CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 13 of 13

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id b029
authors Minsky, M. and Papert, S.
year 1969
title Perceptrons
source MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
summary Perceptrons - the first systematic study of parallelism in computation - has remained a classical work on threshold automata networks for nearly two decades. It marked a historical turn in artificial intelligence, and it is required reading for anyone who wants to understand the connectionist counterrevolution that is going on today. Artificial-intelligence research, which for a time concentrated on the programming of ton Neumann computers, is swinging back to the idea that intelligence might emerge from the activity of networks of neuronlike entities. Minsky and Papert's book was the first example of a mathematical analysis carried far enough to show the exact limitations of a class of computing machines that could seriously be considered as models of the brain. Now the new developments in mathematical tools, the recent interest of physicists in the theory of disordered matter, the new insights into and psychological models of how the brain works, and the evolution of fast computers that can simulate networks of automata have given Perceptrons new importance. Witnessing the swing of the intellectual pendulum, Minsky and Papert have added a new chapter in which they discuss the current state of parallel computers, review developments since the appearance of the 1972 edition, and identify new research directions related to connectionism. They note a central theoretical challenge facing connectionism: the challenge to reach a deeper understanding of how "objects" or "agents" with individuality can emerge in a network. Progress in this area would link connectionism with what the authors have called "society theories of mind."
series other
email minsky@media.mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 48db
authors Proctor, George
year 2001
title CADD Curriculum - The Issue of Visual Acuity
source Architectural Information Management [19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1] Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, pp. 192-200
summary Design educators attempt to train the eyes and minds of students to see and comprehend the world around them with the intention of preparing those students to become good designers, critical thinkers and ultimately responsible architects. Over the last eight years we have been developing the digital media curriculum of our architecture program with these fundamental values. We have built digital media use and instruction on the foundation of our program which has historically been based in physical model making. Digital modeling has gradually replaced the capacity of physical models as an analytical and thinking tool, and as a communication and presentation device. The first year of our program provides a foundation and introduction to 2d and 3d design and composition, the second year explores larger buildings and history, the third year explores building systems and structure through design studies of public buildings, fourth year explores urbanism, theory and technology through topic studios and, during the fifth year students complete a capstone project. Digital media and CADD have and are being synchronized with the existing NAAB accredited regimen while also allowing for alternative career options for students. Given our location in the Los Angeles region, many students with a strong background in digital media have gone on to jobs in video game design and the movie industry. Clearly there is much a student of architecture must learn to attain a level of professional competency. A capacity to think visually is one of those skills and is arguably a skill that distinguishes members of the visual arts (including Architecture) from other disciplines. From a web search of information posted by the American Academy of Opthamology, Visual Acuity is defined as an ability to discriminate fine details when looking at something and is often measured with the Snellen Eye Chart (the 20/20 eye test). In the context of this paper visual acuity refers to a subject’s capacity to discriminate useful abstractions in a visual field for the purposes of Visual Thinking- problem solving through seeing (Arnheim, 1969, Laseau 1980, Hoffman 1998). The growing use of digital media and the expanding ability to assemble design ideas and images through point-and-click methods makes the cultivation and development of