects use their computers in the same way as FLW used his night-staff, to set-up an outline perspective, over which a rendering is produced by hand. Students, we observe, will often attempt to complete the rendering using a paint program such as Photoshop to apply textures and entourage in a kind of electronic collage.
series journal paper
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/html/rich97c/
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 3674
authors Richens, P.
year 1997
title Image Processing for Urban Scale Environmental Modelling
source Proceedings of the Intemational Conference Building Simulation 97 - Prague, 163-171
summary If a map of a city is encoded as a Digital Elevation Model, it becomes amenable to image-processing software, such as the public-domain NIH Image application. Standard techniques can be used to measure plan areas and volumes and simple macros can be devised to measure perimeter length and wall areas. A macro for calculating shadow volumes is elaborated for the simulation of solar gains and daylight, including indirect lighting, leading to the possibility of an image-based urban-scale environmental model.
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 7f2d
authors Richens, P.
year 1998
title Project Websites
source Proactive Engineering Symposium, Bentley Systems Inc, Philadelphia
series other
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 7387
authors Richens, P.
year 1999
title Painting a Perfect Picture
source Gallery 5/99
series journal
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 53f0
authors Richens, Paul and Trinder, Michael
year 1999
title Exploiting the Internet to Improve Collaboration between Users and Design Team: The Case of the New Computer Laboratory at the University of Cambridge
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 31-47
summary Cambridge University and Microsoft are building a shared computer research and teaching laboratory on a green-field site to the west of the city. The clients wished to use internet based communication between themselves and their architects, including email, a web site and virtual reality. We explain how this is to be achieved, and describe experiences during the first six months of a two year project. Particularly successful has been the use of games software (Quake 11) for 3d presentation of the emerging building design.
keywords Collaborative Design, Internet, Virtual Reality
series CAAD Futures
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id d155
authors Richens, Paul and Trinder, Michael
year 1999
title Design participation through the Internet: a case study
source arq . vol3 . no 4 . 1999
summary Cambridge University and Microsoft are planning a shared computer research and teaching laboratory on a green-field site to the west of the city. The clients wished to use internet based communication between themselves and their architects, including email, a web site and virtual reality. We explain how this is to be achieved, and describe experiences during the first half of a two-year project. Particularly successful has been the use of games software (QuakeII) for 3D presentation of the emerging building design.
series journal paper
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/03/05 12:21

_id 6883
authors Richens, Paul
year 1999
title The Piranesi System for Interactive Rendering
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 381-398
summary Photorealistic rendering requires special skills to achieve, but the result is not necessarily ideal for architectural communication. The Piranesi software provides an alternative way of producing a much wider range of images from the same geometrical model. Piranesi appears to be a 2d paint program for editing raster images, but its input includes a z-buffer. This allows painting and and pasting to reflect the perspective of the image, and many other depthrelated effects. The result is a new, and enjoyable, way of producing architectural images.
keywords Computer Graphics, Non-Photorealism, Painting, Interaction, Rendering
series CAAD Futures
email paul.richens@arct.cam.ac.uk
more http://www.arct.cam.ac.uk/research/pubs/
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ecaade2009_057
id ecaade2009_057
authors Richens, Paul; Herdt, Georg
year 2009
title Modelling the Ionic Capital
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 809-816
summary In the course of a study into the origins of the Ionic order, a group of fragmentary early capitals of historic importance were measured by short-range laser-scanning, and then reconstructed in their original state by means of NURBS surface modelling. Drawings, renderings and scaled facsimiles were produced from both types of model, and proved invaluable in the formal analysis of the objects by architectural historians. It is suggested that these digital methods are more objective and accurate than traditional drawings and plaster reconstructions, and the resulting datasets more sustainable and of greater value to subsequent researchers.
wos WOS:000334282200099
keywords Classical, ionic, history, pointcloud, reconstruction, modelling
series eCAADe
email pnr20@bath.ac.uk, gh251@bath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2006_222
id 2006_222
authors Richter, Katharina and Dirk Donath
year 2006
title Towards a Better Understanding of the Case-Based Reasoning Paradigm in Architectural Education and Design
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 222-227
summary This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of systems and concepts which make use of case-based reasoning, a paradigm from artificial intelligence (AI). The analysis focuses on the use of this paradigm in the support of design and education processes, so-called “case-based design aids”. The research aims to discover problem areas in current approaches and identify potential areas for further research with a view to improving the practical suitability of existing systems, which offer promising potential yet are rarely implemented in practice.
keywords Architectural Precedents; Databases; Architectural Education and Design; Case-Based Reasoning
series eCAADe
email katharina.richter@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id ecaade2007_044
id ecaade2007_044
authors Richter, Katharina; Heylighen, Ann; Donath, Dirk
year 2007
title Looking Back to the Future
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 285-292
summary In the early and mid 1990s the idea to apply CBR to the task of designing — in short Case-Based Design (CBD) — led to a considerable number of research initiatives across the world. Several promising CBD tools and prototypes were developed and enthusiastically celebrated within the research community, seemingly announcing a promising future for CAAD. However, because the predicted breakthrough failed to appear, an in-depth evaluation of six CBD tools was conducted in 2001 in search of reasons for this limited success. At first sight the situation has not changed much since then, yet a closer look reveals CBD research still to be quite active, be it sometimes disguised. This observation, combined with our belief in CBD’s potential for aiding professional and student architects, motivated an expanded issue of the 2001 study. This issue determines the position of current CBD research within the CAAD domain and uncovers focal points set by CBD researchers and the tools they created. Additionally it analyses the role of emerging technologies in overcoming earlier identified drawbacks of CBD tools in architecture.
keywords Case-based design, architectural design, design support systems
series eCAADe
email katharina.richter@archit.uni-weimar.de, ann.heylighen@asro.kuleuven.be, donath@archit.uni-weimar.de
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 8c8c
authors Richter, Peter
year 1991
title Integrating Planning Systems
source Experiences with CAAD in Education and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Munich (Germany) 17-19 October 1991
summary Goals and concepts of integrating different computeraided design and administration systems for many tasks in design and management of buildings were reported from the viewpoint of research and software development. They are presented by example of the ISYBAU-project.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 07:51

_id 2b53
authors Rico, Esteban Javier
year 2001
title Y EN TODO ESTO DÓNDE ESTÁ EL DISEÑO? LA ILUSIÓN DE LOS CONTENIDOS O LOS CONTENIDOS DE LA ILUSIÓN (And in all this, Where Is the Design? The Illusion of the Content or the Content of the Illusion)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 22-24
summary The illusion of the contents or the contents of the illusion. Our sensory universe is stimulated before a growing and unstoppable manifestation of visual communications in which a language complexity is noticed, where with too much frequency is observed an unpunished use of “ pyrotechnics and visual artifices “ for a quite dissimilar audience between which are some to be eager for noise and others of superficial sensations. When analyzing habitually good part of the production of the present design we found associate the adjectives experimental, transgressor, postmodern, fashion, funny and unstructured. The perplexity appears when analyzing those productions we only found that the order of the design is so chaotic and that he is so insubstantial, that surely it has some relation with the crisis of the language and of the content.
series SIGRADI
email Esteban@kpr.com.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2006_c055b
id sigradi2006_c055b
authors Rico, Esteban Javier and Pinkus, Nicolás
year 2006
title Pedagogía de los aspectos tecnológicos y comunicacionales del infodesign. Experiencia de transferencia de investigación académica a cátedras de grado de la carrera de Diseño Gráfico [Technology and communicational aspects in the pedagogy of info-design]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 181-186
summary This text discuss the experience of transferring the preliminary results of a Research on Infodesign produced within the institutional frame of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo (FADU-UBA), towards the undergraduate students attending the workshop Taller de Diseno Grafico (Pujol). This idea was based in the Research Project “The Infodesign in the production and presentation of knowledge. Development and application of a study case related to the Academic Research Networks”, conducted by Esteban Javier Rico and co-directed by Nicolás Pinkus. In the Research Team also collaborate Carolina Borrachia and Mariano Benassi. The experience made the students – as a requirement of the course- plan and generate infographics about several aspects of the Universidad de Buenos Aires. The students discovered and worked the communicational and representational challenges and problems of this specific field of the design.
series SIGRADI
email esteban.javier.rico@redinfodesign.org
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 79f8
authors Rieber, L.
year 1994
title Computers Graphics, and Learning
source Brown & Benchmark, Madison
summary The first of the topics begins with an overview of instructional computer graphics. This leads into an overview of the status of instructional visual research including discussions on visual perception, visual cognition, and theories on storing visual information in short-term and long-term memory. More practical application information is found in the next few chapters covering when and how static and animated graphics should be integrated into computer based instruction. The book concludes with a consideration of the role visuals play with multimedia. The useful information of each chapter is delivered with a cautious and wise nature. Rieber introduces his book with the first principle of instructional graphics, which I found to be very insightful. It reads, "There are times when pictures can aid learning, times when pictures do not aid learning but do no harm, and times when pictures do not aid learning and are distracting." The general premise throughout the book is that learning is paramount and should take center stage. He further warns the instructional designer about becoming "technocentric" (this is where technology dictates decision making) and recommends that media decisions not be made untilother instructional decisions are made. Again and again, from chapter to chapter, the reader is reminded of this underlying premise which made this book particularly effective. Another strength was the comprehensive nature of the book. There was an excellent balance of theory, research, and application to ensure the reader will gain the knowledge for appropriate integration of graphics into instructional materials. The theoretical information covers the role of visuals in communication and education, quoting many research sources for validation. There is an overview of three types of instructional graphics (representational, analogical, and arbitrary) and an analysis of their possible use in Gagneís domains of learning. Rieber states that the design of instructional graphics is strongly influenced by the inter-relationships and interdependency of the five domains. To help the reader choose the correct graphic for the job intended, a section describing the five applications of instructional graphics (cosmetic, motivation, attention-gaining, presentation, and practice) is included. It is recognized that these applications originated from Gagne's nine events of instruction.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 4bff
authors Riegel, J.P., Schütze, M. and Zimmermann, G.
year 1997
title Pattern-Based Generation of Customized, Flexible Building Simulators
source CAAD Futures 1997 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-7923-4726-9] München (Germany), 4-6 August 1997, pp. 285-298
summary This paper describes a domain-specific software development method for the creation of building simulators. The method is based on object-oriented modeling, design patterns and code generation principles. The goal is to provide customizable building simulators that exactly simulate those physical effects an application demands. The numerical accuracy and different algorithms to be used can be tailored to the application's needs. By using object models and preconfigured design patterns, a well-structured simulator model can be created. From this model, the complete product code of a simulator is generated. The patterns help to develop a complete and correct model. Each pattern describes a certain functionality and knows how to generate code to implement this functionality.
series CAAD Futures
email riegel@informatik.uni-kl.de
last changed 1999/04/06 07:19

