CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f59d
authors Koelbl, R., Bruntsch, St. and Knoflacher, H.
year 2003
title Perspective Vienna – A Comparison of Planning Scenarios and Real Development
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary With the suspension of national boarders in unions of nations, cities and their regions gain in significance for the economic, social and cultural development. This is particularly valid for Vienna, which lies close to the eastern boarder of the European Union, which should fall with the enlargement of EU in the near future. Of prominent importance is therefore to obtain a comprehensive understanding between proposed and defined aims for an urban development, the related measures and their extent ofimplementations and their actual or real effects. This paper attempts to give a strategic analysis of the Viennese urban and traffic development programs, from 1962, 1972, 1984 and 1994, on the one hand, and the data analysis of the statistical year books beginning from 1960 until 2000, on the other. The results show that adjustments have been made not only in response to certain trends, but also to a change of philosophy of urban development. It can be seen that certain assumptions of, for example, economic and transport measures can have the opposite outcome in relation to the intended objectives. Hence, one main question remains to beanswered: How should Vienna deal with the challenges ahead, to secure and foster a sustainable development under such circumstances on a long-term basis. In this respect, some measures are given, which should make it possible to overcome successfully these challenges.
series other
email stefan.bruntsch@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ecaade2013_111
id ecaade2013_111
authors Androutsopoulou, Eirini
year 2013
title Urban Body Mutations through the Use of the Network Configuration
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 275-281
summary Taking as a starting point the hypotheses that the urban body is a self-adapted ecology made of material and non-material components (Bateson, 1972), relationships between elements are examined in an attempt to destabilize the static division of matter and idea and to inquire into those relationships that determine the structural coupling (Maturana, 2002) between body and environment, as well as the constitution of the body itself. Contemporary technology is used in order to trace these alterations and the urban body is examined as a network configuration. The importance of the methodology adopted by the current research lies in the fact that social and economic factors merge with spatial characteristics, allowing for a visualization and re-interpretation of the urban body mutations based on self-adapted reconfigurations and for a prediction of the structural alterations made possible through the reconfiguration of the synaptic forces between elements.
wos WOS:000340635300028
keywords Mutation; urban body; visualization techniques; network; data manipulation.
series eCAADe
email iandroutsopoulou@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
email m.barros@ipt.pt
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id acadia03_036
id acadia03_036
authors Gerzso, J. Michael
year 2003
title On the Limitations of Shape Grammars: Comments on Aaron Fleisher’s Article “Grammatical Architecture?”
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 279-287
summary Shape grammars were introduced by Gips and Stiny in 1972. Since then, there have been many articles and books written by them and their associates. In 1992, Aaron Fleisher, a professor at the School of Planning, MIT, wrote a critique of their work in an article titled “Grammatical Architecture?” published in the journal Environment and Planning B. According to him, Gips, Stiny and later Mitchell, propose a hypothesis that states that shape grammars are presumed to represent knowledge of architectural form, that grammars are “formable,” and that there is a visual correspondence to verbal grammar. The strong version of “the hypothesis requires that an architectural form be equivalent to a grammar.” Fleisher considers these hypotheses unsustainable, and argues his case by analyzing the differences between language, and architecture, and by dealing with the concepts of lexicons, syntax and semantics. He concludes by stating that architectural design is negotiated in two modalities: the verbal and the visual, and that equivalences are not at issue; they do not exist. If there is such thing as a language for design, it would provide the means to maintain a discussion of the consequences in one mode, of the state and conditions of the other. Fleisher’s observations serve as the basis of this paper, a tribute to him, and also an opportunity to present an outline to an alternate approach or hypothesis to shape grammars, which is “nonlinguistic” but “generative,” in the sense that it uses production rules. A basic aspect of this hypothesis is that the only similarity between syntactic rules in language and some rules in architecture is that they are recursive.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id a920
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1989
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in the Federal Republic of Germany
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.3.1
summary For over 10 years the author has been a teacher in the field of "computer application in architecture" at the Fachhochschule. Since 1985 he regularly has been taking part in the conferences of A.I.I.D.A. (Arbeitskreis INFORMATIK IN DER ARCHlTEKTENAUSBILDUNG). All the faculties of architecture at the Fachhochschulen (about 10) can send their representatives of CAAD to the conferences. A.I.I.D.A. has been having 2 conferences a year since 1985. At the last conference in Wiesbaden a paper with statements of A.I.I.D.A. for the further education in CAAD was finished. The author presents and explains this paper. On the other hand he shows the actual education program of CAAD of his faculty. The education in CAAD started in 1972 with basic information without practical elements. Now the practical work with the workstation is talking most of the time . The computer application is available for subjects like Building Economics, Building and Structure Design and others. With his assistant the author developed programs of the field of Building Economics. In 1986 he started introduce CAD with AutoCAD in the education program. Now also other colleagues start to integrate CAAD into their subjects.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:44

_id b029
authors Minsky, M. and Papert, S.
