CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 1e97
authors Wojtowicz, Jerzy
year 1990
title Aspects of design logic and Le Corbusier's universe of forms
source Harvard University, Graduate School of Design
summary Generation of form in architectural design tends to become a highly structured process when computational tools are engaged. The objective of this study was to develop an alternative way of designing with a computer--one that is not framed by assumptions of monotonicity and determinism. To realize this aim the case study method was chosen. It was followed by formalization and design etudes rooted in a specific corpus of significant design work. A corpus of work was isolated from Le Corbusier's Oeuvre complete to serve as the vehicle for: (a) Construction, using shape grammar rules of a dynamic model of a concise design world. (b) Analysis of the process of rupture and dialectic which results in the fundamental transformation of the design world. (c) Generation of existing and new examples in the given language. (d) Examination of the limitations of the shape grammar formalism and proposal of alternatives formalisms based on non-monotonic logic. Le Corbusier's purist tradition, selected as the corpus for this study, is characterized by formal continuity followed by a sudden rupture in its formal language. The issue of change and collapse of one design world into a new one was therefore the focus of the investigation. The method that was developed interprets the formal procedure of examining the architectural object as 'reading' and the procedure of generating the architectural object as 'writing'. Design is seen as a continuous feedback loop between reading and writing within the boundaries of a given universe of forms. This is demonstrated by abstracting an architectural vocabulary and compositional rules from Le Corbusier's purist work, translating the vocabulary into a set of computer models, and using the computer to transform and recompose these elements into new designs.
keywords Data Processing; Composition; Proportion; Data Processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/03/11 08:59

_id a682
authors Wong, P.C.
year 1989
title EXPAN--An Integrated System for the Generation of Prefabricated Panel Wall Layout Design
source Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney
summary This thesis develops an integrated system to demonstrate the capabilities of those systems in aiding preliminary design. An existing CAD system, the Eagle modeling system, is used to control the graphic generation of the preliminary design. Some knowledge is written in a macro language conforming to the Eagle syntax requirements. An expert system shell written in C, the EXBUILD expert system shell, is used to control the expert system. The knowledge used by the expert system is written in production rules and frames conforming to the EXBUILD syntax requirements. The control over the whole system is primarily through Eagle with the integrated system running within the Eagle environment.
keywords Automation; Integration; Expert Systems; Applications; Prefabrication
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2002/12/14 18:14

_id c2e3
authors Wong, Wai Sang
year 2000
title A Virtual Reality Modeling Tool for Students of Architecture
source University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
summary During a collaborative design session with other universities, several shortcomings, namely long communication response time, lack of common data format for design and ineffective discussion using static image of design, were observed. A solution was proposed by providing a design interface, a. viewing area of the design and a database to store designs and discussion dialogs. This thesis described a VR (virtual reality) modeling tool, the "VR Composer". With the "VR Composer", models are created directly in 3D. This is the design interface of the solution. The "VR Composer" is based on a commercially available VR software. With a head-mounted display, the "VR Composer" immerses the user into a VR environment. This provides a feeling of presence inside the VR environment. New functionality was added to allow user to create and modify objects in VR. There is no common definition for VR.. I have defined VR as Virtual reality is a human-computer interfiwe which allows a user to visualize and interact with the computer-generated three-dimensional environment intuitively. The students of Department of Architecture are requested to test the VR Composer. Although the VR Composer provided basic functionality as a modeling tool, it has to be improvement in many aspects to become an effective tool for modeling.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 6a1d
authors Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1988
title The knowledge based representation and manipulation of geometry
source Carnegie Mellon University
summary An approach to the integration of geometric information in knowledge based systems is described as an architecture for geometric reasoning. The general requirements for this integration arise from the need for rich geometry representations in engineering domains and the conflicting demands of current geometric modelling and knowledge based systems. Four concepts are used as a basis: (1) Classes of spatial sets, which act by inheritance as a means for incremental definition by specialization, (2) Features, which denote evaluated portions of a geometric model, (3) Abstractions, which provide partial representations of geometric objects, and (4) Constraints through which spatial relationships are expressed. These four concepts combine in a synergistic manner to define the complete architecture. A prototype implementation of the architecture, built using object oriented programming techniques and a boundary based solid modeller, has been achieved and demonstrated through examples in the domains of robot task planning and automotive parts design.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 1083
authors Wu, Rui
year 2002
title Computer Aided Dimensional Control in Building Construction
source Eindhoven University of Technology