_id 737e
authors Riegler, A. (ed.)
year 2001
title Virtual Science: Virtuality and Knowledge Acquisition in Science and Cognition
source Virtual Reality: Cognitive Foundations, Technological Issues & Philosophical Implications. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang
summary The focus of this paper is the process of knowledge acquisition (KA) and which role virtuality plays in this context. We argue that there are three different modes of knowledge acquisition which can be identified both in the domains of cognition and science: the empirical, the "constructive", and the "synthetic" mode. We show that the method of constructing knowledge in the virtual domain (i.e., the synthetic mode of KA) is not only a principal mode of KA in our cognition (e.g., thought experiments, making plans, etc.). It becomes increasingly important in the field of (natural) science in the form of simulations and virtual experiments. The attempt to find an answer to the question of whether simulation can be an information source for science, and to validate the computational approach in science, leads to a new interpretation of the nature of virtual models. This new perspective renders the problem of "feature extraction" obsolete.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id c1b6
authors Ries, R.
year 1999
title Computational Analysis of the Environmental Impact of Building Designs
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary Concem for the environmental implications of human activities is becoming increasingly important to society. The concept of current development that does not compromise future generations! abilities to meet their needs is a goal for many communities and individuals (WCED 1987). These concerns require the evaluation and assessment of the potential environmental impact of human activities so that informed choices can be made. Building construction and operation activities are of significant importance in view of a) national and intemational economies, 6) resource consumption, c) human occupancy, and d) environmental impact. For example, in the United States the built environment represents an extensive investment, both as an annual expenditure and as an aggregate investment. In the mid-l980’s, up to 30% of new and remodeled buildings had indoor air quality related complaints. Buildings also consume approximately 35% of the primary energy in the U.S. every year, resulting in the release of 482 million metric tons of carbon in 1993. I Methods developed to assess the environmental impact of buildings and development patterns can and have taken multiple strategies. The most straightforward and simple methods use single factors, such as energy use or the mass of pollutant emissions as indicators of environmental performance. Other methods use categorization and weighting strategies. These gauge the effects of the emissions typically based on research studies and use a weighting or effect formulation to normalize, compare, and group emissions so that a scalar value can be assigned to a single or a set of emissions. These methods do not consider the characteristics of the context where the emissions occur.
series thesis:MSc
email rr43@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 9dfa
authors Ries, R. and Mahdavi, A.
year 1999
title Environmental Life Cycle Assessment in an Integrated CAD Environment: The Ecologue Approach
source Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-8536-5] Atlanta, 7-8 June 1999, pp. 351-363
summary Construction and operation of buildings is a major cause of resource depletion and environmental pollution. Computational performance evaluation tools could support the decision making process in environmentally responsive building design and play an important role in environmental impact assessment, especially when a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach is used. The building domain, however, presents notable challenges to the application of LCA methods. For comprehensive environmental impact analysis to be realized in a computational support tool for the building design domain, such tools must a) have an analysis method that considers the life cycle of building construction, operation, and decommissioning, b) have a representation that is able to accommodate the data and computability requirements of the analysis method and the analysis tool, and c) be seamlessly integrated within a multi-aspect design analysis environment that can provide data on environmentally relevant building operation criteria. This paper reviews the current state of assessment methods and computational support tools for LCA, and their application to building design. Then, the implementation of an application (ECOLOGUE) for comprehensive computational assessment of environmental impact indicators over the building life cycle is presented. The application is a component in a multi-aspect space-based CAD and evaluation environment (SEMPER). The paper describes the use and typical results of ECOLOGUE system via illustrative examples.
keywords Life Cycle Assessment, Integrated Computational Environmental Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email amahdavi@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 0767
authors Ries, Robert and Mahdavi, Ardeshir
year 2001
title Evaluation of Design Performance through Regional Environmental Simulation
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 629-642
summary Computational building simulation tools have historically viewed buildings as artefacts isolated and disconnected from their contexts. At most, the external environmental conditions have been viewed as outside influences or stressors encapsulated in, for example, weather files for energy simulation or sky models for lighting simulation. In the field of environmental assessment, life cycle analysis (LCA) has followed a similar path of isolating the artefact under analysis from its context. Modeling the building artefact as a participant in multiple contexts over time so that the interactions and dependencies between the regions and the building can be adequately explored in the design process requires support for the modeling of regional areas, as well as the artefact and the related life cycle processes. Using computational design and evaluation tools can provide the computing capability required for effective design decision support. This paper presents the implementation of the affordance impact assessment method and the regional environmental simulation in Ecologue. Ecologue is the computational tool for life cycle environmental impact assessment in the SEMPER integrated building design and simulation system. Ecologue contains a building model and an environmental model. The building model is automatically derived from the shared building model of the SEMPER system. The environmental model is a combination of a representation of the processes and emissions occurring in the life cycle of buildings and an impact assessment model. The impact assessment model is a combination of a context model of the physical characteristics of a region and a sub-regional fate and transport model based on the fugacity concept.
keywords Environmental Simulation, Design Decision Support, Life Cycle Analysis
series CAAD Futures
email robries@pitt.edu
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 1920
authors Riesbeck, C. and Schank, R.C.
year 1989
title Inside Case-based Reasoning
source Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ
summary Case-based reasoning, broadly construed, is the process of solving new problems based on the solutions of similar past problems. An auto mechanic who fixes an engine by recalling another car that exhibited similar symptoms is using case-based reasoning. A lawyer who advocates a particular outcome in a trial based on legal precedents is using case-based reasoning. It has been argued that case-based reasoning is not only a powerful method for computer reasoning, but also a pervasive behavior in everyday human problem solving. Case-based reasoning (CBR) has been formalized as a four-step process:N 1. Retrieve: Given a target problem, retrieve cases from memory that are relevant to solving it. A case consists of a problem, its solution, and, typically, annotations about how the solution was derived. For example, suppose Fred wants to prepare blueberry pancakes. Being a novice cook, the most relevant experience he can recall is one in which he successfully made plain pancakes. The procedure he followed for making the plain pancakes, together with justifications for decisions made along the way, constitutes Fred's retrieved case. 2. Reuse: Map the solution from the previous case to the target problem. This may involve adapting the solution as needed to fit the new situation. In the pancake example, Fred must adapt his retrieved solution to include the addition of blueberries. 3. Revise: Having mapped the previous solution to the target situation, test the new solution in the real world (or a simulation) and, if necessary, revise. Suppose Fred adapted his pancake solution by adding blueberries to the batter. After mixing, he discovers that the batter has turned blue -- an undesired effect. This suggests the following revision: delay the addition of blueberries until after the batter has been ladled into the pan. 4. Retain: After the solution has been successfully adapted to the target problem, store the resulting experience as a new case in memory. Fred, accordingly, records his newfound procedure for making blueberry pancakes, thereby enriching his set of stored experiences, and better preparing him for future pancake-making demands. At first glance, CBR may seem similar to the rule-induction algorithmsP of machine learning.N Like a rule-induction algorithm, CBR starts with a set of cases or training examples; it forms generalizations of these examples, albeit implicit ones, by identifying commonalities between a retrieved case and the target problem. For instance, when Fred mapped his procedure for plain pancakes to blueberry pancakes, he decided to use the same basic batter and frying method, thus implicitly generalizing the set of situations under which the batter and frying method can be used. The key difference, however, between the implicit generalization in CBR and the generalization in rule induction lies in when the generalization is made. A rule-induction algorithm draws its generalizations from a set of training examples before the target problem is even known; that is, it performs eager generalization. For instance, if a rule-induction algorithm were given recipes for plain pancakes, Dutch apple pancakes, and banana pancakes as its training examples, it would have to derive, at training time, a set of general rules for making all types of pancakes. It would not be until testing time that it would be given, say, the task of cooking blueberry pancakes. The difficulty for the rule-induction algorithm is in anticipating the different directions in which it should attempt to generalize its training examples. This is in contrast to CBR, which delays (implicit) generalization of its cases until testing time -- a strategy of lazy generalization. In the pancake example, CBR has already been given the target problem of cooking blueberry pancakes; thus it can generalize its cases exactly as needed to cover this situation. CBR therefore tends to be a good approach for rich, complex domains in which there are myriad ways to generalize a case.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia04_028
id acadia04_028
authors Riese, Martin and Simmons, Marc
year 2004
title The Glass Office - SCL office and showroom in Brisbane, Australia
source Fabrication: Examining the Digital Practice of Architecture [Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture and the 2004 Conference of the AIA Technology in Architectural Practice Knowledge Community / ISBN 0-9696665-2-7] Cambridge (Ontario) 8-14 November, 2004, 28-33
summary FRONT is a collaborative of Architects and Engineers based in New York City. Following is a brief description of an example project designed by Front which demonstrates the type of work that the firm is involved in.The project is an office and showroom adjacent to a glass manufacturing plant in Queensland, Australia. The client required a design vocabulary that would optimally demonstrate the production capabilities of the factory. The resultant design features a 70ft x 130ft continuous enclosure composed of overlapping, curved ribs of toughened, laminated glass. All the panels of the building envelope are composed of multiple layers of glass, fabricated in the adjacent factory, directly from digital shop drawings produced using Gehry Technologies’ CATIA/Digital Project.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
last changed 2010/05/16 07:10

