CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 36

_id ecaade2009_093
id ecaade2009_093
authors Elkær, Tim Nøhr
year 2009
title Using Computers to Aid Creativity in the Early Stages of Design – or Not!: Rehabilitating the 2D/3D physical representation in Computer-Aided-Ideation
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 761-768
summary The introduction of Rapid Prototyping technology such as 3D printers and diverse Numerically Controlled machines such as laser cutters and milling machines, has made it obvious for many educational institutions, that a paradigm shift is occurring these years, that will forever change the design- and architectural practice, - for better or worse. This paper discusses the current change of role and status of the representation as a means to communicate design in the digital era. It outlines two opposite directions for the development of software technology, and brings forward previous and current research, on the didactic aspects of introducing digital software into the curriculum of architecture and design education. The paper describes a workshop held at the Danish Design School, where students proficient in using digital media, were challenged to use analogue models instead, to rediscover and utilize some of the creative potentials offered by this medium. Two other workshops discussing similar themes with different foci and different participants have been held since. One hosted by the Glass & Ceramic School on Bornholm, where the students are trained as traditional Craftsmen and another hosted by Nordes2009 at AHO in Oslo, where the participants came with a background in the research community. My own research interest lies in establishing or refueling a discussion on the importance of the ambiguity in a physical representation, as opposed to the finite interpretations offered by the digital modeling environment, that the profession is accustomed to work within. This interest has recently been confirmed and renewed by reading “The (soft) Architecture Machine(s)” from 1970+75 and by studying the works of Professor Julio Bermudez and Professor Bennett Neiman.
wos WOS:000334282200092
keywords Ideation, representation, ambiguity, heuristics, design education
series eCAADe
email tim.elkaer@dkds.dk, erazmataz@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id acadia08_286
id acadia08_286
authors Khan, Omar
year 2008
title Reconfigurable Molds as Architecture Machines
source Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation, [Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) / ISBN 978-0-9789463-4-0] Minneapolis 16-19 October 2008, 286-291
summary In The Architecture Machine (1970), Nicholas Negroponte postulates the development of design machines wherein the “design process, considered as evolutionary, can be presented to a machine, also considered as evolutionary, and a mutual training, resilience, and growth can be developed.” The book, dedicated to “the first machine that can appreciate the ges­ture,” argues for developing machines with human like quali­ties. This paper aims to develop an alternative trajectory to the “evolutionary” architecture machine, this time not towards anthropomorphism but responsiveness. The aim on one level is the same: to create machines that appreciate the gesture. However our approach is tied to more modest aims and means that bring current thinking on evolutionary processes and the forming of materials together. The reconfigurable mold (RCM) is an architecture machine that produces parts that can be combined to create more complex organizations. The molds are simple analog computers that employ various continuous scales like volume, weight and heat to develop their unique components. Parametric alterations are made possible by affecting these measures in the process of fabrication. An underlying material that is instrumental in the molds is rub­ber, whose variable elasticity provides unique possibilities for indexing the gesture that remains elusive for industrial pro­cesses.
keywords Casting; Digital Fabrication; Generative; Material; Morphogenesis
series ACADIA
last changed 2009/02/26 07:39

_id sigradi2016_615
id sigradi2016_615
authors Almeida , Rafael Goffinet de; Santos, Fábio Lopes Souza
year 2016
title Um olhar sobre a relação entre sujeitos e meios técnicos: O público como construção social mediada [Looking at the relationship between subjects and technical means: The audience as mediated social construction]
source SIGraDi 2016 [Proceedings of the 20th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-7051-86-1] Argentina, Buenos Aires 9 - 11 November 2016, pp.872-879
summary This article analyses some of the proposals produced in the late 1970´s by the American contemporary artist Dan Graham, in which he uses technical means to investigate the audience´s perception and behavior. The questions raised highlight reciprocity phenomena and identity constructions – factors that affect our experience and behavior in contemporary cities daily life. All of these issues derive from Graham´s investigations of the main information and communication technologies (media) produced at that time, and which continue to offer reflections on current relationship between technical means and the subject – that is, his/her condition as audience, observer, spectator or user.
keywords Dan Graham; Contemporary art; Contemporary Architecture and City; Technical means; Contemporary spatiality
series other
type normal paper
email rafael.goffinet.almeida@usp.br
last changed 2017/06/21 12:49