summary Dimensional control in the building industry can be defined as the operational techniques and activities that are necessary, during the construction process of a building, for the assurance of the defined dimension quality of a building (Hoof, 1986). Efficient and precise dimensional control of buildings under construction is becoming ever more important because of changes in the construction industry. More prefabricated components are used; more regulations appear; newly designed buildings have more complex shapes, and building construction is speeding up. To ensure the predefined dimensional quality, a plan of dimensional control must be designed, on the basis of building drawings and specifications delivered by architects, before the building is constructed. The dimensional control plan must provide site personnel with adequate information on, among others, setting out and assembling building components, which can often be done by means of Total Stations. The essence of designing a dimensional control plan is to find out which points should be used as positioning points, which points should be set out in advance or controlled afterwards, and not to forget why. In an effort to contribute to the improvement of the dimensional control of on-site construction projects, this research tries to capture the knowledge required to design an adequate dimensional control plan and make that knowledge more generally available, and build a digital connection between CAD systems and Total Stations, focusing on prefabricated concrete building structural elements. The instrument developed in this research for capturing of essential dimensional control information and knowledge makes use of Product Data Technology (PDT) and Knowledge Technology (KT). The chosen solution supports the stochastic analysis of optimal positioning points taking account of various sorts of deviations and their mutual relationships. The resulting information model has been written in a standardized information modelling language called UML (Unified Modelling Language). The model has been implemented in a Dimensional Control System (DCS) and applied in the “La Tour” construction project in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. The DCS provides a digital way to bridge the floor plan design with dimensional control, predict dimensional deviation limits and output the data needed for a Total Station. The case study of “La Tour” tests the UML model and prototype of the DCS. The results prove that direct positioning of objects (by putting reflectors on the objects and using a Total Station and by inputting coordinates extracted and calculated from the AutoCAD drawings) provides higher speed, accuracy and reliability. It also shows a way to (pre)position free form objects in 3D where traditional methods cannot. In conclusion: (1) it seems to be justified to expect that the application of the DCS will contribute to increased confidence in dimensional control and the reduction of costs of failure, which potentially could support the increased use of cheaper construction methods, and will also contribute to the improvement of building design and construction process. (2) the scientific contribution of this research is a first step towards providing dimensional quality in a construction process covered by stochastic dimensional uncertainty, even for positioning of free form objects.
keywords Construction Management; Constructional Engineering; Computer Applications
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 20ab
authors Yakeley, Megan
year 2000
title Digitally Mediated Design: Using Computer Programming to Develop a Personal Design Process
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Architecture
summary This thesis is based on the proposal that the current system of architectural design education confuses product and process. Students are assessed through, and therefore concentrate on, the former whilst the latter is left in many cases to chance. This thesis describes a new course taught by the author at MIT for the last three years whose aim is to teach the design process away from the complexities inherent in the studio system. This course draws a parallel between the design process and the Constructionist view of learning, and asserts that the design process is a constant learning activity. Therefore, learning about the design process necessarily involves learning the cognitive skills of this theoretical approach to education. These include concrete thinking and the creation of external artifacts to develop of ideas through iterative, experimental, incremental exploration. The course mimics the Constructionist model of using the computer programming environment LOGO to teach mathematics. It uses computer programming in a CAD environment, and specifically the development of a generative system, to teach the design process. The efficacy of such an approach to architectural design education has been studied using methodologies from educational research. The research design used an emergent qualitative model, employing Maykut and Morehouses interpretive descriptive approach (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994) and Glaser and Strausss Constant Comparative Method of data analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Six students joined the course in the Spring 1999 semester. The experience of these students, what and how they learned, and whether this understanding was transferred to other areas of their educational process, were studied. The findings demonstrated that computer programming in a particular pedagogical framework, can help transform the way in which students understand the process of designing. The following changes were observed in the students during the course of the year: Development of understanding of a personalized design process; move from using computer programming to solve quantifiable problems to using it to support qualitative design decisions; change in understanding of the paradigm for computers in the design process; awareness of the importance of intrapersonal and interpersonal communication skills; change in expectations of, their sense of control over, and appropriation of, the computer in the design process; evidence of transference of cognitive skills; change from a Behaviourist to a Constructionist model of learning Thesis Supervisor: William J. Mitchell Title: Professor of Architecture and Media Arts and Sciences, School of Architecture and Planning
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 74d1
authors Yaski, Y.
