CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 5680
authors Sutherland, E.
year 1963
title Sketchpad, A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System
source Proceedings 1963 Spring Joint Computer Conference AFIPS, 1963: Vol. 23
summary The Sketchpad system makes it possible for a man and a computer to converse rapidly through the medium of line drawings. Heretofore, most interaction between man and computers has been slowed down by the need to reduce all communication to written statements that can be typed; in the past, we have been writing letters to rather than conferring with our computers, For many types of communication, such as describing the shape of a mechanical part or the connections of an electrical circuit, typed statements can prove cumbersome. The Sketehpad system, by eliminating typed statements (except for legends) in favor of line drawings, opens up a new area of man-machine communication.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id acadia08_390
id acadia08_390
authors Vrana, Andrew; Joe Meppelink; Ben Nicholson
year 2008
title New Harmony Grotto
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 390-399
summary With the expanding wave of contemporary architecture inspired and informed by biomorphic design and biomimetic processes, the re-evaluation of work of Frederick Kiesler has become immanent. Throughout the mid 20th century he became increasingly interested in the relationship of natural form and structure to architectural space and organization. The Grotto for Meditation proposed in 1963 for New Harmony, Indiana commissioned by Mrs. Jane Blaffer-Owen was the culmination of his life’s work. Though the project was not realized, it embodies all of the influences of his time from surrealism to biology and cybernetic theory. Through our university and the Blaffer Foundation, we engaged in formal research and tectonic resolution of the project employing digital modeling and fabrication technologies at our College and in Houston where Mrs. Owen lives when she is not in New Harmony. We based this project on the full catalog of archival material made available to us with support from the Blaffer and Kielser Foundations. Our exploration also was influenced by discussions with Mrs. Blaffer-Owen who is still very interested in realizing this profoundly interesting and enigmatic project. Our university has opened the door to the opportunity that our reinterpreted Grotto become a permanent fixture on the campus next to a wetland landscape that it is currently under construction. Our research into Kiesler has engaged his esoteric concepts of “co-realism” and “continuous tension” as well as his early use of recursive geometry and biomorphic form in design. From reverse engineering and digital fabrication via 3D scanning to generative structural articulation, we are experimenting with a structural/spatial system that closely aligns with Kiesler’s originally proposed tile patterning dilated into a minimal structure. Our prototypes and the final version will be fabricated by one of the largest commercially for-hire water jet cutter in country and assembled on the site.
keywords Biomorphic; Digital Fabrication; Prototype; Structure
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id 1a3d
authors Willey, David
year 1999
title Sketchpad to 2000: From Computer Systems to Digital Environments
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 526-532
summary It can be argued that over the last thirty five years computer aided architectural design (CAAD) has made little impact in terms of aiding design. The paper provides a broadbrush review of the last 35 years of CAAD research and suggests that the SKETCHPAD notion that has dominated CAAD since 1963 is now a flawed concept. Then the discipline was replete with Modernist concepts of optimal solutions, objective design criteria and universal design standards. Now CAD needs to proceed on the basis of the Post Modern ways of thinking and designing opened up by digital techniques - the Internet, multimedia, virtual reality, electronic games, distance learning. Computers facilitate information flow and storage. In the late seventies and eighties the CAAD research community's response to the difficulties it had identified with the construction of integrated digital building models was to attempt to improve the intelligence of the computer systems to better match the understanding of designers. Now it is clear that the future could easily lie with CAAD systems that have almost no intelligence and make no attempt to aid the designer. Communication is much more central to designing than computing.
keywords History, Intelligence, Interface, Sketchpad, Web
series eCAADe
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id 8d59
authors Andersen, J.M.
year 1983
title CAD in Architectural Practice
source Mechanical Engineering. July, 1983. pp. 48-54 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary A leading architecture/engineering firm has made use of in- house computer system since 1963. This paper discusses some special topics in using computers for the design of HVAC systems, and the process of implementing CAD in the HVAC engineering practice
keywords computer graphics, HVAC, applications, practice, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id b88f
authors Heywood, Ian and Cornelius, Sarah
year 1963
title An Introduction to GIS
source Prentice Hall Series in Geographic Information Science, ed. Keith Clarke. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
summary This authoritative book offers an up-to-date introduction to the world of Geographical Information Systems. It is designed to be easy to use for students at all levels, from undergraduates to professionals retraining in GIS. The book focuses on the practical applications of GIS, and considers how the technology works. Each chapter addresses a specific theme and is backed up with examples, case studies, directed reading and additional resources on a web site. The book can be used to give the reader a quick tour through the world of GIS, to help the reader develop a thorough understanding of GIS or as a source of reference information. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems is an ideal text for undergraduates, postgraduates and professionals following courses in GIS. It has been adopted as a set text for the international UNIGIS Postgraduate Diploma in GIS by distance learning.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 1d2b
authors Minsky, M.
