CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id bba7
authors Alexander, Christopher W.
year 1964
title Notes on the Synthesis of Form
source Harvard Graduate School of Design
summary Every design problem begins with an effort to achieve fitness between two entities: the form in question and its context. The form is the solution to the problem; the context defines the problem. We want to put the context and the form into effortless contact or frictionless coexistence, i.e., we want to find a good fit. For a good fit to occur in practice, one vital condition must be satisfied. It must have time to happen. In slow-changing, traditional, unselfconscious cultures, a form is adjusted soon after each slight misfit occurs. If there was good fit at some stage in the past, no matter how removed, it will have persisted, because there is an active stability at work. Tradition and taboo dampen and control the rate of change in an unselfconscious culture's designs. It is important to understand that the individual person in an unselfconscious culture needs no creative strength. He does not need to be able to improve the form, only to make some sort of change when he notices a failure. The changes may not always be for the better; but it is not necessary that they should be, since the operation of the process allows only the improvements to persist. Unselfconscious design is a process of slow adaptation and error reduction. In the unselfconscious process there is no possibility of misconstruing the situation. Nobody makes a picture of the context, so the picture cannot be wrong. But the modern, selfconscious designer works entirely from a picture in his mind - a conceptualization of the forces at work and their interrelationships - and this picture is almost always wrong. To achieve in a few hours at the drawing board what once took centuries of adaptation and development, to invent a form suddenly which clearly fits its context - the extent of invention necessary is beyond the individual designer. A designer who sets out to achieve an adaptive good fit in a single leap is not unlike the child who shakes his glass-topped puzzle fretfully, expecting at one shake to arrange the bits inside correctly. The designer's attempt is hardly as random as the child's is; but the difficulties are the same. His chances of success are small because the number of factors which must fall simultaneously into place is so enormous. The process of design, even when it has become selfconscious, remains a process of error-reduction. No complex system will succeed in adapting in a reasonable amount of time or effort unless the adaptation can proceed component by component, each component relatively independent of the others. The search for the right components, and the right way to build the form up from these components, is the greatest challenge faced by the modern, selfconscious designer. The culmination of the modern designer's task is to make every unit of design both a component and a system. As a component it will fit into the hierarchy of larger components that are above it; as a system it will specify the hierarchy of smaller components of which it itself is made.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id sigradi2005_463
id sigradi2005_463
authors Costa Cabral, Cláudia Piantá
year 2005
title Computer City, 1994
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 463-467
summary This paper is about an emblematic design of the sixties, Dennis Crompton’s Computer City, published in 1964 by Archigram Magazine. Besides other enterprises of its time, Archigram promoted a critical view over institutionalised post-war modernism for not being able to recognize the emergence of new social realities, identified with the new technologies of automation and information, the restructuring of capitalist fordism and the shift from a predominantly industrial culture to an electronic culture. This paper sustains that more than a direct translation of unquestionable technical necessities; it was a conscious attempt of producing a sort of representation of technology. Crompton’s design clearly demonstrates the actual change in the character of technology, when it is no longer primarily identified with artefacts and objects, as the machine, and seems to be progressively identified with abstract and ubiquitous systems and processes of control, as automation and information systems. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id cde3
authors De Sausmarez, M.
year 1964
title Basic Design: the Dynamics of Visual Form
source New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold
summary The fundamentals of 2/D design are the underpinnings of all image making. The dynamic and interaction of mark, line, shape, value and color determine the quality and meaning of all images; be they carefully planned or wildly spontaneous. Maurice de Sausmarez in the introduction to his book Basic Design: The dynamics of visual form characterizes Basic Design as "... an attitude of mind, not a method...A form of inquiry, not a new art form....emphatically not an end in itself but a means of making the individual more acutely aware of the expressive resources at his/her command; a fostering of an inquisitiveness...". We will be directing our inquiries through 6 explorations that will be undertaken over the course of the semester. In all of this work the process will be as important as the finished product and will provide the key to what design is about. In addition you will be learning the rudiments of computer imaging by completing the "Against the Clock" tutorial for Adobe Illustrator. We will also look briefly at "Streamline" and "Photoshop" to enable you to work with scans. Familiarity with digital imaging processes is a powerful tool and valuable life skill. You will always have the option of using the computer to do your projects. The design explorations are set up to build on each other, the further along we go in the semester the more I will expect you to use what you have learned.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id sigradi2016_816
id sigradi2016_816
authors Klinger, Kevin R.
year 2016
title Praiseworthy Competition ? ^ ? Past: Design-through-Production: from Analysis to Formulation
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.433-440
summary Parameters within a highly collaborative design-through-production process range from a very broad set of influences. To address the conundrum of selecting operational logics, we begin searching for form genesis with an examination and reproduction of the past in order to both restore and formulate a contemporary response to an existing ceiling within an iconic space, designed in 1964 by Alexander Girard in the atmosphere of significant architectural design influences radiating from Columbus, Indiana. Methods learned from analysis of original production are used, and synthesized as guiding principles in the design-through-production process of contemporary work.
keywords Design-through-production; Digital fabrication, Columbus, Indiana, Design principles
series SIGraDi
last changed 2017/06/21 12:21