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
authors BINSU CHIANG, MAO-LIN CHIU
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
email n7693103@mail.ncku.edu.twmc2p@mail.ncku.edu.tw
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id sigradi2017_096
id sigradi2017_096
authors Cury Paraizo, Rodrigo; Cintia Mechler, Gabriel Cordeiro Gaspar
year 2017
title Exposição de pavilhões brasileiros em realidade aumentada [Showcasing World Expo Brazilian pavilions in augmented reality]
source SIGraDi 2017 [Proceedings of the 21th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-956-227-439-5] Chile, Concepción 22 - 24 November 2017, pp.666-673
summary This article describes an augmented reality exposition of three Brazilian World Expo pavilions. The study of Expo pavilions allow us to perceive several historic and cultural narratives embodied in those designs. The selected pavilions were from 1939 New York World’s Fair (by Oscar Niemeyer and Lucio Costa), 1958 Brussels World’s Fair (by Sergio Bernardes) and 1970 Osaka Expo ’70 (by Paulo Mendes da Rocha). The exposition is going to be held at the main campus of UFRJ, using Layar technology with minor adaptations to show the models in natural scale along with their corresponding information, discussing locative media opportunities regarding Architecture and Virtual Heritage.
series SIGraDi
email rparaizo@gmail.com
last changed 2018/07/27 08:08

_id ecaaderis2018_116
id ecaaderis2018_116
authors Giannopoulou, Effimia, Montás Laracuente, Nelson Bernardo and Baquero, Pablo
year 2018
title Qualitative Study on two Kinetic System Simulations - Experiments Based on Shape Memory Material and Stepper Motors
source Odysseas Kontovourkis (ed.), Sustainable Computational Workflows [6th eCAADe Regional International Workshop Proceedings / ISBN 9789491207143], Department of Architecture, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus, 24-25 May 2018, pp. 95-102
keywords This investigation intends to compare two computational design experiments operating on two kinetic architecture (Zuk and Clark 1970) design application domains: Shape-memory material (SMM) activated grids and stepper-actuated (SA) responsive skins. In the first one, the goal was to build a standard way of simulating SMM, which can be used as actuators in the construction of kinetic structures and in the second, to simulate and construct a responsive skin according to human interaction using kinect and stepper motors. In both experiments, a similar generative workflow was employed, combining insights from materials and mechanical systems. The objective is to investigate kinetic performance, kinetic design methodology, simulation implementation and applications within the two separate design domains. The general hypothesis is that both experiments become design workflows in themselves as real-time, dynamic modeling systems. A qualitatively study of both sets of cases, is taking in count general, simulation and application aspects, using evaluation criteria including workflow, material quantity, data capture and mechanical properties.
series eCAADe
email paniba@faberarium.org
last changed 2018/05/29 12:33