year 1981
title A Consistent Database for an Integrated CAAD System
source Carnegie Mellon University
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 050224_li-a
id 050224_li-a
authors Yeh, Li-Hsuen
year 2004
title Bubble - Trouble
source ETH postgraduate studies final thesis, Zurich
summary In this thesis I would like to explore the bubble structure, seek a possibility to use computer programming to reinterpret soap bubble structure. Architecture today is not only built by concrete, steel and glasses anymore. Our power of the new tools will help us to discover the variety of prototypes. Beside a data-driven structure can change shape and define itself by the users. Wherefore structures will be able to adapt themselves physically to changing circumstances, instead of collecting sudden circumstances to enhance the architecture itself.
series thesis:MSc
last changed 2005/09/09 10:58

_id 9b90
authors Yessios, Christos Ioannis
year 1973
title Syntactic structures and procedures for computable site planning
source Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id dda4
authors Yezioro, Abraham
year 1994
title Form and Performance in Intelligent CAAD Systems for Early Stages in Solar Design Building
source Technion, Faculty of Architecture and Town Planing, Haifa
summary Great care should be taken at the initial design stages to determine the principles and solution schemes for climate and energy-conscious buildings. The present study deals with supporting the designer's efforts at the early stages to lay down the appropriate principles for a conceptual and geometric design of energy-preserving buildings, which are also thermally comfortable and adapted to local climatic conditions. For years, especially during the last decade, important data concerning climate-conscious construction has been compiled, but the information has not been utilized by designers, due to its inaccessibility. It is significant, though, that solutions based on this knowledge could be found and assessed at the preliminary design steps. A correct climate-conscious design conceived at the initial stages may guarantee that during later phases of the project's development no problems calling for essential and drastic changes in the basic design will crop up. The meaning of such changes at later stages may require sometimes a redesigning of the entire project. It is vital, therefore, to understand at the pre-conceptual phase, what are the correct climatic-solar design strategies which satisfy the requirements of the local conditions, and enable the attainment of thermal comfort conditions, while consuming the least possible energy. The present study proposes a computer-aided passive solar design system (PASYS) which enables the handling of entire designing process, and its general, conceptual aspects, as well as the preliminary designing steps and their particular, practical aspects. The system is based both on a knowledge base which stores the existing information concerning solar-climatic construction in the form of rules of thumb, and on precise procedural models which enable finding solutions suited to the local climatic conditions. The proposed system is an intelligent CAAD system which equips the designer who is aware of the constraints of climate and energy, with a tool to achieve a better design. PASYS was developed as a universal system to deal with the various activities involved in the initial – pre-conceptual and conceptual - design stages. The system supports the following design activities of each stage of this kind: analysis, synthesis, documentation, assessment and decision making. It is capable of analyzing given conditions, thus helping the designer understand which are the significant preliminary design stages that have a bearing on thermal comfort conditions in a given climate. The system is also capable of proposing solutions corresponding with the particular design phase, and assess their adequacy. These solutions take into account the constraints determined both by the designer and by the system itself, owing to the knowledge base it contains. The system can also document the various solutions that have been found and selected, so that may be further developed at later stages. This documentation is carried out by a graphic interface, developed as part of the system, as well as by an interface devised for existing CAD software. This study highlights the interaction between form and performance. The system is able to assess the performance of a proposed design by considering a given geometry (form), or viceversa, it is able to recommend a solution that can deliver desired and required performances. The study comprises three parts: (a.) Development of the conceptual model of a knowledge based design process. (b.) Further development of the initial stages of the afore mentioned process, including the pre-conceptual and conceptual stages. (c.) Demonstration of the mode of work with the PASYS system. // The first part of the study deals with the definition of the design process, the definition of the various design steps and their characteristics, and the definition of the activities involved in each design step. This part of the work also presents the kinds of knowledge bases affecting the design process, and shows how this knowledge is an inseparable part of the design process. The second part deals with the development of the initial design stages - the pre-conceptual and the conceptual - which are based on knowledge. This part also contains compiled knowledge that is relevant to the design stage, and a knowledge storage and retrieval method that was developed so as to make the knowledge available and accessible on demand. This part further presents precise procedural methods, developed to find solutions adapted to the specific given conditions, and to precisely assess the performance of the proposed solution. A case in point is the module of the SHADING system which enables a precise assessment of the mutual shading of buildings, and an examination of the exposure of the southern elevation to the sun, which is necessary in order to determine the effective solar absorption area in a proposed project in given environment conditions. The third part of the study demonstrates the solar-climatic design process put into action and supported by the system that was developed. This system enables the designer, even at the preliminary design stages, to determine which properties relating to local climatic conditions he will introduce into the building. This important, seemingly natural act, is usually performed during more advanced stages, when it might generate significant changes in the design, at a juncture when changes are hard to make. A PASYS-aided design environment ensures that from the beginning of the designing process, the project will be designed correctly and efficiently as far as energy is concerned.
