CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 2
authors Montagu, Arturo
year 1998
title Desde La Computacion Grafica a los Sistemas CAD Actuales. Una Vision Historica de la Revolucion Producida en los Sistemas de Representacion Grafica (1966-1998) (From Graphical Computation to Present CAD Systems. An Historical Vision of the Revolution Produced in the Systems of Graphical Representation (1966-1998))
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 14-21
summary Throughout these pages are made known the persons, the projects and the books that have influenced my actions and that they will be mentioned in form underlined in this paper. I have to emphasize that since 1965 to 1970, and in the continuous search that I was accomplishing to find data and bibliography adapted to the topic of computer graphics, only two series of publications contained topics related to this matter at that time: one was the IBM Journal and the other series was the communications of the ACM. The purpose of this work is to make known an experience accomplished throughout 30 years of intense activity in finding new methods of drawing and design, based on the use of digital computers, mainly in Argentina, and during certain periods of time in Great Britain and since 1971 during short visits to the United States and also in France. The first idea emerged in the year 1965 when I was assistant teacher at the School of Architecture of the University of Buenos Aires, as a combination of ideas between the concepts of spatial geometry and the current morphological studies that we taught in the Course of professor Gaston Breyer. However the idea of automatic drawing emerged observing the operation of the first scientific digital computer installed in the Computing Institute of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires in 1963 (Sadosky 1963). At the beginning, the approach to the computer were not accomplished from a strictly scientific point of view, but it was implying a kind of "sincresis" (Koheler 1940) it is more than a synthesis, because I was tried to combine ideas that have had its origin in different worlds of thinking, the analogous world and the digital world, and this situation was very difficult to accept at that time.The designing procedures in the decade 1960's was deeply rooted (and still continues) in the architectural design field as a result of a drawing process based in heuristic techniques.
series SIGRADI
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id cbbb
authors Forrest, Robin A.
year 1971
title Interactive Interpolation and Approximation by Bezier Polynomials
source The Computer Journal May, 1971. vol. 15: pp. 71-79 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary One of the main problems in computer-aided design is how to input shape information to the computer. The paper describes a method developed for the interactive interpolation and approximation of curves which has been found in practice to provide a natural interface between the mathematically unsophisticated user and the computer
keywords user interface, CAD, Bezier, computational geometry, curves, curved surfaces
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2a1e
authors March, Lionel and Steadman, Philip
year 1971
title The Geometry of Environment : An Introduction to Spatial Organization in Design
source 360 p. : ill. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press, 1971. includes index. this book aims to help the practicing architect to see the relevance of the 'new maths.' Some of the mathematical topics introduced in the book are: mapping and transformations ; translations ; rotations ; stacking ; nesting ; spatial allocation ; irregular polygons and more. geometry / design / representation / education / symmetry March, Lionel and Philip Steadman. 'The Geometry of Environment : An Introduction to Spatial Organization in Design.' 360 p. : ill.
summary Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press,
keywords 1971
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ad32
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1971
title The Computer as an Aid to Architectural Design
source Chapter in Progress in Construction Science and Technology. (Ed: R Burgess et al) Medical and Technical Press
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id b81f
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1971
title Decision Models in the Design process as a Basis for Computer Aided Design
source Proceedings of the CAAD Seminar, Rotterdam
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 89a5
authors Negroponte, Nicholas
year 1971
title Aspects of Living in an Architecture Machine
source Design Participation : Proceeding Design Research Society Conference. September, 1971. pp. 63-67
summary Aspects of living in an architecture machine will subsume giving the physical environment things it has never had before: knowledge, common sense, intelligence and any attribute necessary to make the built environment as responsive as a good friend or surrogate self. This article discusses what the author calls 'responsive architecture' to be vigorously distinguished from flexible architecture, manipulative architecture, or adaptable architecture
keywords architecture, learning, intelligence
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ijac201412404
id ijac201412404
authors Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas and Marianthi Liapi
year 2014
title Spatial Elements Imbued with Cognition: A possible step toward the "Architecture Machine"
source International Journal of Architectural Computing vol. 12 - no. 4, 419-438
summary When Nicolas Negroponte, in 1971, described future architecture as a ‘machine’, he was clear to ascribe this new character to intelligence and common sense rather than to kinesis and adaptation.Within this framework, the article presents a new direction toward the creation of an “Architecture Machine” which evolves from responsive architecture to include empathy control systems.The aim is set in two paths, with the first one exploring feasibility and the second securing unobtrusive operation to better facilitate human activity and comfort.The proposed architectural approach, for which the authors have coined the term sensponsive, employs Ambient Intelligence to imbue space with cognitive skills and provide it with a sense of why, how and when to act, while maintaining an empathic distance.Within this framework, the article presents a series of experiments to highlight the concepts and the techniques currently associated with a sensponsive design approach.
series journal
last changed 2015/02/20 13:40