_id ddss9436
id ddss9436
authors Gross, Mark D.
year 1994
title Indexing the Electronic Sketchbook: Diagrams as Keys to Visual Databases
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The question is how to index a visual database. Consider a visual database -- collection of drawings, three-dimensional models, scanned photographs, video, and text -- as a kind of modernmultimedia architectural sketchbook. It can be shared among a wide group of users with different purposes, and who may think about the contents in rather different ways. The connections -- perhaps hypertext -- among the entries may be complex and the organization difficult to comprehend. How then, to index the collection? Certainly traditional techniques -- looking for a concert hail -- built of concrete and glass -- in the 1970's in Utrecht and the architect's name is H* -- will help. But suppose we do not know so precisely what we are looking for? Might we appeal to the language of diagram? Can we add to our schemes for search and retrieval a diagrammatic index? We propose to try this idea. The paper describes our "computer as cocktail napkin" system for recognizing and interpreting diagrams. It consists of a pen-based freehand sketching program that recognizes simple symbols the user has trained (such as lines, shapes, letters, etc.) and spatial arrangements of these symbols. A graphical search procedure finds occurrences of a drawn configuration of symbols in the pages of a sketchbook made using the program. By extending thepages of the sketchbook to include photos, drawings, and text in addition to diagrams, we can use this technique to find items whose diagrams match a drawn search configuration. The paper will demonstrate this prototype program and explore its use for indexing visualdatabases in architecture.
series DDSS
email mdg@cs.colorado.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 2
authors Montagu, Arturo
year 1998
title Desde La Computacion Grafica a los Sistemas CAD Actuales. Una Vision Historica de la Revolucion Producida en los Sistemas de Representacion Grafica (1966-1998) (From Graphical Computation to Present CAD Systems. An Historical Vision of the Revolution Produced in the Systems of Graphical Representation (1966-1998))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 14-21
summary Throughout these pages are made known the persons, the projects and the books that have influenced my actions and that they will be mentioned in form underlined in this paper. I have to emphasize that since 1965 to 1970, and in the continuous search that I was accomplishing to find data and bibliography adapted to the topic of computer graphics, only two series of publications contained topics related to this matter at that time: one was the IBM Journal and the other series was the communications of the ACM. The purpose of this work is to make known an experience accomplished throughout 30 years of intense activity in finding new methods of drawing and design, based on the use of digital computers, mainly in Argentina, and during certain periods of time in Great Britain and since 1971 during short visits to the United States and also in France. The first idea emerged in the year 1965 when I was assistant teacher at the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, as a combination of ideas between the concepts of spatial geometry and the current morphological studies that we taught in the Course of professor Gaston Breyer. However the idea of automatic drawing emerged observing the operation of the first scientific digital computer installed in the Computing Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1963 (Sadosky 1963). At the beginning, the approach to the computer were not accomplished from a strictly scientific point of view, but it was implying a kind of "sincresis" (Koheler 1940) it is more than a synthesis, because I was tried to combine ideas that have had its origin in different worlds of thinking, the analogous world and the digital world, and this situation was very difficult to accept at that time.The designing procedures in the decade 1960's was deeply rooted (and still continues) in the architectural design field as a result of a drawing process based in heuristic techniques.
series SIGRADI
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 7134
authors Penttilä, Hannu (Ed.)
year 2001
title Architectural Information Management [Conference Proceedings]
source 19th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-8-1 / Helsinki (Finland) 29-31 August 2001, 578 p.
summary Several common phrases, such as “information society” or “virtual reality” point out the fact that information technology, digital tools and numerous different services via various communication networks have become crucially important factors of our western lifestyle and living environment. The trends of the society reflects naturally the working environments of the construction field, architectural discipline being amongst them. It is almost inconceivable to even imagine an architect without computer-based tools anymore. This evolutional development process has, from historical perspective, only recently started. The process is constantly evolving and rapidly increasing our possibilities to use and enjoy these modern digital fruits. The sometimes unpredictable and rapid changes in our working environment should make architects nervous about the impacts of the changes. All those delicate methods and collective traditions of the several thousand year architectural discipline(!), just simply cannot be transferred into the digital realm in a few decades. Researchers and teachers should very carefully, but still open mindedly, critically explore, analyse and adjust the so-called “modern technology” into the world of architecture, construction, design, planning – and education. We are not just “endusers”, It is we, in fact, who should define what, where and how are we willing to use it(IT). The value of information is constantly growing in our society, and in the future it will evidently be even more so. The value of information is quite hard to define with measurable or agreed concepts, but information evidently contains value-factors. The information which the architects are creating, modifying and manipulating, contains essential and valuable core data concerning the whole built environment of our society. It affects the physical surroundings of our society, in which we will be living for decades – hence, the information has a historical basis. The architectural core information also very strongly affects the quality of life of our fellow citizens – consequently, it has deep social meaning. The essentials of architectural information relies on the tradition of centuries – hence, it clearly has acknowledged cultural values, which are also extremely difficult to quantify. So how could architectural information be described? The information covers a wide range of heterogeneous concepts, items, values, methods, tools, materials, true facts, rumours, intuition and knowledge, plus a multitude of yet undefined or unpredictable factors, which still have to be watched and prepared for. Since the information deals with common and general subjects, it should also be described with common and general concepts. On the other hand as the information is also concerned with the minutiae of specific projects, the architectural information should also be described with well identified and unique entities. With our digital tools we handle all information – including architectural – more and more digitally. We have to handle and manipulate information currently as digital data, which could be understood the ”raw material” of architectural information. Digital data becomes valuable information, when some kind of meaning or purpose to somebody can be attributed to it. In the early gloomy days of ”digital architecture” in the 1960’s and 1970’s, researchers tried to describe architectural artefacts and even design process mathematically. The details of architectural information were quite difficult to describe with binary alphanumeric information of main-frame machines. The architects’ tools development then led to a trend where architects could better represent and visualize the design objects digitally. The widespread and common use of 2D-drawing and 3D-modelling tools is still a very strong trend within our discipline. In fact it is “the way” the majority of architectural information is managed today. During the last 15–20 years, so-called conceptual modelling or product data modelling, done in various technical and construction field research units worldwide, has from one viewpoint clarified the basis and essence of architectural information. Hence, it’s not only CAD-software application development, but also elementary and theoretical research that gives us valuable help to survive among the ever growing seas of terabits of data in the future to come. Architectural information is something that simply cannot be described just with DWG-drawings or dummy scanned photographs any more. Although drawings and photos may contain very important bits of architectural documentation, we need ntimes more “complexity layers”, concepts and tools to manage and understand the essence of architectural information today. A proper way to manage the data we are working with, has to cover the whole architectural discipline. The methods and tools also have to be valid and flexible for several decades in the future.
keywords Information Management & Data Structuring, Education & Curricula, Modeling & City Planning
series eCAADe
email penttila@mittaviiva.fi
more http://www.hut.fi/events/ecaade/
last changed 2001/08/06 20:38