_id ecaade2012_313
id ecaade2012_313
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2012
title Parametric Folds: Using the Elasticity of Polymers For a Light Weight Structure
source Achten, Henri; Pavlicek, Jiri; Hulin, Jaroslav; Matejovska, Dana (eds.), Digital Physicality - Proceedings of the 30th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2 / ISBN 978-9-4912070-3-7, Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Architecture (Czech Republic) 12-14 September 2012, pp. 181-189
summary This project takes advantage of a dynamic structural quality found in high-density polymers in the development of a self-supporting lightweight structural envelope for the Nuit Blanche pavilion. The pavilion was developed to display a series of interactive art projects as part of the annual Nuit Blanche Festival in Paris. The project combines concepts from biology with digital design and fabrication methods to speculate on a new relation between structure, geometry, material and appearance. Before discussing the design research of the pavilion the paper will elaborate on our larger research goals in using digital technology to promote more environmentally responsible construction methods and the research values of projects at the scale of a pavilion.
wos WOS:000330320600018
keywords Polymer; elasticity; lightweight structure; pavilion
series eCAADe
last changed 2014/04/14 11:07

_id ecaade2008_135
id ecaade2008_135
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2008
title New Nomadism
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 413-418
summary We live in a digital world. This article proposes using digital media to intensify our perceptions. An architectural navigation aid by coupling digital media with cognitive processes, a design process will be suggested that requires a shift in thinking from tool to media, from descriptive geometry to constructive geometry, and from stirring media to media that does the stirring.
keywords Digital media, emergence, cognition, design process
series eCAADe
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id acadia08_400
id acadia08_400
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2008
title Digital Traces
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 400-405
summary Digital media, with the capacity to master complexity, has permitted an unprecedented ability to reinterpret natural processes. An infinite number of realities can emerge from their interpretations that can be developed into physical structures or spatial models that can further be appropriated to inform the design of architecture. In this paper the potential of these digital interpretations to inform architectural design processes will be discussed. Demonstrating how digital media can operate as an interface that couples information with cognitive processes I will show how digital media can be constructed in order to intensify our perception of our natural environment. Examples from projects that were developed with students during the spring semester of 2008 at Georgia Institute of Technology will be used to support the argument.
keywords Digital Fabrication; Emergence; Environment; Media; Perception
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2010_380
id sigradi2010_380
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2010
title Digital Phantasmagoria: An Urban Space of Intensified Interaction
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 380-383
summary This paper will investigate the relationship between public space and digital media and speculate about the possibility of using digital technology to reactivate public space. From the perspective of current trends in digital technology, the paper will relate Walter Benjamin’s speculations about a transformation of public space into a space of heightened interaction as well as Gordon Pasks’ installations in the 60s. “Flux Space”, an exhibition by Gernot Riether, Ruth Ron, Renate Weissenböck and Atsunobu Maeda at the Arthur Ross Gallery in New York in 2000 will be used as an example to demonstrate how public space might be reactivated using digital technology to intensify the relationship between the spectator and physical space.
keywords digital media, public space, communication, installation, multi - media
series SIGRADI
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ijac201311304
id ijac201311304
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2013
title The Nuit Blanche Pavilion; using the elasticity of polymers for a lightweight structure
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 11 - no. 3, 331-346
summary The Nuit Blanche Pavilion is a recent project by Gernot Riether in collaboration with artist Damien Valero. The project takes advantage of an elastic behavior found in high-density elastomers to form a lightweight structure that integrates form, geometry and program in a single material system. Grasshopper and the finite element plug-in Karamba were used to optimize these interdependencies. This paper will describe the design of the project and elaborate on an aspect of Riether's research that uses digital technology to promote environmentally responsible materials and construction methods.
series journal
last changed 2013/10/07 16:54

_id sigradi2016_766
id sigradi2016_766
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2016
title A Public Space for the Digital Age
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.260-265
summary With Information Technology such as smart phones we use public urban space differently. For example prior to cell phones people would meet in a public space by agreeing on a specific meeting location and time. Using cell phones people meet more spontaneous. Cell phones also allow people to be engaged in a very private phone conversation in the middle of a public space. In spite of information technology creating new uses for public space urban planners are still relying on old paradigms in designing and constructing it. A workshop was formulated around the question: How can we design urban spaces for a digital culture? The achieved outcome of the workshop was the design and realization of a public space that addresses this challenge. To do that students were asked to come up with new functions for public spaces, test materials, help seeking for funding and creating partnerships with the city, the industry and nonprofit organizations. During the duration of a one-semester timeframe the studio was facing a series of challenges dealing with the design, fabrication and realization of an urban space. This paper will describe the challenges of designing urban spaces for a digital culture, the structure of the workshop, the interventions made during the process and the final project, an urban landscape titled “Urban Blanket” that was build in Midtown Atlanta.
keywords Public Space; Information Technology; Digital Fabrication; Thermoforming; Simulation
series SIGraDi
email griether@gmail.com
last changed 2017/06/21 12:21

_id ecaade2017_gri
id ecaade2017_gri
authors Riether, Gernot
year 2017
title The Digital Design Build Studio
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 31-35
summary This talk will present a series of projects from the Digital Design Build Studio. The Studio explores the relation between computation, materiality, tectonics and structure at an architectural scale. The research presented in the talk will have a focus on an investigation on polymers. The talk will also use these explorations to discuss a model of operation for architecture schools in the context of a profession that has been disrupted by digital technology. Talking about some projects in more detail will illustrate the findings of the experimentation with different polymers. The discussion will also highlight the social aspect of these interventions and illustrate how coalitions between non-profit organizations, developers, industry and municipalities may benefit and impact their communities.
series eCAADe
email wurzer@iemar.tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2017/09/13 13:27

_id caadria2015_031
id caadria2015_031
authors Riether, Gernot; Andrew J. Wit and Steven T. Putt
year 2015
title The Underwood Pavilion
source Emerging Experience in Past, Present and Future of Digital Architecture, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2015) / Daegu 20-22 May 2015, pp. 663-672
summary Tensegrity structures are not commonly found within the current discourse of architecture. The reason may be that they can only be designed through physical form finding processes. This paper will show how architects can gain the ability to design these structures digitally utilizing physics engines that simulate these form finding processes in real time. To demonstrate this, the paper will use the Underwood Pavilion as a case study to describe a design process that replaces traditional methodologies by digital methods, suggesting a new parametric design approach for lightweight structures and envelopes.
keywords Tensegrity; parametric; membrane; pavilion; modular.
series CAADRIA
email griether@gmail.com
last changed 2015/06/05 05:14

_id ecaade2008_136
id ecaade2008_136
authors Riether, Gernot; Butler, Tom
year 2008
title Simulation Space
source Architecture in Computro [26th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-7-2] Antwerpen (Belgium) 17-20 September 2008, pp. 133-142
summary It is the attempt here to test simulation tools in relation to a design process and speculate on strategies to not just integrate simulation tools in the design process but to use these tools to construct a new design environment for the architect.
keywords BIM, building information modeling, performance, simulation
series eCAADe
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2008/09/09 13:55

_id caadria2009_147
id caadria2009_147
authors Riether, Gernot; Daniel Baerlecken
year 2009
title Open Pattern
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 615-624
summary The paper explores MEL scripting as a design methodology and reports on the findings of its implementation as an introduction course in design computing for undergraduate and graduate students at the Architecture School at Georgia Institute of Technology. The course is structured into two parts: In the first part different variations of scripts are developed to generate three-dimensional patterns. In the second part these patterns are classified, interpreted and tested towards architecture.
keywords Generative Design: MEL Scripting; Design Methodology; Biological Computation
series CAADRIA
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id ijac201210101
id ijac201210101
authors Riether, Gernot; Daniel Baerlecken
year 2012
title Digital Girih, A Digital Interpretation of Islamic Architecture
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 10 - no. 1, 1-12
summary The relation between texture, pattern and massing is a fundamental question in architecture. Classical architecture, as Leon Battista Alberti states in De Re Aedificatoria, Book VI, Chapter 2, is developed through massing and structure first; texture is added afterwards to give the bold massing and structure beauty [I]. This hierarchy has of course been challenged throughout architecture history. This paper will provide a different thinking of the relationship of massing and texture in Islamic Architecture from a digital point of view. An analysis of Islamic patterns challenged this relationship in Islamic architecture. Digital design and fabrication methods for a series of studies and an installation were used to respond to the findings of the analysis.
series journal
last changed 2012/04/05 06:42

_id ecaade2011_165
id ecaade2011_165
authors Riether, Gernot; Jolly, Knox
year 2011
title Flexible Systems: Flexible Design, Material and Fabrication: The AIA pavilion as a case study
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.628-634
summary This paper is about the fabrication process of the DesCours pavilion, a project that was realized in the context of a graduate design studio in the Fall Semester of 2010. The assembly and construction process of the pavilion will be used to show how parametric software, such as Grasshopper can inform fabrication and material systems. The paper will explain the fabrication process of a pavilion in detail and make an argument for plastic as a material that not only responds to the malleable characteristic of digital tools but also to environmental issues.
wos WOS:000335665500073
keywords Design Build; Grasshopper; CNC; Parametric Design; Digital Fabrication; Plastic
series eCAADe
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id sigradi2013_425
id sigradi2013_425
authors Riether, Gernot; Keyan Rahimzadeh
year 2013
title SKIN: An Open Negotiation between Form, Function and Materiality
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 424 - 429
summary The Nuit Blanche Pavilion is a recent project by Gernot Riether in collaboration with artist Damien Valero. The project takes advantage of an elastic behavior found in high-density elastomers to form a lightweight structure that integrates form, geometry and program in a single material system. Grasshopper and the finite element plug-in Karamba were used to optimize these interdependencies. This paper will describe the design of the project and elaborate on an aspect of Riether’s research that uses digital technology to promote environmentally responsible materials and construction methods.
keywords Parametric design; Polymers; Light weight structure; Interactive video installation
series SIGRADI
email griether@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id acadia13_435
id acadia13_435
authors Riether, Gernot; Rahimzadeh, Keyan
year 2013
title The Nuit Blanche Pavilion: Using the elastic behavior of elastomers for a lightweight structure
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 435-436
summary The Nuit Blanche Pavilion investigated the elasticity of elastomers to develop a structural envelope for an interactive spatial video and sound installation by artist Damien Valero
keywords lightweight structure, elastomers, interactive systems, parametric design
series ACADIA
type Research Poster
email gernot.riether@coa.gatech.edu
last changed 2013/12/16 08:04