visual skills all the more important to today’s crop of young architects. The advent of digital media also brings into question the traditional, static 2d methods used to build visual skills in a design education instead of promoting active 3d methods for teaching, learning and developing visual skills. Interactive digital movies provide an excellent platform for promoting visual acuity, and correlating the innate mechanisms of visual perception with the abstractions and notational systems used in professional discourse. In the context of this paper, pedagogy for building visual acuity is being considered with regard to perception of the real world, for example the visual survey of an environment, a site or a street scene and how that visual survey works in conjunction with practice.
keywords Curriculum, Seeing, Abstracting, Notation
series eCAADe
email grproctor@csupomona.edu
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id 6c6f
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Technion (Haifa, Israel)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Israel there is only one School of Architecture. CAAD teaching has been introduced since 1969-1970. Last year it has been decided that each department (electronical, mechanical, architectural) will have its own CAD laboratory for computer graphics, based on a super minicomputer (CDC Cyber 170/720). The following software is available for CAAD : CD2000 (wireframe drawings), ICEM (solid modelling), TIGS (terminal independent graphics system), GOAL and BIBLE, ACA (integrated CAAD software). At the Technion teachers and architects which can educate CAAD are available. The following courses are teached : Computer Aided Architectural Design (I + II), Computer Methods in City Planning, Mathematical Models in Architectural Design, Design Course - Geometrical Modelling, Design Course - Solar Energy Design Seminar. It was decided that since next year the following courses will use CAAD : Design course - Geometrical Modelling and Appraisal, Morphology I, 2D-Design and Design Course - Passive Solar Communities.
series eCAADe
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ecaade2007_095
id ecaade2007_095
authors Benton, Sarah
year 2007
title Mediating between Architectural Design Ideation and Development through Digital Technology
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 253-260
summary Negroponte (Negroponte 1969) described how the creative thinking of a designer can become affected by the ‘machine’ urging the designer to draw a distinction between ‘heuristics of form’ and ‘heuristics of method’. This ensured that by taking advantage of digital technology a symbiotic relationship was maintained between both of these. To date architects have investigated digital tools for generating form and imagery with increasing success, but have arguably fallen short of using those tools for advancing their design methods. The research presented here explores questions not solely focusing on the use of the tools, but on heuristic methods of the profession, to examine the interconnectiveness of the design method and the tool in a symbiotic fashion; to examine the nature of creativity. This paper is taking a critical standpoint about the place of digital tools in an architect’s method in the pursuit of poetic architecture and, in particular, its representation, to enable speculation, as opposed to prediction, of ideas in the design process from the early phases. The issue is discussed through the findings of my doctoral research case studies that have proved germane to my particular enquiry, that is, digital mediationbetween design ideation and design development.
keywords Ideation, development, design process, digital techniques, animation
series eCAADe
email benton@terroir.com.au
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 5094
id 5094
authors d’Estrée Sterk, Tristan
year 2006
title Responsive Architecture: User-centered Interactions within the Hybridized Model of Control
source Proceedings of the GAME, SET, MATCH II, conference at the Technical University of Delft, Netherlands, 29 March - 1 April 2006, pp. 494-501
summary In the September 1969 issue of Architectural Design, Andrew Rabeneck wrote about the use of cybernetic devices within an automated architecture. He hypothesized that the concept of ‘flexibility’ was introduced to architecture because existing building technologies were inherently inflexible. He argued that architects should use cybernetic technologies to produce completely new types of increasingly flexible, user-centred, buildings.