_id e1a1
authors Rodriguez, G.
year 1996
title REAL SCALE MODEL VS. COMPUTER GENERATED MODEL
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Advances in electronic design and communication are already reshaping the way architecture is done. The development of more sophisticated and user-friendly Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and of cheaper and more powerful hardware is making computers more and more accessible to architects, planners and designers. These professionals are not only using them as a drafting tool but also as a instrument for visualization. Designers are "building" digital models of their designs and producing photo-like renderings of spaces that do not exist in the dimensional world.

The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?

Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?

The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:42

_id sigradi2014_172
id sigradi2014_172
authors Santos, Fábio Lopes Souza; Rafael Goffinet de Almeida
year 2014
title Dan Graham e a cidade contemporânea: dispositivos espaciais, comportamentos e relações de poder
source SiGraDi 2014 [Proceedings of the 18th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - ISBN: 978-9974-99-655-7] Uruguay - Montevideo 12 - 14 November 2014, pp. 505-508
summary Dan Graham became an important reference in contemporary art developing since the 1960´s a series of works that maintain a profound relation with urban cultural phenomena. This article proposes the analysis of his works produced over the 1970´s and 1980´s which presents the use of technical supports like video, exhibition and surveillance systems and which guided his earlier aesthetic research – related to the “institutional critique” – to the investigations about the power relations between objects, public and the space where they are placed.
keywords Dan Graham; Contemporary Art; Contemporary Architecture; Contemporary City; Contemporary Spatiality
series SIGRADI
email sotosantos@uol.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:59

_id 6c6f
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Technion (Haifa, Israel)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Israel there is only one School of Architecture. CAAD teaching has been introduced since 1969-1970. Last year it has been decided that each department (electronical, mechanical, architectural) will have its own CAD laboratory for computer graphics, based on a super minicomputer (CDC Cyber 170/720). The following software is available for CAAD : CD2000 (wireframe drawings), ICEM (solid modelling), TIGS (terminal independent graphics system), GOAL and BIBLE, ACA (integrated CAAD software). At the Technion teachers and architects which can educate CAAD are available. The following courses are teached : Computer Aided Architectural Design (I + II), Computer Methods in City Planning, Mathematical Models in Architectural Design, Design Course - Geometrical Modelling, Design Course - Solar Energy Design Seminar. It was decided that since next year the following courses will use CAAD : Design course - Geometrical Modelling and Appraisal, Morphology I, 2D-Design and Design Course - Passive Solar Communities.
series eCAADe
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id 020d
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1986
title Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 28-52
summary The complexity of the layout design problems known as the 'spatial allocation problems' gave rise to several approaches, which can be generally classified into two main streams. The first attempts to use the computer to generate solutions of the building layout, while in the second, computers are used only to evaluate manually generated solutions. In both classes the generation or evaluation of the layout are performed systematically. Computer algorithms for 'spatial allocation problems' first appeared more than twenty-five years ago (Koopmans, 1957). From 1957 to 1970 over thirty different programs were developed for generating the floor plan layout automatically, as is summarized in CAP-Computer Architecture Program, Vol. 2 (Stewart et al., 1970). It seems that any architect who entered the area of CAAD felt that it was his responsibility to find a solution to this prime architectural problem. Most of the programs were developed for batch processing, and were run on a mainframe without any sophisticated input/output devices. It is interesting to mention that, because of the lack of these sophisticated input/output devices, early researchers used the approach of automatic generation of optimal or quasioptimal layout solution under given constraints. Gradually, we find a recession and slowdown in the development of computer programs for generation of layout solutions. With the improvement of interactive input/output devices and user interfaces, the inclination today is to develop integrated systems in which the architectural solution is obtained manually by the architect and is introduced to the computer for the appraisal of the designer's layout solution (Maver, 1977). The manmachine integrative systems could work well, but it seems that in most of the integrated systems today, and in the commercial ones in particular, there is no route to any appraisal technique of the layout problem. Without any evaluation techniques in commercial integrated systems it seems that the geometrical database exists Just to create working drawings and sometimes also perspectives.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id sigradi2007_af93
id sigradi2007_af93
authors Sperling, David; Ruy Sardinha
year 2007
title Dislocations of the spatial experience: From earthwork to liquid architecture [Deslocamentos da experiência espacial: De earthwork a arquitetura líquida]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 423-427
summary This article reflects about the contemporary notion of “spatial experience” that can be drawn by means of the emergence of the “expanded field” in arts (Rosalind Krauss, 1979). For a perspective view of this notion and for its problematization in the current time we pretend to stablish a counterpoint between two historic moments related to the expansion of the spatial field and its experience: the 1960´s, with the focus on the immanent space by artistic propositions, and nowadays, with the ocurrence of “fusional fields” of art-architecture-landscape-digital media. We adopt as strategy to construct the question, the approximation of two paradigmatic works for their respective epochs: the “earthwork” Spiral Jetty of Robert Smithson, constructed in 1970 in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) and the ephemeral architecture of Blur Building of Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio, constructed in 2002 in the Lake Neuchatel, for the Suiss Expo (Yverdon-les-Bains – Suiss).
keywords Art; architecture; media; expanded field; spatial experience
series SIGRADI
email sperling@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 642a
authors Stacey, Michael
year 1999
title Digital Design and the Architecture of Brookes Stacey Randall
source ACADIA Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1-9
summary I am an architect who has the experience of using computers. A user and not an expert in digital design, therefore what follows is a foot soldier's report from my practice over the past 10 to 11 years, including the role of computers in our approach to creating architecture. I began my working life tending IBM mainframes for the British Shoe Corporation. The two IBM mainframe computers were state of the art computer technology of the mid 1970's. There were two as one was used, and the other we needed for backup. The developments in computing in terms of size, increase in storage capacity and faster processing speed over the past 30 years, is a technological acceleration which is difficult to visualize. The IBM historian in the UK suggested "that if cars had developed in the same way they would be given away free with corn flakes". A frightening thought as our cities grind under the pressure of increased car ownership. British Shoe Corporation also had a reserve system some sixty miles away and a halon extinguishing system in case of fire - such was the capital and commercial value of the system. We carried out transitional computing for a number of European countries. The CAD was limited - pen potters drawing shoes, drawing them less well than an average A level or high school student! My interest was primarily in art and not computers; my aim to earn enough to tour Europe to see key work 'in the flesh' not just in reproduction.
series ACADIA
email Michael.Stacey@BSR-Architects.com
last changed 2002/12/14 08:21