year 1963
title Steps toward artificial intelligence
source E.A. Feigenbaum & J. Feldman, eds., Computers and Thought (McGraw-Hill, New York) 406-450.
summary The problems of heuristic programming-of making computers solve really difficult problems-are divided into five main areas: Search, Pattern-Recognition, Learning, Planning, and Induction. Wherever appropriate, the discussion is supported by extensive citation of the literature and by descriptions of a few of the most successful heuristic (problem-solving) programs constructed to date. The adjective "heuristic," as used here and widely in the literature, means related to improving problem-solving performance; as a noun it is also used in regard to any method or trick used to improve the efficiency of a problem-solving system. A "heuristic program," to be considered successful, must work well on a variety of problems, and may often be excused if it fails on some. We often find it worthwhile to introduce a heuristic method, which happens to cause occasional failures, if there is an over-all improvement in performance. But imperfect methods are not necessarily heuristic, nor vice versa. Hence "heuristic" should not be regarded as opposite to "foolproof"; this has caused some confusion in the literature.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2
authors Montagu, Arturo
year 1998
title Desde La Computacion Grafica a los Sistemas CAD Actuales. Una Vision Historica de la Revolucion Producida en los Sistemas de Representacion Grafica (1966-1998) (From Graphical Computation to Present CAD Systems. An Historical Vision of the Revolution Produced in the Systems of Graphical Representation (1966-1998))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 14-21
summary Throughout these pages are made known the persons, the projects and the books that have influenced my actions and that they will be mentioned in form underlined in this paper. I have to emphasize that since 1965 to 1970, and in the continuous search that I was accomplishing to find data and bibliography adapted to the topic of computer graphics, only two series of publications contained topics related to this matter at that time: one was the IBM Journal and the other series was the communications of the ACM. The purpose of this work is to make known an experience accomplished throughout 30 years of intense activity in finding new methods of drawing and design, based on the use of digital computers, mainly in Argentina, and during certain periods of time in Great Britain and since 1971 during short visits to the United States and also in France. The first idea emerged in the year 1965 when I was assistant teacher at the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, as a combination of ideas between the concepts of spatial geometry and the current morphological studies that we taught in the Course of professor Gaston Breyer. However the idea of automatic drawing emerged observing the operation of the first scientific digital computer installed in the Computing Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1963 (Sadosky 1963). At the beginning, the approach to the computer were not accomplished from a strictly scientific point of view, but it was implying a kind of "sincresis" (Koheler 1940) it is more than a synthesis, because I was tried to combine ideas that have had its origin in different worlds of thinking, the analogous world and the digital world, and this situation was very difficult to accept at that time.The designing procedures in the decade 1960's was deeply rooted (and still continues) in the architectural design field as a result of a drawing process based in heuristic techniques.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 1963
authors Tweed, Chris and Woolley, Tom
year 1992
source Proceedings of the 4rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / Lausanne (Switzerland) 9-12 September 1992, Part B, pp. 17-24
summary Many projects in which users participate in the design process are merely examples of professionals communicating their ideas to their clients. Conventional computer systems can be powerful tools for helping designers to present design informations to lay audiences, but when combined with computer modelling and simulation, they create opportunities for users to construct their own sequences of images and thus explore designs from their own viewpoint. Building on extensive experience of traditional methods of user participation, this paper explores the use of narratives to create dialogues between users, designers and computers. The concept of "design stories" as a route to fully shared creativity is explained. The paper also argues that this approach is needed to bring into focus design issues that cannot be described or resolved by computer modelling alone.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:41

_id caadria2006_633
id caadria2006_633
authors WAN-YU LIU
year 2006
title THE EMERGING DIGITAL STYLE: Attention shift in architectural style recognition
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 633-635
summary “Style” has long been an important index to observe the design thinking of designers in architecture. Gombrich (1968) defined style as a particular selection from the alternatives when doing things; Ackerman (1963) considered that a distiguishable ensemble of certain characteristics we call a style; Schapiro (1961) pointed out that style is constant forms, and sometimes the constant elements, qualities and expression; Kirsch (1998), Cha and Gero (1999) thought of style as a form element and shape pattern. As Simon and others referred to, style emerged from the process of problem solving, Chan (1994, 2001) ever devised a serious of experiments to set up the operational definitions of style, further five factors that relate to generating styles. Owing to that the greater part of sketches and drawings in the design process couldn’t be replaced by computer-aided design systems (Eisentraut, 1997), designers must shift between different problem-solving methods while facing different design problems. The purpose in this research is to discuss the influences of computer usage on style generation and style recognition: The employment of certain procedural factors that occurred in the design processes that using conventional media is different from the ones that using computer media? Do personal styles emerge while designers shifting between different media in the design processes? Does any unusual phenomenon emerge while accustomed CAD-systems designers recognizing a style?
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id d1ed
authors Sutherland, Ivan Edward
year 1963
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass.
keywords Sketchpad (Computer Program); Computer Graphics
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/12 15:06

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