keywords Knowledge Base; Design Process; Form; Performance; CAAD Systems
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/03/03 10:58

_id cf2013_023
id cf2013_023
authors Yun, Wu and Miyamoto Funito
year 2013
title An Analysis of Backbone of Outer Spatial Morphology of Campus
source Global Design and Local Materialization[Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 978-3-642-38973-3] Shanghai, China, July 3-5, 2013, pp. 23-37.
summary The research is based on the theory of Space syntax (Hillier and Hanson, 1983). Just as the backbone is essential to compose the human body, two sorts of backbones of the outer spatial configuration of campus are proposed and defined in this thesis. The first is syntactically abstract, which is constituted with the axial lines to represent the relations between the buildings located in campus, and to characterize the essential spatial configuration of campus. The second is a road network which could be represented as a realistic backbone for human activities, and through which human get personal impression and knowledge of outer space of campus. Based on the concept of the backbone, several spatial patterns of campuses are explored and extracted, and the relationships with the spatial cognition and comprehension are quantitatively evaluated.
keywords Backbone, Axial lines map, Road network, Space syntax, Spatial morphology, Space cognition.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2014/03/24 06:08

_id 9ab2
authors Yun, Yong Gib
year 2001
title Structural Composite Members in Architecture Fabricated by CAD/CAE/CAM Technology
source Harvard University
summary The doctoral research in this dissertation is aimed at exploring new materials and innovative methods for fabricating complex-shaped buildings, which have surfaced as a prevailing trend in architecture today. Over the past few years, the field of architecture has witnessed revolutionary changes in design. The recent completion of Frank O. Gehry's new Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain, brought unprecedented attention to complex-shaped, non-conventional designs and its influence on the global architectural trend has been immense. In following these latest trends, the author was drawn to the issues concerning construction materials and methods that are being currently adopted in realizing these complicated designs. It is perhaps inevitable that the traditional steel construction methods, suitable for use in the conventional linear shapes, face tremendous challenges and limitations in building such complex-shaped designs. In the author's opinion, the next step to go from here is to seek joint efforts between the architectural field and the engineering field to search for a new methodology which will best serve the contemporary design style. This research first focused on examining the problems that traditional methods pose for the new complex-shaped buildings. Paying attention to Gehry's recent projects, the author was able to identify major difficulties in association with representing and constructing these complicated shapes, mainly in terms of the relationship between the primary structure and the envelope surface. The second part of the research moved on to proposing a new alternative to the traditional methods, by utilizing polymer composite materials (PCM) as construction material and employing advanced Computer-Aided Design (CAD)/Computer Aided Engineering (CAE)/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) technologies. More specifically, the author has attempted to present effective theories in support of the two following ideas: (1) circular tubes made of PCM are the most promising alternative to regular steel members, especially steel tubes, to follow the envelope surface of the complex shaped building. (2) state-of-the-art CAD/CAE/CAM technologies are the most essential tools to achieve the geometrical and functional quality of the proposed new material. In the second phase, the primary focus of the quantitative approach was on fabricating an experimental model (1:1 scale prototype) called “ a unit of boundary structures”, the basic unit of structure system that wraps a complex-shaped building's entire territory . (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7add
authors Zahnan, Lena
year 2001
title Computer-aided Design-based Project Management Model
source Concordia University (Canada)
summary The construction industry is one that is fragmented by nature. In current practice, information is exchanged between the designers and contractors in the form of paper documents such as drawings, bills of material and specifications. Information is lost and errors are made during the forward and backward exchange of the design-construction information and constructability knowledge between the design professionals, cost estimators and contractors. Despite the technological developments in IT, the industry has been slow in adopting change in its processes. Computer Integrated Construction (CIC) strives to bridge the gaps of information by integrating the tools and processes within the Architecture, Engineering and Construction industries. This thesis proposes an integrated methodology across the design and construction functions supported by available CAD technologies. The proposed methodology has been implemented in a prototype software application named “CAD-B PM” that allows the user to integrate the CAD design with a central database that is a repository of project information. Productivity and cost estimates are generated within the database and are further integrated to a scheduling application for project planning and control. The prototype system provides a unique solution where the project information is openly shared between the applications in a dynamic environment through the use of Open Database Connectivity (ODBC).