_id sigradi2010_355
id sigradi2010_355
authors Stumpp, Monika Maria; Elísia da Costa Ana; Fiorio Bruna Rafaela; Radunz Roberto
year 2010
title Representação do Patrimônio e gráficos conceituais: residências na Serra Gaúcha, Brasil [Representation of heritage and concept maps: houses in Serra Gaucha, Brazil]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 355-357
summary This paper studies houses built between 1930 and 1970 in southern Brazil. It is a large collection of projects, which has been systematized for publishing on a website and in digital media. The aim is to discuss the form of organization and systematization of this collection, which involved the construction of conceptual digital graphics. It emphasized the adoption of the concepts of type and model in the organization of the collection, which required a formal abstraction of the objects. The construction of conceptual graphics proved to be an effective tool in the process of abstraction. Moreover, such graphics have become more didactic material, enabling a better understanding of the universe studied.
keywords modern architecture; houses; southern Brazil; abstraction; synthesis
series SIGRADI
email monistumpp@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id sigradi2010_351
id sigradi2010_351
authors Stumpp, Monika Maria; Elísia da Costa Ana; Radunz Roberto; Pinheiro Machado Maria Beatriz
year 2010
title Patrimônio e mídia interativa: as residências modernas na Serra Gaúcha_Brasil [Heritage and interactive media: moder homes at Serra Gaucha in Brazil]
source SIGraDi 2010_Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, pp. Bogotá, Colombia, November 17-19, 2010, pp. 351-354
summary This article presents the results of a study that is being carried out at the University of Caxias do Sul, Brazil. The goal of the study is to publicize a collection of the modern architecture in southern Brazil through interactive media on a web portal. This study presents the development of a digital media to publicize a collection composed of single - family houses, for a total of two - hundred - and - fifteen residences that are organized by city and decade, from 1930 to 1970. The buildings of each decade are analyzed in terms of their language and compositional features. It also presents brief biographies of the architects, engineers and builders involved in the construction.
keywords cultural heritage, hypermedia, modern residences
series SIGRADI
email monistumpp@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

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