_id sigradi2015_12.215
id sigradi2015_12.215
authors Riether, Gernot; Wit, Andrew John
year 2015
title Redefining the Parametric Pedagogy. Reflections on a digital design build studio
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 713-718.
summary During the summer of 2014, a unique pedagogical prototype was initiated and tested through a short five-week digital design build workshop lead by Professors Gernot Riether and Andrew John Wit at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana. Unlike the typical design studio typology where projects are initiated through a series of top down predetermined project frameworks, this studio allowed for projects to emerge through student’s navigating an area of research in digital design and fabrication. The studio was supplied by nothing more than an entrepreneurial mindset, initial budget and the requirement that an architectural project would be realized at full-scale by the end of the semester. Over the course of the semester, students tested, stumbled and pressed through a series of follies and prototypes that resulted in the realization of the Underwood Pavilion. This paper explores a novel design pedagogy, through the lens of this Digital Design Build Studio.
keywords Studio pedagogy, Computation, Design Build, Digital Fabrication
series SIGRADI
email griether@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id sigradi2009_1018
id sigradi2009_1018
authors Righi, Thales Filipini; Gabriela Celani; Regina Ruschel
year 2009
title Displays interativos no atelier de projeto: um experimento pedagógico
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This research started with of a literature review about the importance of drawings as a design and a thinking tool, and the changes introduced by digital media in the production of drawings and in the design process. The study led to a discussion about how digital media interferes in the architectural practice, and how digital tools have reduced the use of hand drawings. A pedagogical experiment was developed with senior architecture students in a studio course during one semester. The experiment was preceded by a pilot study, in which the equipment was tested. The equipment used in the experiment was a frontal projection interactive white board. We expect that the results of the experiment will help establishing the systematic use of interactive displays in the studios in our school and elsewhere.
keywords Metodologia de projeto; revolução digital; desenho na arquitetura; lousas Interativas
series SIGRADI
email thales.righi@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2008_090
id sigradi2008_090
authors Righi, Thales; Gabriela Celani
year 2008
title Technologies for interactive displays [Tecnologias de displays interativos no processo de projeto arquitetônico]
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper aims to discuss the possibilities of interactive displays in architecture´s design, the article starts discussing how the computational methods transformed the way of thinking architecture. Then are presented and analyzed some technologies that can be built into the workshop of the project architecture, among them: opaque and LCD tablets, chambers of immersion, whiteboards and interactive screens and equipment´s of tangible digital information (Tangible Bits). It appears that the trend of technological innovations is a mix of traditional and digital, facilitating the manipulation and production of drawings by architects through direct touch, some of the technologies are already considered viable, providing low cost and good results during the practice of design.
keywords Displays interativos, metodologia de projeto, manual x digital
series SIGRADI
type normal paper
email thales.righi@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id d320
authors Rihani, R.A. and Bernold, L.E.
year 1996
title Methods of control for robotic brick masonry
source Automation in Construction 4 (4) (1996) pp. 281-292
summary The major use of brick masonry units in the U.S. is in facades for office buildings and single family homes. The traditional method for building masonry walls is on-site by bricklayers. An alternative method is panelization or prefabrication of brick panels in a plant environment. While many mechanical problems exist, the real-time control represents a challenging aspect of robotizing brick masonry work. This paper presents an effort to study the development of an experimental robotic masonry system and its relevant control modules. It also describes two control frameworks for different levels in a robotic brick masonry prototype: (a) local control, and (b) global control. The local control system includes three work cells: (a) gripping and handling, (b) quality control, and (c) brick placement. First, the components and equipment used in a work cell are listed, then the experimental work performed with them is discussed to show how sensors are used for dehacking, brick placement, brick color detection, and brick size measurements. The paper then continues to describe a global control system that will integrate the three local work cells utilizing a hierarchical structure.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id caadria2005_a_8a_b
id caadria2005_a_8a_b
authors Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki, Ryouichi Ise
year 2005
title Development of the knowledge-sharing sheet system for landscape design management
source CAADRIA 2005 [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] New Delhi (India) 28-30 April 2005, vol. 1, pp. 376-386
summary In a public design, such as a landscape, it is important that the information on the design process be shared among the planners, the administration, and the citizens, and to continue the design work with consensus. A landscape design proposal cannot be reasonably evaluated from only the result of a design since the decision making process would not be sufficiently explained. Therefore, designers are required to record and store several design documents during the design process. The development of a knowledge management technique is desirable in order to facilitate the sharing of the project information in the designer’s group. The authors have researched knowledge management in a landscape design process, developed a heuristic knowledge-sharing tool that aids decision-making by consensus in a design process. This tool is a sheet system based on XML (extensible markup language). It allows the user to retrieve knowledge from a similar design project, and to customize the formats of a sheet according to the design process.
series CAADRIA
email homma@ge.kumamoto-u.ac.jp
last changed 2005/04/30 01:30