Three years later, Yona Friedman wrote about the changing relationship between clients and architects. He said that a new design methodology was needed because architects could not assess the future spatial needs of building users accurately enough. Proposing a new model, he split architectural design in two complementary halves, hardware design and software design, reasoning that this would give users the opportunity to adapt built spaces to suit their needs.

Both of these ideas describe approaches to the production of an architecture that can change shape and configuration in response to changing patterns of use. Rabeneck’s approach illustrates the benefit of predictive technologies and automation, while Friedman’s model illustrates the benefit of user intervention and direct manipulation. This paper discusses developments in the field of responsive architecture in relation to two opposing user-centred interaction methodologies. It proposes methods for controlling responsive buildings and suggests that human computer interaction methodologies need to be re-thought and extended when applied within intelligent, responsive, architectures.

keywords Responsive architecture, User-centred design, HCI, Intelligent buildings
series other
type normal paper
email tsterk@sfu.ca
more admin
last changed 2017/04/10 11:08

_id de61
authors Guzmán, Adolfo
year 1969
title Computer recognition of three-dimensional objects in a visual scene
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture
summary Methods are presented (1) to partition or decompose a visual scene into the bodies forming it; (2) to position these bodies in three-dimensional space, by combining two scenes that make a stereoscopic pair; (3) to find the regions or zones of a visual scene that belong to its background; (4) to carry out the isolation of objects in (1) when the input has inaccuracies. Running computer programs implement the methods, and many examples illustrate their behavior. The input is a two-dimensional line-drawing of the scene, assumed to contain three-dimensional bodies possessing flat faces (polyhedra); some of them may be partially occluded. Suggestions are made for extending the work to curved objects. Some comparisons are made with human visual perception. The main conclusion is that it is possible to separate a picture or scene into the constituent objects exclusively on the basis of monocular geometric properties (on the basis of pure form); in fact, successful methods are shown.
series thesis:PhD
email a.guzman@acm.org
more ftp://publications.ai.mit.edu/ai-publications/pdf/AITR-228.pdf
last changed 2003/02/26 21:31

_id 1969
authors Khong, C.W. and Foo, C.S.
year 2002
title Rapid Prototyping and Multimedia Design at MMU
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 233-240
summary Although there have been reports worldwide where RP technology have been used outside the realms of the manufacturing sector, it is yet to be recorded, especially in South-East Asia, where RP technology is used in conjunction and to be integrated with multimedia design and content development. This paper will look at the integration of RP technology towards multimedia design at the Faculty of Creative Multimedia. This is especially fascinating where RP technology is used in a multi-disciplinary field as that of multimedia design for both academia and practice.
series CAADRIA
email cwkhong@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2002/04/25 17:26

_id ijac20032104
id ijac20032104
authors Martens, Bob
year 2004
title On the Archiving of Tom Mavers' Bibliography (1969- )
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 2 - no. 1
summary Professor Tom Maver has authored and co-authored nearly 150 publications in the course of his academic career so far. A substantial part of this work has been collected in a paper-based format and most of this has now been converted to a digital format. The bibliographical citations have been recorded - together with digital full paper versions - in CUMINCAD (Cumulative Index on CAD - http://cumincad.SciX.net). A closer examination of the collected archive of these publications and their global impact will be given in this contribution. Finally, a brief outline of possible future work will be presented.
series journal
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
more http://www.multi-science.co.uk/ijac.htm
last changed 2007/03/04 06:08

_id 17c8
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1969
title How I stopped Hating the P I B and Learned to Live with the Computer
source Newsletter of Glasgow Institute of Architects
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id eaea2005_151
id eaea2005_151
authors Ohno, Ruyzo
year 2006
title Seat preference in public squares and distribution of the surrounding people: An examination of the validity of using visual simulation
source Motion, E-Motion and Urban Space [Proceedings of the 7th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN-10: 3-00-019070-8 - ISBN-13: 978-3-00-019070-4], pp. 151-163
summary Public squares are shared by people who use them for various purposes. When people choose seats in a square, they unconsciously evaluate not only the physical characteristics of the space but also the distribution of others already present (Hall, 1966; Sommer, 1969; Whyte, 1988). Knowing the hidden rules of this behaviour will be important in designing squares that remain comfortable even in crowded situations. Most past studies of seat choice preference have reported on statistical tendencies derived from observations of subject behavior in actually existing sites (i.e., Abe, 1997; Imai, 1999; Kawamoto, 2003). However, they provide no clear theoretical model for explaining the basic mechanisms regulating such behaviour. The present study conducts a series of experiments in both real and virtual settings in order to extract quantitative relationships between subjects’ seat preferences and the presence of nearby strangers and to clarify what factors influence their seat choices.
series EAEA
type normal paper
email rohno@n.cc.titech.ac.jp
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 0319
authors Stenros, Helmer
year 1993
title The History of the Laboratory for Visual Simulation and Research Work in Tampere
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 3-8
summary Many things are born from lucky chances or as the sum of them. I see it that way when I consider those events and stages that have led to this meeting in Tampere. For myself, the study of the environmental simulator and the activities around it started in Copenhagen in 1977 in the meeting of the professors of architecture of the northern countries. I met Professor Acking from Lund University of Technology and he told me about his studies in perception and the black–and–white environmental simulator that they had built. When we started architectural education in Tampere in 1969, I had from the beginning looked for new ways to teach in order to renew the old, traditional ways of teaching architecture. After the meeting in Copenhagen, we decided to build our own environmental simulator in our faculty in Tampere.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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