keywords Industrial Engineering
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a3f5
authors Zandi-Nia, Abolfazl
year 1992
title Topgene: An artificial Intelligence Approach to a Design Process
source Delft University of Technology
summary This work deals with two architectural design (AD) problems at the topological level and in presence of the social norms community, privacy, circulation-cost, and intervening opportunity. The first problem concerns generating a design with respect to a set of above mentioned norms, and the second problem requires evaluation of existing designs with respect to the same set of norms. Both problems are based on the structural-behavioral relationship in buildings. This work has challenged above problems in the following senses: (1) A working system, called TOPGENE (The TOpological Pattern GENErator) has been developed. (2) Both problems may be vague and may lack enough information in their statement. For example, an AD in the presence of the social norms requires the degrees of interactions between the location pairs in the building. This information is not always implicitly available, and must be explicated from the design data. (3) An AD problem at topological level is intractable with no fast and efficient algorithm for its solution. To reduce the search efforts in the process of design generation, TOPGENE uses a heuristic hill climbing strategy that takes advantage of domain specific rules of thumbs to choose a path in the search space of a design. (4) TOPGENE uses the Q-analysis method for explication of hidden information, also hierarchical clustering of location-pairs with respect to their flow generation potential as a prerequisite information for the heuristic reasoning process. (5) To deal with a design of a building at topological level TOPGENE takes advantage of existing graph algorithms such as path-finding and planarity testing during its reasoning process. This work also presents a new efficient algorithm for keeping track of distances in a growing graph. (6) This work also presents a neural net implementation of a special case of the design generation problem. This approach is based on the Hopfield model of neural networks. The result of this approach has been used test TOPGENE approach in generating designs. A comparison of these two approaches shows that the neural network provides mathematically more optimal designs, while TOPGENE produces more realistic designs. These two systems may be integrated to create a hybrid system.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id cd89
authors Zhang, Dong Mei
year 1994
title A hybrid design process model using case-based reasoning
source University of Sydney
keywords Architectural Design; Data Processing; Case-Based Reasoning; Process Control; Data Processing
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 7e54
authors Ömer, Akin
year 1979
title Models of Architectural Knowledge - An Information Processing Model of Design
source Carnegie Mellon University, College of Fine Arts, Pittsburgh
summary Throughout the history of art the position of the artist towards his goals and his product has been constantly redefined. The two opposing views in the above quotation, those of . German Romanticism and Classicism, are typical of the temperamental nature of the state of the art. Today's artist uses intuition as well as reason in his creative work. Similarly, whether we consider the architect an artist or a scientist, he is constantly required to use his intellectal as well as emotional resources while designing. I do not intend to endorse an attitude for the architect which condones only one of those sources at the expense of the other. Today there i s a real opportunity for understanding the reasoning used in problem-solving and applying these to the area of architectural design, the opportunity arises due to a large amount of knowledge accumulated in the area of ' human problem-solving, methods of anlayzing and developing models for human problem solving behavior. The most frequently refered points of departure in this area are Simon's pioneering work in the area of decision-making (1944) and Newell, Shaw and Simon's work on "heuristics" (1957).
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:39

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