_id ga9812
id ga9812
authors Riley, Howard
year 1998
title The Genetic Code of Drawing: A systemic – functional approach to the semiotics of visual language
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The many varied drawing conventions, invented by human cultures world-wide to depict experience of their world on a two-dimensional surface, all derive from the two fundamental processes of selection and combination of marks and surfaces. Here is the DNA of drawing – a dialectically entwined pair from which spirals the luxuriant diversity of human visual representation. Recent work by visual semioticians Michael O’Toole, Gunther Kress and Theo van Leeuwen has extended earlier insights of the linguist Michael Halliday to arrive at a powerful means of analysing painting, sculpture, architecture and graphics. Such analysis is known as systemic-functional semiotics because it identifies from within a visual grammar and vocabulary the systems of choices which enable the social functions of all human communication to be articulated. Those functions are: 1. to represent aspects of our physical and emotional experiences of the world. 2. to afford both artist and viewer the means for expressing or adopting personal attitudes and moods towards those experiences. An interpersonal function. Of course, a third function is required to make the previous two visible: 3. the functon of composition in material form. This kind of semiotics recognise that ideological constraints within a society can determine the choices of visual elements and the rules of their combination; it also recognises, dialectically, that the visual work thus produced may in turn affect the society’s ideological constructs. The paper breaks new ground by extending the concept of social semiotics into the field of Drawing. It goes on to explain an ecological approach to understanding visual perception, and attempts to synthesise aspects of this perception theory and semiotic theory. The resulting synthesis becomes a way of mapping the varieties of drawing which are generated from what may be termed the ?genetic code? of drawing. But this new theoretical model proposed here not only allows us to make contextual sense of existing drawing; it also provides a means of generating new ways of drawing.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga9911
id ga9911
authors Riley, Howard
year 1999
title Semiotics and Generative Art
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The paper begins with a brief explanation of David Marr’s computational theory of visual perception, and his key terms. Marr argued that vision consists in the algorithmic transformation of retinal images so as to produce output of viewer-centred and object-centred representations from an input at the retinae. Those two kinds of output, the viewer-centred and the object-centred representations, enable us to negotiate the physical world. The paper goes on to suggest that the activity of Drawing is comparable as a process of transformation: a picture is a transformation from either viewer-centred, or object-centred descriptions, or a combination of both types of representation, to a two-dimensional drawn representation. These pictures may be described as resulting from algorithmic transformations since picture-making utilises specific geometric procedures for transforming input (our perceptions) into output (our drawings). However, a key point is made about such algorithms: they are culturally-determined. They may be defined in terms of the procedure of selecting and combining choices from the matrix of semiotic systems available within a particular social context. These systems are presented in the paper as a Chart, and are further correlated with the social functions of a communication system such as Drawing. Thus, the paper proposes a systemic-functional semiotics of Drawing, within which algorithms operate to realise specific cultural values in material form. Familiar algorithms are illustrated, such as those governing the transformation of the physics of an array of light at the eye into the set of representations known as perspective projection systems; and also illustrated in the paper are less familiar algorithms devised by artists such as Kenneth Martin and Sol LeWitt.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0003
id ga0003
authors Riley, Howard
year 2000
title Algorithms of the Mind. The generative art of drawing
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Throughout the disciplines of art and design, interest in the possibilities of algorithmic methods for generating two- and three-dimensional visual forms grows apace. Evidence supporting this observation may be found in the increasingly diverse range of contributions to the Generative Art conferences. Two research scenarios may be identified: 1 in which the generative process itself is the object of research, 2 in which the forms generated are the objects of research. The question of what criteria may be appropriate to the evaluation of such research is addressed in this paper. Lincoln and Guba's term "criteria of authenticity" is elaborated in a case study based on the author's research into teaching drawing to fine art undergraduates. Although the drawings produced are not computer-generated, it is argued that the concept of 'algorithm' as a set of rules for the generating of visual representations may be usefully applied to the mental ontological constructions, or 'mind-set', of the student. Such mind-sets affect the ways that drawings are constructed. It is suggested that a teaching method which enables students to recognise their mental algorithms as cultural constructions, may also empower them to reconstruct those algorithms in order to generate visual representations previously unimagined.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0113
id ga0113
authors Riley, Howard
year 2001
title Drawing as Transformation: From Primary Geometry to Secondary Geometry
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary A distinction is made between primary geometry, the arrangement in space of lines of projection from a 3-D object to a plane of projection, and secondary geometry, the relationships between the points, lines and shapes of the drawn projection on a 2-D surface. Drawing projection systems, such as those classified under British Standard 1192, are illustrated, and are shown to be defined in terms of primary geometry. It is argued that a re-classification of projection systems in terms of secondary geometry enables first-year students of drawing to relate more easily such systems of geometry to their observational experiences. Student drawings illustrate the argument.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ga0203
id ga0203
authors Riley, Howard
year 2002
title Generative Art: Multi-Modal Meanings
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary This paper introduces the concept of multi-modality, drawing upon recent work in the field of social semiotics [1] in an attempt to theorise how art generated through a variety of media deployed in a variety of modes may be understood through semiotic principles applicable to them all. Medium is defined as the means of expression (material and other technologies); mode is defined as the manner of expression. Case studies from the field of sculpture are illustrated.
series other
email howard.riley@sihe.ac.uk
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id sigradi2009_906
id sigradi2009_906
authors Rimkus, Carla Furuno; Rita de Cássia Maia da Silva
year 2009
title Laranjeiras e a Utilização da Tecnologia de Informação e Comunicação na Educação Patrimonial: Uma Experiência Cultural [Use of Information Technology and Communication in Heritage Education: A Cultural Experience]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This article presents the parcial results from an unfinished scientific interdisciplinary reseach project, conducted by the Federal University of Sergipe Museology and Architecture graduate programs, in relation to constructing a virtual environment themed after the patrimonial historic city of Laranjeiras, Sergipe.
keywords Multimídia, Modelagem 3D,Tecnologia da Informação e Comunicação, Patrimônio
series SIGRADI
email carlarimkus@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id ga0006
id ga0006
authors Rinaldo, Kenneth E.
year 2000
title Autopoiesis
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Autopoiesis, is a series of fifteen musical and robotic artificial life sculptures that interact with the public and modify their behaviors based on the both the presence of the participants in the exhibition and the communication between each separate sculpture. Autopoiesis is "self making", a characteristic of all living systems. This characteristic of living systems was defined and refined by Francisco Varella and Humberto Maturana. This series of robotic sculptures talk with each other through a hardwired network and audible telephone tones, which are a musical language for the group. Autopoiesis presents an interactive environment, which is immersive, detailed and able to evolve in real time by utilizing feedback and interaction from audience/participant members. The interactivity engages the viewer/participant who in turn, effects the system's evolution and emergence. This creates a system evolution as well as an overall group sculptural aesthetic.
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id c832
authors Rinderle, J.R. and Suh, N.P.
year 1983
title Measures of Functional Coupling in Design
source Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1983. 6 p. : some ill. includes bibliography
summary Algebraic and geometric representations of the general design problem are presented. Quantitative measures of functional coupling in design are developed from this representation which provide valuable insight into the significance of the independence axiom of design. These theoretical measures are applied to Reaction Injection Molding machinery to illustrate the concept of functional independence and the application of quantitative measures of functional coupling
keywords design, theory, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4ce8
authors Rinner, Claus
year 1997
title Discussing Plans via the World-Wide Web
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary Collaborative teamwork often goes beyond same place - same time situations: new information technologies allow for distributed asynchronous cooperation. In urban planning procedures, the elaboration of a land-use or building plan may be considered as the common goal of all actors. But in general, the participants do have conflicting subgoals. Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW), therefore, must include tools that allow for discussions in distributed workgroups. GMD's Zeno system aims at structuring such argumentation processes and at mediating between opposite interests.
keywords Collaborative Teamwork
series eCAADe
email Claus.Rinner@gmd.de
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/ecaade/proc/rinner/rinner.htm
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id 8246
authors Rios-Castro, Lorena Itzel
year 2000
title Cybrid Tectonics: A Panama Canal Exhibition
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 15-16
summary This article is a summary of a thesis project directed under the supervision of Wassim Jabi and Mehrdad Hadighi] This thesis is based on the premise that space can be created by the interaction of physical and ephemeral elements with the human body. The physical elements create a frame on which the ephemeral rely, but it is the interaction between them that produces a distinct experience of space and place. Extensive and diverse preliminary explorations range from the use of digital media in the design process, video and multimedia as a revolutionary element in 20th century art and light as a way of expression for architectural installations exploring new media. From this body of information it was conceived that certain new media add an important and particular dimension to the traditional physical medium of architecture. This constitutes a controversial and innovative approach to the creation of space and most importantly to the experience of place.
series ACADIA
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id sigradi2006_p260d
id sigradi2006_p260d
authors Ripper Kos, José and Machado, Denise Pinheiro
year 2006
title A cidade que nunca existiu: modelos 3D da história da cidade [The City that never Existed: 3D Models of the City History]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 381-385
summary Through the evaluation of advantages and limitations of 3D historic city models, this paper aims to analyze the contribution of those tools to the city history representation. One should overcome limitations such as incomplete information, impediments to acknowledge hypotheses representations, intense labor requirements or difficulties to encourage a deep reflection. We identify some significant characteristics of those systems based on historical facts’ location in 3D models, different files association, dynamic databases and interaction, which should prevail over some of the limitations. Finally, we illustrate those issues through the system Rio-H that presents an alternative for historical narratives.
series SIGRADI
type normal paper
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2011_408
id sigradi2011_408
authors Ripper Kós, Jose; Lima Botelho, Filipe
year 2011
title O modelo 3D da Ilha de Santa Catarina: mapeamento tridimensional de dados urbanos [The Santa Catarina Island 3D model: mapping tridimensional urban data]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 575-578
summary The development of the Santa Catarina Island 3D model illustrated a successful integration of different research elaborated by several groups from the PGAU-Cidade Post-Graduate Program at the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The model displayed a superposition of different urban data at the 3D model topography. Data mapped varied from ecosystems, housing divided by social groups, geomorphology, environmetal protected areas and cultural highlight áreas. One of the research target is a design proposal for public parks that could create continuos areas to connect different ecosystems of the island, focusing on áreas of cultural interest for the city dwellers.
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2003_127
id sigradi2003_127
authors Ripper Kós, José
year 2003
title Modelos 3D e banco de dados: investigações de narrativas históricas (3D models and database: investigations on historical narratives)
source SIGraDi 2003 - [Proceedings of the 7th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Rosario Argentina 5-7 november 2003
summary RIO-H is a web-based system that aims to present an alternative to historical narrative. Images from 3D historical models of Rio de Janeiro link spaces within the city to historical documents stored in a database. The users retrieve the files of different sources associated to specific areas in the city. The 3D historical images facilitate the creation of relationships between the city in the past and the current city users dwell. Thus, users experience in the current city is critical for the generation of images of the past city and individual historical narratives as they navigate through the system.
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 11be
authors Ripper Kós, José
year 2001
title ICONES URBANOS: A CIDADE REVELADA A TRAVÉS DE MODELOS 3D (Urban Icons: The City Revealed Through 3D Models)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 19-21
summary This paper presents reflections raised during the research carried out at the Graduate Program of Urban Design (PROURB) of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Our research group investigate the city of Rio de Janeiro through an analysis of its main architectural and urban icons using hypertext based on 3D models. The distinguished works by Walter Benjamin and Rem Koolhaas about Paris and New York are examined for their relationship to the theme. The Ministry of Education Building and its site analysis are presented as the prototype for the investigation of the city history in the XX Century.
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2005_788
id sigradi2005_788
authors Ripper Kós, José; José Barki
year 2005
title Between text and hypertext: a case in architectural theory
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 2, pp. 788-792
summary This paper aims to analyze interactive multimedia and visualization techniques for architectural theory publications. Unfortunately, the available literature about multimedia, visualization, hypertext and related systems in this area is not consistent. The majority of articles present descriptions of ideas, designs, and prototype or working systems claimed to be advantageous on the basis of the author’s intuition and lacking useful evaluation on their utility and ease of use for their intended users. The paper reviews the features of a research project outcome, which investigates an iconic building of the late 1930’s in Brazil. It examines the differences and similarities between a hypertext/multimedia system – a CD-ROM – with a comparable non-hypertext or non-computer product – a book – that deals with a specific subject: Architectural Theory. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id 7965
authors Ripper, J. L. M., Lopes, H. and Ferreira, C. A.
year 2000
title Modelagem Geométrica Parametrizada da Cadeira Folha (Parametric Geometric Modeling of the Chair "Cadeira Folha")
source SIGraDi’2000 - Construindo (n)o espacio digital (constructing the digital Space) [4th SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 85-88027-02-X] Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) 25-28 september 2000, pp. 283-285
summary The main objective of this paper is the definition of a mathematical model for the Sheet Chair, which is formed by two self-tensioned plane sheet of wood. Geometric modeling techniques has been used to create the chair three-dimensional mathematical model. Several parameters has been defined for this chair, as for example: seat high, seat length, seat disposition, base width, etc. The methodology adopted in this work consists in the construction of a precise planar models for tridimensional surfaces. Applications of this methodology to Design are also discussed.
series SIGRADI
email helio@mat.puc-rio.br, cris@mat.puc-rio.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2010_268
id sigradi2010_268
authors Ripper, Kós José; da Cruz Fagundes Thêmis
year 2010
title Tecnologias para integração e colaboração: o projeto da casa solar brasileira [Technologies for integration and collaboration: the Brazilian solar house design]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 268-271
summary The Solar Decathlon is an academic competition of houses powered exclusively by the sun. Around twenty university teams have been called on to build more sustainable and efficient solar houses. This paper presents some challenges of the design and construction process of the Brazilian team for the Solar Decathlon in Europe. The challenges focused on in this paper refer to the search for technologies and strategies for the creative integration and collaboration of more than 100 members from six universities and different research areas. Collaboration is one of the main objectives of the event and probably the greatest challenge among the participant teams.
keywords Solar Decathlon, collaborative design, architecture curriculum, integration
series SIGRADI
email josekos@ufrj.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id acadia13_337
id acadia13_337
authors Rippmann, Matthias; Block, Philippe
year 2013
title Funicular Shell Design Exploration
source ACADIA 13: Adaptive Architecture [Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-1-926724-22-5] Cambridge 24-26 October, 2013), pp. 337-346
summary This paper discusses the design exploration of funicular shell structures based on Thrust Network Analysis (TNA) The presented graphical form finding approach and its interactive, digital-tool implementation target to foster the understanding of the relation between form and force in compression curved surface structures in an intuitive and playful way. Based on this understanding, the designer can fully take advantage of the presented method and digital tools to adapt the efficient structural system to the specific needs of different architectural applications. The paper focuses on simple examples to visualize the graphical concept of various modification techniques used for this form finding approach. Key operations and modifications have been identified and demonstrate the surprisingly flexible and manifold design space of funicular form. This variety of shapes and spatial articulation of funicular form is further investigated by discussing several built prototypes.
keywords funicular design; structural form finding; thrust network analysis; real-time structural design tools; interactive; compression shells
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email rippmann@arch.ethz.ch
last changed 2014/01/11 08:13