_id sigradi2015_11.165
id sigradi2015_11.165
authors Ligler, Heather; Economou, Thanos
year 2015
title Lost in Translation: Towards an Automated Description of John Portman’s Domestic Architecture
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 657-661.
summary The prevalent mode of shape grammar output is a two-dimensional drawing grammar. For architectural applications, these two- dimensional shape rules can hold a variety of interpretations in three-dimensional space. This work translates an existing grammar from a manual two-dimensional drawing grammar to an automated three-dimensional building grammar to explore the challenges and opportunities that this translation suggests in the larger context of shape computation. The case study considered here is a grammar interpreting John Portman’s architectural language as defined by the house Portman identifies as emblematic of his design principles, his 1964 personal residence Entelechy I.
keywords Shape Grammars, Shape Grammar Implementations, Formal Composition, Generative Systems
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id sigradi2014_341
id sigradi2014_341
authors Paysse Alvarez, Marcelo
year 2014
title ArchiGram/ArchiNet. De la fugacidad móvil a la movilidad fugaz (1964-2014) [ArchiGram/ArchiNet. From mobile transience to fleeting mobility (1964-2014)]
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 418-421
summary In the early 60s, the British group Archigram created and promoted a new understanding of architecture and land, incorporating with its innovative vision, the scientific paradigms and technological advances of the second half of the twentieth century. The result of these explorations resulted in the emergence of theoretical and concrete proposals with technology as the main protagonist in the physical resulting, through a poiesis which postulated mobile transience as an active paradigm. Fifty years later, today, this situation has similarities and differences with the time it was given, and deserves a special consideration in this topic.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:57

_id sigradi2007_af89
id sigradi2007_af89
authors Rodrigues, Gelly; Gabriela Celani
year 2007
title Cognitive modeling of the creative process in architecture by means of the object-oriented programming technique [Modelagem cognitiva do processo criativo em arquitetura por meio da técnica de programação orientada a objetos]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 275-279
summary The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between the object-oriented paradigm and the design process in architecture. The work was inspired by Mitchell´s (1990) comparison between architectural types and classes of objects. An analogy was set between the development of classes and the structuring of design problems based on architectural typologies. The method was then compared to Alexander´s (1964) in terms of levels of abstraction. Two classes were implemented, illustrating the application of the object-oriented paradigm in architectural design. The method developed is expected to help architects develop a new understanding of the design process.
keywords Design process; design method; object-oriented programming
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id ga9927
id ga9927
authors Neagu, Mariana
year 1999
title On Linguistic Aspects from a Cross-cultural Perspective
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary The goal of this paper is to discuss the issue of culture and its relationship to language and cognition by dealing with a number of lexical concepts, grammatical concepts and cultural scripts. Taking a moderate view, I reconcile universalism and ethnocentrism and argue that the study of culture-specific aspects of language has both a theoretical and practical importance. The role of universal semantic primes is obvious in culture-specific words such as the Japanese amae (a peculiarly Japanese emotion) which, though unique and untranslatable, can be accurately and intelligibly defined in terms of semantic primes (Wierzbicka, 1996). The view that meanings cannot be fully transferred from one language to another is supported by the difference in meaning manifested in the different range of use of the word happy (a common, everyday word in modern English) and joyful (a more literally and stylistically marked term.). A cross-linguistic analysis of the concept ‘happy’in English, Romanian, German, French, Italian, points to the so-called ‘traditional Anglo-Saxon distate for extreme emotions’. As far as aspects of grammar connected with culture are concerned, I compare expressive grammatical devices like intensifiers in English, Romanian and Italian. The question the paper addresses is whether constructions like syntactic reduplication(e.g. bella bella) and the absolute superlative (e.g. bellissimo) are indeed linked with what has been called ‘the theatrical quality’ of Italian life (Barzini, 1964) or not. Relative to Romanian, I assume that the idea of intensity of a state or action is conveyed, in certain registers, by terms and expressions pertaining to basic element source domains such as fire (e.g. frumoasa foc ‘fire-beautiful’) and earth (e.g. frumusetea pamantului ‘beauty of the earth’) and also by syntactic reduplication (e.g. frumoasa-frumoaselor ’beauty of the beauties’). Finally, I approach aspects of pragmatics which are culturally determined in the sense that they express cultural norms, values, ideals, attitudes. For instance, preferences are expressed directly in English while in Japanese this manner is contrary to the ideal of enryo ’restraint, reserve’.
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ecaade2017_105
id ecaade2017_105
authors Miodragovic Vella, Irina and Kotnik, Toni
year 2017
title Stereotomy, an Early Example of a Material System
source Fioravanti, A, Cursi, S, Elahmar, S, Gargaro, S, Loffreda, G, Novembri, G, Trento, A (eds.), ShoCK! - Sharing Computational Knowledge! - Proceedings of the 35th eCAADe Conference - Volume 2, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy, 20-22 September 2017, pp. 251-258
summary Stereotomy originated as a technique that accumulated theoretical and practical knowledge on stone material properties and construction. At its peak in the nineteenth century, by pushing the structure and construction limits, it gained the ability of using "the weight of the stone against itself by making it hover in space through the very weight that should make it fall down" (Perrault 1964, cited Etelin, 2012). The modern architectural tectonics, based on structural comprehension in architecture, found no value in stereotomy beyond its early, Gothic period. Similarly, digital architectural theory recognized in Gothic the early examples of a material systems. This paper reassesses stereotomy at its fundamental levels, as a material system based on generative processes that assimilate structure and construction through parameterization. In this way, a theoretical framework is established that exposes stereotomy's intrinsic potentials: the continuity of historic and contemporary examples, overlaps between current research endeavours, and its genuine relevance for contemporary digital architecture.
keywords stereotomy, material system, Abeille vault, parametric design
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/09/13 13:27

_id shkineva02_paper_eaea2007
id shkineva02_paper_eaea2007
authors Shkineva, Natalija
year 2008
title Computer Graphics as a Method of a Self-Deception
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary Perspective as a method of 3D imaging on a flat sheet, with only two dimensions, which appeared in the Renaissance, offered brilliant methods of third dimension imaging, which are widely used in the present as well.
series EAEA
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

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