_id cf2011_p163
id cf2011_p163
authors Park, Hyoung-June
year 2011
title Mass-Customization in the Design of 4,000 Bus Stops
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 265-278.
summary In Hawaii, ‚"TheBus‚" has been a main transportation system since 1971. Considering the high cost of living in Hawaii and the absence of a rail system, the use of ‚"TheBus‚" has been an instrumental vein of the city life in Honolulu with rhythmical pauses at about 4,000 bus stops in Honolulu. However, existing undifferentiated bus stops are developed from a cost effective mass production system so that they have been problematic for satisfying specific needs from various site conditions. In this research, an integrated computational method of mass-customization for designing 4,000 bus stops is introduced. According to various site conditions, the design of each bus stop is customized. Unlike the mass‚Äęproduced bus stops commonly seen in cities today, the proposed computational method in this paper produces bus stop design outcomes that fit into the physical characteristics of the location in which they are installed. Mass-customization allows for the creation and production of unique or similar buildings and building components, differentiated through digitally‚Äęcontrolled variation (Kolarevic, 2003). The employment of a computational mass‚Äęcustomization in architectural design extends the boundary of design solutions to the satisfaction of multi-objective requirements and unlimited freedom to search alternative solutions (Duarte, 2001; Caldas, 2006). The computational method developed in this paper consists of 1) definition of a prototype, 2) parametric variation, 3) manual deformation, and 4) simulation based deformation. The definition of a prototype is the development of a basic design to be transformed for satisfying various conditions given from a site. In this paper, the bus stop prototype is developed from the analysis of more than 300 bus stops and the categorization of the existing bus stops according to their physical conditions, contextual conditions, climatic conditions, and existing amenities. Based upon the outcome of the analysis, the design variables of a bus stop prototype are defined. Those design variables then guide the basic physical parameters for changing the physical configuration of the prototype according to a given site. From this, many possible design outcomes are generated as instances for further developments. The process of manual deformation is where the designer employs its intuition to develop the selected parametric variation. The designer is compelled to think about the possible implication derived from formal variation. This optional process allows every design decision to have a creative solution from an individual designer with an incidental quality in aesthetics, but substantiated functional quality. Finally the deformation of the selection is guided and controlled by the influence of sun direction/ exposure to the selection. The simulation based deformation starts with the movement of the sun as the trigger for generating the variations of the bus stop prototype. The implementation of the computational method was made within the combination of MEL (Maya Enbedded Language), autodesk MAYA and Ecotect environment.
keywords mass-customization, parametric variation, simulation based deformation
series CAAD Futures
email hjpark@hawaii.edu
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id maver_074
id maver_074
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Automation in Design, Vol 3, Nos 2-3, 187-202
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The software known as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on-line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series journal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/09/03 13:03

_id maver_073
id maver_073
authors Rutherford, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1994
title Knowledge Based Design Support
source Knowledge Based Computer-Aided Architectural Design (Ed. G Carrara and Y Kalay), Elsevier, 243-268
summary In 1971 the Architects' Journal featured a paper entitled PACE 1: Computer Aided Building Appraisal. The softwareknown as PACE (Package for Architectural Computer Evaluation), initially developed on the Systemshare time-sharing system accessed on- line from a teletype terminal over the ordinary voice grade telephone network, has, in concept at least, survived the subsequent 22 years and remains to this day a crucial aid in the teaching of architectural design in the University of Strathclyde's Department of Architecture and Building Science.
series other
type normal paper
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2015/02/20 10:39

_id 3c85
authors Velez-Jahn, G.
year 1971
title Rectangular Meshes: Their Uses and Control in Computer- Produced Architectural Schemes
source Proc. of ACM 1971 Annual Conference. New York: Association for Computing Machinery, 745-755.
summary A procedure is described to obtain computer oriented solutions to functional organization problems in architectural design. This procedure considers both a satisfactory functional scheme and one that satisfies the dimensional constraints.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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