_id 2473
authors Rivas Cruces, Alfonso
year 1999
title El uso de la tecnología de información en el Rediseño de la práctica docente (The Use of Information Technology in the Redesign of the Teaching Practice)
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 272-274
summary The accelerated rate of change that we live nowadays, demands professionals to develop new learning skills to cope with it the rampant development of information technology opens up new horizons and challenges in the way that a human being can be formed through education. In response to the technological progress and rapid rate of change, the Tecnológico de Monterrey System has redesigned its education model, focusing on learning rather than teaching. This means not only acquiring knowledge on theory and concepts, but also learning skills, attitudes, and values that make students be committed with their community & country needs. It also means to be competitive in their area of knowledge at the international level. A central element in the new educational strategy is the technological platform where the academic courses are developed. This platform helps students and professors to do a great deal of the course activities on a lap-top through the computer the interaction between students with students, or professor with students has increased. At the Tecnológico de Monterrey System the implantation of the educational strategy has meant the creation of training programs for teachers, and technological development & support to attend over 5,000 teachers and 70,000 students.
series SIGRADI
email arivas@campus.cem.itesm.mx
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2012_100
id sigradi2012_100
authors Rivas, Dayana T. Pirela
year 2012
title Perspectiva rizomática en la complejidad digital de la arquitectura [Rhizomatic Complexity Perspective on Digital Architecture]
source SIGraDi 2012 [Proceedings of the 16th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Brasil - Fortaleza 13-16 November 2012, pp. 52-55
summary The development of this text focuses on conceptualizing a design strategy reflective of recognition of the new multidimensional projection systems offered by digital technology compared to the multiplicity and complexity of actions in the architectural design process, based on the philosophical concept Rhizome Deleuze and Guattari. Coloniality of digital technology in architecture allows introducing another way to think about it, is another attitude, being responsible source and a new way to create, think and design, so it is pertinent to reflect how to approach the design process.
keywords rhizome; multiplicity; complexity; digital technology; architectural design
series SIGRADI
email pirelad@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id a977
authors Rivera , Antonieta and Wojtowicz, Jerzy
year 1997
title Aspects of Tenochtitlan: Nature of CD-ROM Production in the Construction of Content
source Design and Representation [ACADIA ‘97 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-06-3] Cincinatti, Ohio (USA) 3-5 October 1997, pp. 319-327
summary At the beginning of the sixteenth century, the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan, was one of the world's largest cities. By 1521, the Spaniards under Hernan Cortes had destroyed both the Empire and the city. Tenochtitlan was razed to its foundations and Mexico City was built on top of it (Matos, 1993).

This paper discusses the process for developing digital interpretations of the Teocalli or Ceremonial Precinct of Tenochtitlan based on historical, iconographical, and archaeological materials. To this end, digital models were constructed by taking into consideration Aztec archaeoastronomical principles and measuring systems. The result is an interactive view of the Ceremonial Precinct, perhaps the most comprehensive since Tenochtitlan was destroyed more than 500 years ago. This project has been recently published on CD-ROM.

series ACADIA
email arivera@architecture.ubc.ca, jw@architecture.ubc.ca
last changed 1998/12/31 12:35

_id sigradi2011_040
id sigradi2011_040
authors Rivera Henao, Mauricio
year 2011
title Entornos virtuales y sus conexiones entre el arte del performance y tradiciones chamánicas curativas [Virtual environments and their connections between the art of performance and shamanic healing traditions]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 238-241
summary The article presents as a conclusion the interrelationship of the virtual environments (interaction, interface, real-virtual), art of performance and some American healing shamanic ceremonies exploring the theories and creative practices in the perspective of art and design. These aspects are approached from the dialectics between tradition and post-modernity. The article is divided in two parts: Axiom-Movement, which comments on the representation strategies defined by audiences' designs of participation towards the identification of art-interactive-healing. Esthetic ExperienceTransmission, shows the fieldwork circumstances in the structure of the own artistic work.
series SIGRADI
email mauriciorh@gmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2013_52
id sigradi2013_52
authors Rivera, Omar; Alexis Salinas; Paula Ulloa; Oscar Otárola; Braulio Gatica; William Fuentes; Rodrigo García Alvarado; Mauro Chiarella
year 2013
title Emprendimiento de Componentes Constructivos Paramétricos [Entrepreneurship of Building Parametric Components]
source SIGraDi 2013 [Proceedings of the 17th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Chile - Valparaíso 20 - 22 November 2013, pp. 244 - 248
summary New technologies of parametric design and digital fabrication encourages development of building components, involving a new approach to architectural work and promote professional endeavors. This paper presents several experiences of recent graduates of architecture in U. Bio-Bio, Chile, which demonstrate these capabilities. The development of a roof module, a structural grid, a flexible envelope, cutting partitions and folded units for wind protection are examples of mass-customization, with implementation of new processes of design, construction and divulgation into the building industry.
keywords Parametric Design, Digital Fabrication, Building Construction, Entrepreneurship, Innovative Architecture
series SIGRADI
email rgarcia@ubiobio.cl
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2011_348
id sigradi2011_348
authors Rivera, Ricardo; Brakke, Aaron Paul
year 2011
title Cine en la era digital [An Augmented View of Cinema: Cinema in the Digital Age]
source SIGraDi 2011 [Proceedings of the 15th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Argentina - Santa Fe 16-18 November 2011, pp. 285-288
summary This paper illustrates a shift in the fundamentals of cinema which is being augmented in social and techni- cal terms. The primary changes deal with the perception of spectator-actor and with the new digital technologies being utilized. This paper will be structured around the four "tyranny" that, as Peter Greenaway has suggested, are destroying film: The need of the camera, the current frame (screen), the text as the axis of the narrative and the importance of the actors. An augmented understanding of cinema offers a new aesthetic in terms of space, interaction and ultimately an open and generative cinematic experience.
keywords Cine; digital; representation; image; spectator
series SIGRADI
email ricardo@nolineal.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:58

_id sigradi2004_505
id sigradi2004_505
authors Rivka Oxman
year 2004
title Designing presence in virtual environments
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Recent explorations of the concepts of form and content in virtual worlds open a new understanding of the development of novel design paradigms that can induce the sense of presence in virtual worlds. This paper presents current research in the design of presence in virtual worlds. It investigates the impact of two paradigms that integrate the components of form and content: the first is termed: “scenario- based design” and the second is termed: “performance-based design”.
series SIGRADI
email rivkao@tx.technion.ac.il
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id caadria2016_045
id caadria2016_045
authors Rizal, Annisa R.; Ben Doherty and M. Hank Haeusler
year 2016
title Enabling Low Cost Human Presence Tracking: Using commodity hardware to monitor human presence in workplaces
source Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016) / Melbourne 30 March–2 April 2016, pp. 45-54
summary Finding automated methods to track the presence of hu- mans can help designers understand workplaces. Methods to under- stand the patterns of human movement in workplaces using beacons, badges and sensors are being developed. Whilst the results are promis- ing, they can be costly and may require the manual setup of expensive equipment. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely adopted due to its high degree of accuracy, however, is inapplicable in indoor environments due to the physical limitations of satellite attenuation. There is no comparably ubiquitous positioning system that can be used to make device-driven position tracking that is specifically adapted to indoor environments. With the increasing popularity of phones, watches and fitness tracking bands with WiFi and Bluetooth connectivity, we explore the potential of these wireless radios as a low-cost alternative to monitor human movement. As the costs of technology continue to decrease, the means to build a low-cost tracker through WiFi and Bluetooth enabled devices in an indoor environment become possible. Furthermore, is it possible to develop a low-cost tracking device using only commodity hardware that is able to accu- rately automate and record presence in space with sufficient veracity?
keywords Movement tracking; workplace environment; wireless
series CAADRIA
email a.rizal@unsw.edu.au
last changed 2016/03/11 09:21

_id 7400
authors Rizal, H. and Ahmad Rafi, M.E.
year 2002
title The Impact of Internet Enabled Computer Aided Design (iCAD) in Construction Industry
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 085-92
summary The advent of the Internet has opened up and given, particularly, the developing countries and the world in general, a transformation into collective intelligence (Levy, 1998) societies linked to digital communication (Rafi, 2001). Apart from large corporations, the rapid evolution of border-less communication has also synergise between the art and science expertise to form low-cost internet-based networks that have become multi-million dollar companies within a short period of time (e.g. Linux) (Rafi, 2001). In the context of architectural designs and construction industries, the birth of Internet-based CAD (iCAD) solutions has offered a new dimension to architectural practice. The function of CAD has expanded as a tool to communicate and collaborate as well as to better control all phases of the architectural practices. This paper will review the current available iCAD tools and explore the possible utilisation of iCAD in architectural practices. The opportunities for modifying current professional practice standards to best use iCAD will be rationalised as well as the elements in ensuring the effectiveness of iCAD implementation. The final component of the paper will be an evaluation framework to measure the value of iCAD in an architectural practice. The framework will become an early platform for an architectural practice to decide and plan their future in utilising and applying iCAD in the most efficient way.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
email rizalhusin@hotmail.com
last changed 2006/09/29 05:18

_id ga0131
id ga0131
authors Riznyk, V.V.
year 2001
title Perfect Distribution Phenomenon and the Origin of the Spacetime Harmony
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Perfect Distribution Phenomenon (PDP), namely one- (t=1) and t-dimensional (t>1) Ideal Ring Relationships (t-D IRR)s are cyclic sequences of integers which form perfect partitions of a finite interval [1,s] of integers. The sums of connected sub-sequences of an IRR enumerate the set of integers [1,s] exactly R-times. Example: The 1-D IRR {1,3,2,7} containing four elements (Fig.1) allows an enumeration of all numbers 1=1, 2=2, 3=3, 4=1+3, 5=3+2, 6=1+3+2, 7=7, ... 13=1+3+2+7 exactly once (R=1).
series other
email rvv@polynet.lviv.ua
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 2006_626
id 2006_626
authors Rizopoulos, Charalampos and Dimitrios Charitos
year 2006
title Intelligence Technologies as a Means of Enhancing Spatial Experience
source Communicating Space(s) [24th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-5-9] Volos (Greece) 6-9 September 2006, pp. 626-634
summary Following the evolution of human-computer interaction to date, intelligent user interfaces (IUIs) seem to be one of the most important paradigms for future research. “Intelligent” or quasi-intelligent behaviour may be applied to both virtual (intelligent virtual environments) and real space (Ambient Intelligence). This paper focuses on the augmentation of physical space as a characteristic of the latter case. More specifically, this paper briefly examines Ambient Intelligence and the concepts on which it is based, documents the importance of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) technologies for the formulation of the user’s spatial experience and attempts to outline some important theoretical approaches to human behaviour and communication that need to be considered during the design, implementation, and evaluation of Ambient Intelligence systems. Ultimately, this paper aims to outline the influence of said technologies on the users’ activity within the environment and their environmental experience in general.
keywords Ambient Intelligence; environmental design; activity theory; adaptation
series eCAADe
email harisrizopoulos@yahoo.gr
last changed 2006/08/16 16:54

_id avocaad_2003_04
id avocaad_2003_04
authors Rob van Helvoort
year 2003
title Mecano - when CAAD meets ICT
source LOCAL VALUES in a NETWORKED DESIGN WORLD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Stellingwerff, Martijn and Verbeke, Johan (Eds.), (2004) DUP Science - Delft University Press, ISBN 90-407-2507-1.
summary For some years ICT (Information and Communication Technology) has been worldwide a hot topic and, especially in the European academic environment, a very fashionable word. No matter where the road would lead to, almost any ICT related project was welcomed as the next step towards a brand new and even better system of education. In the meantime CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) plays a role of utmost importance during a range of stages in the design process or building project.In this situation a research project is set up to develop an educational environment where CAAD meets ICT. The first application was turned down as the proposed (ICT) technology wasn’t available, according to committee judging. After proving them wrong, the second application was more successful. Even though the project was set up for local values, education in CAAD and related topics in Belgium, it was situated in a networked (internet) world.After running the project for a period of two years a list of pros and cons can be made up. Moreover, both local and on a global scale, ideas have changed.
keywords Architecture, Local values, Globalisation, Computer Aided Architectural Design
series AVOCAAD
email rob@vanhelvoort.com
last changed 2006/01/16 20:38

_id db56
authors Robbins, E.
year 1994
title Why Architects Draw
source The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts
summary For nearly twenty years Edward Robbins, an anthropologist, has been studying and writing about the system of architectural education and practice in the United States and abroad. In this book he examines the social uses of architectural drawing: how drawing acts to direct both the conception and the production of architecture; how it helps architects set an agenda, define what is important about a design, and communicate with their colleagues and clients; and how it embodies claims about the architect's role, status, and authority. The centerpiece of Robbins's provocative investigation consists of case study narratives based on interviews with nine architects, a developer-architect, and an architectural engineer. The narratives are illustrated by the architects' drawings from projects in Japan, England, Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, and the United States, from conception through realization. Included are orthographic and axonometric projections, perspectives, elevations, plans, sections, working drawings, sketches, schematics, construction, and finished drawings. Drawings and interviews with: Edward Cullinan, Spencer de Grey, Jorge Silvetti, Renzo Piano, Alvaro Siza, John Young, Itsuko Hasegawa, William Pedersen, Rafael Moneo, Rod Hackney, Peter Rice.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id acadia14_189
id acadia14_189
authors Robeller, Christopher; Mayencourt, Paul; Weinand, Yves
year 2014
title Snap-fit Joints: CNC fabricated, integrated mechanical attachment for structural wood panels
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9781926724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 189-198
summary Snap-fit joints are new to the building sector, but commonly used in other domains. This paper presents an adaptation of such connectors for the edgewise jointing of timber panels.
keywords Snap-fit Joints, Tab-and-slot Joints, Design for Assembly, Structural Wood Panels, Folded Plate Structures, CNC Fabrication, Digital fabrication and construction
series ACADIA
type Normal Paper
email christopher.robeller@epfl.ch
last changed 2014/09/29 05:51

_id acadia17_492
id acadia17_492
authors Robeller, Christopher; Weinand, Yves
year 2017
title Realization of a Double-Layered Diamond Vault Made from CLT: Constraint-aware design for assembly, for the first integrally attached Timber Folded Plate lightweight structure, covering a column free span of 20 meters with only 45 millimeter thick CLT plates.
source ACADIA 2017: DISCIPLINES & DISRUPTION [Proceedings of the 37th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-692-96506-1] Cambridge, MA 2-4 November, 2017), pp. 492- 501
summary The use of digital design and fabrication technology for the integration of joints into timber plate structures has been the subject of recent research in the field of architectural geometry. While most of research has been focused on joint geometries, assembly sequences, and the fabrication of smaller prototypes, there have been few implementations in buildings. This paper illustrates the challenges for such a process and offers our solutions for implementing it at a building scale through the example of a theater hall built from cross-laminated timber plates. The building achieves its column-free span of 20 meters with a plate thickness of only 45 mm through a form-active lightweight structure system. It combines prismatic and antiprismatic folded surfaces and a double-layered cross-section with integrated thermal insulation.
keywords material and construction; fabrication
series ACADIA
email christopher.robeller@epfl.ch
last changed 2017/10/17 09:13

_id 844e
authors Robert E. Johnson and Yasser Mansour
year 1987
title Aspects of Rules and Language in Design Decisions
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 183-194
summary This paper is a report of a doctoral research seminar conducted during the Winter term, 1987. The interdisciplinary seminar investigated both theoretical and practical aspects of how design decisions are made. Participants in the seminar represented diverse interests ranging from human science to computer-aided design. The paper focuses on two of several decision making issues that emerged from this seminar: design rules and design languages. These issues are explored from a theoretical context and illustrated through design experiments and discussions that were conducted as part of the seminar. The paper concludes with several suggestions for the development of computer-aided design software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 18:14

_id c2cf
authors Roberts, Andrew
year 1996
title CAAD - The Role of the Design Tutor
source Education for Practice [14th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-2-2] Lund (Sweden) 12-14 September 1996, pp. 381-386
summary Whilst it is often argued that computers have an positive role to play in the educational process, design tutors frequently view computer based design work as being of inferior quality to that of designs produced by traditional means. This may be no fault of the technology, but more likely a consequence of a student’s inappropriate use of that technology. It could be argued that part of the role of the design tutor is to encourage students to use technology in a more appropriate way, rather than to totally discourage the use of computers in their designs. The introduction of computer technologies has led to new ways of designing, which may be very different to the methods of design that are traditionally taught. This paper proposes that the successful implementation of CAAD in Architectural design education, can only be achieved if design tutors fully appreciate and embrace these new design methodologies, in a way which extends beyond the need to simply accept the new technology.

series eCAADe
email robertsas@cf.ac.uk
more http://ctiweb.cf.ac.uk/
last changed 1998/08/17 14:01

_id ac3a
authors Roberts, Andrew
year 1998
title Teaching of Transferable Skills in Architectural Education - The Quartet Project
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 218-223
summary The quartet project is a four-week programme undertaken by all first year B.Sc Architecture students at the Welsh School of Architecture. It takes place early in the first semester and is designed to encourage students to develop a series of transferable skills. The cohort is divided into four groups, and the groups rotate around four different activities on a weekly basis. One of these activities is CAD/IT and aims to equip students with the necessary understanding of the potential and limitations of using computers as part of their studies, with emphasis on the creative use of the technology. Throughout the week links with the other three activities are heavily stressed and students use computers within all four activities to some extent. Using examples of students' work from the past two years, this paper aims to assess the CAD/IT element of the project, and how it connects with the other activities. It then looks at how the skills developed during the week are utilised by the students during the remainder of their time in the school.
series eCAADe
email RobertsAS@cf.ac.uk
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/43roberts/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 17:36

_id bf97
authors Roberts, Andrew and Counsell, John
year 1999
title The BEATL Project: Embedding Appropriate CAL in the Teaching of Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 334-340
summary This paper is based upon the premise that Computer Aided Learning (CAL) has been poorly integrated into schools of Architecture and it identifies some of the barriers that have prevented this. The Built Environment Appropriate Technology for Learning (BEATL) project aims to promote a climate of change within which these barriers can be crossed. The focus of BEATL is on providing a framework within which technology assisted teaching can be adopted for particular elements of taught courses through a process of module pairing, and collaboration between Built Environment faculties at three UK Universities. The paper discusses the early stages of the Project and outlines the methodologies developed for embedding and transferring innovations between institutions, the support of 'Educational Technology Officers' and the evaluation strategies being utilised. Early results indicate the benefits of a focus on a individual element rather than a whole module and that generic innovations tend to be more successfully transferred than 'off the shelf' Computer Aided Learning products.
keywords CAL, Integration, Transferability, Collaboration
series eCAADe
email robertsas@cf.ac.uk, John.Counsell@uwe.ac.uk
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 86d6
authors Roberts, Andrew and Forster, Wayne
year 1998
title From CAAD Lab to Studio: Integration of CAAD with Studio in a ‘Linear’ Based Scheme of Study
source Computers in Design Studio Teaching [EAAE/eCAADe International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 09523687-7-3] Leuven (Belgium) 13-14 November 1998, pp. 131-138
summary This paper traces the relationship of CAAD with creative studio work within a ‘year based’ school of architecture where the curriculum is founded on a series of ‘Core Projects’. These ‘Core Projects’ are structured so that undergraduates undertake a structured study of the essentials of architecture in an orderly progression. Within this pattern CAAD is not a stand-alone subject or module and as students do not work in units, it is difficult to run specialist CAAD options. The subject is regarded as another skill in communication and tuition in CAAD is provided as part of the acquisition of central architectural skills. CAAD, therefore is regarded as one of the components of skills and knowledge needed to support and the ‘Core Projects’ which account for about 70% of the course assessment. The paper will analyse the evolution of CAAD education within this kind of course in Architecture, reflecting on some of the tensions that have arisen through this and use student work to illustrate some of the lessons learnt over this period
series eCAADe
email robertsas@cf.ac.uk
more http://www.eaae.be/
last changed 2000/11/21 08:21

_id 09cd
authors Roberts, Andrew and Marsh, Andrew
year 2001
title ECOTECT: Environmental Prediction in Architectural Education
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 342-347
summary This paper evaluates the integration and use of ECOTECT, an environmental prediction software package into teaching within the authors’ school of architecture. ECOTECT is relatively unique amongst performance analysis tools in that it is aimed primarily at architects and is intended for use during the earliest, most conceptual stages of design. It integrates a relatively simple and intuitive 3D modeling interface with a range of analysis functions.
keywords Environmental Design, Predication, Architecture, Integration, Software
series eCAADe
email robertsas@cardiff.ac.uk
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 4aa9
authors Roberts, Andrew
year 1999
title Virtual Site Planning
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 442-447
summary This paper looks at the potential for the Virtual Reality to be used as a medium for the development of teaching tools in Architectural and Urban Design Education. It identifies examples and lessons learned from the development of teaching tools in other disciplines. The paper outlines a prototype system developed at Cardiff University to help Town Planning students understand the three dimensional nature of site planning and design. This was developed following difficulties encountered by students in using CAD which was seen as insufficiently intuitive to allow effective use within the short timespan available. The prototype system allows students to access their site through the familiar environment of a Web Browser. A number of 'Standard' house types are available which can be selected and inserted into the design space. Once in the space the houses can be viewed in three dimensions, moved and rotated in order to form any configuration that the students may wish. The system is easily customisable; it need not be limited to uses in urban design, but could be used in many situations where component parts are arranged in space.
keywords Virtual Reality, Teaching, Learning, Site Planning
series eCAADe
email robertsas@cf.ac.uk
more http://ctiweb.cf.ac.uk/Housing/
last changed 2002/11/23 13:44

_id 2004_471
id 2004_471
authors Roberts, Andrew
year 2004
title From Pin-up to Slideshow: Effects of Changing Media on ‘crit’ Assessment Cardiff University
source Architecture in the Network Society [22nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-2-4] Copenhagen (Denmark) 15-18 September 2004, pp. 471-478
summary The assessment of architectural design project work, which forms the majority of the work produced by students in schools of architecture, is usually assessed through the process of critical review (otherwise known as a ‚crit‘ or jury). The traditional method of critical review usually involves the student describing work displayed on a wall directly in front of a panel of critics. Difficulties emerge when students wish to incorporate dynamic, computer generated content into their presentations. Architectural practice is increasingly turning to the ‘PowerPoint’ slide show as a means to communicate their work to clients, and this technology is often better able to incorporate dynamic content. This paper describes a comparative study, whereby students work is presented in both slideshow and pin-up formats to a panel of reviewers. The reviewers were able to evaluate the value of the two forms of presentation in terms of their ability to conduct critical reviews. Results suggest that whilst the slideshow method allows the reviewers to gain a reasonable understanding of the student’s project work, they found it more difficult to provide useful feedback to the student on their design project work.
keywords Critical Review; Formative Assessment; Virtual Reality; Slide Show; Presentation
series eCAADe
last changed 2004/09/18 06:45

_id 4ed3
authors Roberts, G.W., Dodson, A.H. and Ashkenazi, V.
year 1999
title Global Positioning System aided autonomous construction plant control and guidance
source Automation in Construction 8 (5) (1999) pp. 589-595
summary The advent of Real Time Kinematic (RTK) Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning means that this technology can now be used for dynamic control and guidance applications. The paper outlines the recent advances in GPS technology, which have enabled RTK GPS to become a reality. Tests have been carried out in construction plant control and monitoring applications with a demonstrated precision of the order of a few millimeters. The results are compared with those achieved using a laser level and a digital automatic level.
series journal paper
more http://www.elsevier.com/locate/autcon
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id f4a2
authors Roberts, J.C.
year 2000
title Display models: ways to classify visual representations
source CIDAC, Volume 2 Issue 4 November 2000, pp. 242-250
summary Visualisations are generated of diverse data and use many different techniques and visual methods. It is often beneficial to evaluate what is being visualised and how the visualisation is made up. Such an analysis may aid the developer to understand what 'tools' are available and help the user to reference and compare different realisations. Display models specifically classify the data by what type of output can be created. We review many 'display oriented models' and discuss important aspects of these methods and ideas. In presenting these models, we encourage their use. In particular, we focus on the symbolic reference model of Jacques Bertin. He used this model to describe images and 2D visualisations. We translate Bertin's scheme into algebraic form such as a method to decribe visualisations.
keywords Display Models, Visualisation Reference Models, Bertin's Semiology
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:23

_id e473
authors Roberts, S.E.
year 1990
title The Theory behind and Development of an Architectural Sketch Modelling System
source University of Sheffield, School of Architectural Studies
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id ea43
authors Roberts, Teresa L. and Moran, Thomas P.
year 1983
title The Evaluation of Text Editors : Methodology and Empirical Results
source Communications of the ACM. April 1983. vol. 26: pp. 265-283 : diagrams and tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper presents a methodology for evaluating text editors on several dimensions: the time it takes experts to perform basic editing tasks, the time experts spend making and correcting errors, the rate at which novices learn to perform basic editing tasks, and the functionality of editors over more complex tasks. Time, errors, and learning are measured experimentally; functionality is measured analytically; time is also calculated analytically. The methodology has thus far been used to evaluate nine diverse text editors, producing an initial database of performance results. The database is used to tell us not only about the editors but also about the users - the magnitude of individual differences and the factors affecting novice learning
keywords design, evaluation, word processing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0de6
authors Robertson, G.G., Card, S.K. and Mackinlay, J.D.
year 1993
title Information visualization using 3D interactive animation
source Communications of the ACM 36(4): 57-7 1
summary UI innovations are often driven by a combination of technology advances and application demands. On the technology side, advances in interactive computer graphics hardware, coupled with low-cost mass storage, have created new possibilities for information retrieval systems in which UIs could play a more central role. On the application side, increasing masses of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. In the 1980s, text-editing forced the shaping of the desktop metaphor and the now standard GUI paradigm. In the 1990s, it is likely that information access will be a primary force in shaping the successor to the desktop metapho. This article presents an experimental system, the Information Visualizer (see figure 1), which explores a UI paradigm that goes beyond the desktop metaphor to exploit the emerging generation of graphical personal computers and to support the emerging application demand to retrieve, store, manipulate, and understand large amounts of infromation. The basic problem is how to utilize advancing graphics technology to lower the cost of finding information and accessing it once found (the information's "cost structure"). We take four broad strategies: making the user's immediate workspace larger, enabling user interaction with multiple agents, increasing the real-time interaction rate between user and system, and using visual abstraction to shift information to the perceptual system to speed information assimilation and retrieval.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id cf75
authors Robertson, Philip K. and O'Callaghan, John F.
year 1986
title The Generation of Color Sequences for Univariate and Bivariate Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. February, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 24-32 : ill. some col. includes bibliography
summary Recent technological advances have made it feasible to produce full color statistical maps on computer-controlled display systems. This has caused an appraisal of the use of color to represent statistical variables, and the development of a theoretical structure for the choice of suitable univariate and bivariate map coloring schemes. Realization of such schemes in an intuitive and controlled way is important to the comprehension of statistical variables from maps. Therefore, a method of generating specific color sequences within the framework of a uniform color space, allowing for the intuitive specification of color sequences and for their realization on various display systems, is presented
keywords mapping, color, display
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia14projects_143
id acadia14projects_143
authors Robinson, Alexander
year 2014
title Calibrating Agencies in a Territoy of Instrumentality
source ACADIA 14: Design Agency [Projects of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 9789126724478]Los Angeles 23-25 October, 2014), pp. 143-146
summary Exhibited is an interactive landscape player and public outreach tool for robotically sand modeled and vacuum formed designs for dust control mitigation landscapes for the Owens Lake in Lone Pine, California. This system engages users and stakeholders with the tools and products of a digitally augmented rapid landscape prototyping machine built to create agency for multiple values in the design of dust control infrastructure for the dry lake.
keywords Robotics and Autonomous Design Systems, Simulation + Intuition, Material Logics and Tectonics, Multidisciplinary Design Optimization, User participation in design, Virtual/augmented reality and interactive environments
series ACADIA
type Research Projects
email alexander.robinson@gmail.com
last changed 2014/09/29 05:57

_id 0c81
authors Robinson, John T.
year 1981
title The K-D-B-Tree : A Search Structure of Large Multidimensional Dynamic Indexes
source 22 p. : ill
summary Pittsburgh, PA: Department of Computer Science, CMU, February, 1981. CMU-CS-81-106. includes some bibliographical references. The problem of retrieving multikey records via range queries form a large, dynamic index is considered. By large it is meant that most of the index must be sorted on secondary memory. By dynamic it is meant that insertions and deletions are intermixed with queries, so that the index cannot be built beforehand. A new data structure, the K-D-B-tree, is presented as a solution to this problem. K-D-B-trees combine properties of K-D-trees and B-trees. It is expected that the multidimensional search efficiency of balanced K-D-trees and the I/O efficiency of B-trees should both be approximated in the K-D-B-tree. Preliminary experimental results that tend to support this are reported
keywords algorithms, search
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c4e4
authors Robinson, Julia W.
year 1990
title Architectural Research : Incorporating Myth and Science
source Journal of Architectural Education November, 1990. vol. 44: pp. 20-32 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Despite an apparently common assumption that science and myth are totally incompatible approaches to architecture, especially as related to architectural design, the author argues that science and myth are both explanations of phenomena, each different, but both valid. Positing the desirability of a research and design process that would take advantage of both approaches, it addresses the problems of existing conceptual categories and the possible productive relationship between myth and science for architecture. Anthropology is then proposed as a paradigm for an architectural research that could address both science and myth, and this is illustrated with examples of research and design studio instruction
keywords education, architecture, research, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia07_284
id acadia07_284
authors Robinson, Kirsten; Gorbet, Robert; Beesley, Philip
year 2007
title Evolving Cooperative Behaviour in a Reflexive Membrane
source Expanding Bodies: Art • Cities• Environment [Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture / ISBN 978-0-9780978-6-8] Halifax (Nova Scotia) 1-7 October 2007, 284-293
summary This paper describes the integration of machine intelligence into an immersive architectural sculpture that interacts dynamically with users and the environment. The system is conceived to function as an architectural envelope that might transfer air using a distributed array of components. The sculpture includes a large array of interconnected miniature structural and kinetic elements, each with local sensing, actuation, and machine intelligence. We demonstrate a model in which these autonomous, interconnected agents develop cooperative behaviour to maximize airflow. Agents have access to sensory data about their local environment and ‘learn’ to move air through the working of a genetic algorithm. Introducing distributed and responsive machine intelligence builds on work done on evolving embodied intelligence (Floreano et al. 2004) and architectural ‘geotextile’ sculptures by Philip Beesley and collaborators (Beesley et al. 1996-2006). The paper contributes to the general field of interactive art by demonstrating an application of machine intelligence as a design method. The objective is the development of coherent distributed kinetic building envelopes with environmental control functions. A cultural context is included, discussing dynamic paradigms in responsive architecture.
series ACADIA
type normal paper
email k.w.robinson@gmail.com
last changed 2007/10/02 06:14

_id acadia08_166
id acadia08_166
authors Robinson, Michael
year 2008
title Instrumentalizing Coevolution as Design Technique
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 166-173
summary The paper introduces the concepts of system, milieu, and coevolution and illustrates how the terms are manifested in projects from an urban research and design studio.
keywords Analysis; Biology; Ecology; Evolution; Open Systems
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39