year 1969
title Perceptrons
source MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
summary Perceptrons - the first systematic study of parallelism in computation - has remained a classical work on threshold automata networks for nearly two decades. It marked a historical turn in artificial intelligence, and it is required reading for anyone who wants to understand the connectionist counterrevolution that is going on today. Artificial-intelligence research, which for a time concentrated on the programming of ton Neumann computers, is swinging back to the idea that intelligence might emerge from the activity of networks of neuronlike entities. Minsky and Papert's book was the first example of a mathematical analysis carried far enough to show the exact limitations of a class of computing machines that could seriously be considered as models of the brain. Now the new developments in mathematical tools, the recent interest of physicists in the theory of disordered matter, the new insights into and psychological models of how the brain works, and the evolution of fast computers that can simulate networks of automata have given Perceptrons new importance. Witnessing the swing of the intellectual pendulum, Minsky and Papert have added a new chapter in which they discuss the current state of parallel computers, review developments since the appearance of the 1972 edition, and identify new research directions related to connectionism. They note a central theoretical challenge facing connectionism: the challenge to reach a deeper understanding of how "objects" or "agents" with individuality can emerge in a network. Progress in this area would link connectionism with what the authors have called "society theories of mind."
series other
email minsky@media.mit.edu
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2014_027
id caadria2014_027
authors Takizawa, Atsushi; Yushi Miyata and Naoki Katoh
year 2014
title Enumeration of Floor Plans Based on Zero-Suppressed Binary Decision Diagram
source Rethinking Comprehensive Design: Speculative Counterculture, Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2014) / Kyoto 14-16 May 2014, pp. 275–284
summary Open Building (Habraken, 1972) has been the focus of attention due to growing interest in the sustainable society. For Open Building, it is important to preserve the diversity of feasible floor plans in order to adapt to various lifestyles of residents. Capacity analysis is a method for evaluating the potential diversity. We propose a novel method that evaluates the potential diversity of floor plans by enumerating all feasible floor plans satisfying given constraints based on zero-suppressed binary decision diagram (ZDD) (Minato, 1993).
keywords ZDD; floor plan; enumeration; Open Building; diversity
series CAADRIA
email takizawa@arch.eng.osaka-cu.ac.jp
last changed 2014/04/22 08:23

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ecaade2014_185
id ecaade2014_185
authors Eirini Androutsopoulou
year 2014
title Urban body network configurations - Attica
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 191-199
summary The methodology presented here is grounded on the reconstruction of the urban body as a network configuration consisting of material and non-material components (Bateson, 1972). It is based on the assumption that if one can describe the rules that define the nodes and the connections of the network construction/urban body, as well as their attributes, then the differentiation on the relationships between elements, or even a shift from one value to another, would result in different network constructions, that would produce a time-based sequence of the self-adaptational and self-organizational reconfigurations occurring during the mutational procedure. The urban body is defined as the part of the urban tissue which distinguishes itself from the whole of the urban landscape, either because of constructed boundaries, or because of the strengthening of a specific attribute, which would result in a kind of an immaterial boundary, or, in other words the formation of an identity.
wos WOS:000361384700019
keywords Mutation; urban body; visualization techniques; network; data manipulation
series eCAADe
email iandroutsopoulou@gmail.com
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 00c9
authors Forrest, Robin A.
year 1972
title On Coons and Other Methods for the Representation of Curved Surfaces
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing. 1972. vol. 1: pp. 341-359 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Although Coons surfaces are mentioned frequently in the context of computer graphics and computer-aided design, very little of the work has been published. The purpose of this paper is to provide an up to date account of Coons methods and extensions thereof, drawing mainly on unpublished material. The subject is not approached from a rigorous mathematical point of view, which can be found elsewhere, but from the standpoint of the computer scientist or engineer who wishes to implement or use such methods. An extensive bibliography of the subject, including unpublished papers, is appended
keywords curved surfaces, representation, computer graphics, Coons
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2850
authors Ramer, Urs
year 1972
title An Iterative Procedure for the Polygonal Approximation of Plane Curves
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing. Academic Press Inc., August, 1972. vol. 1: pp. 244- 256 : ill. ; diagrams. includes bibliography
summary The approximation of arbitrary two-dimensional curves by polygons is an important technique in image processing. For many applications, the apparent ideal procedure is to represent lines and boundaries by means of polygons with minimum number of vertices and satisfying a given fit criterion. In this paper, an approximation algorithm is presented which uses an iterative method to produce polygons with a small-but not minimum-number of vertices that lie on the given curve. The maximum distance of the curve from the approximating polygon is chosen as the fit criterion. The results obtained justify the abandonment of the minimum- vertices criterion which is computationally much more expensive
keywords curves, polygons, image processing, approximation, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 893f
authors Forrest, Robin A.
year 1972
title Mathematical Principles for Curve and Surface Representation
source Curved Surfaces in Engineering, Conference proceedings. March, 1972. pp. 5-13 : ill. include bibliography
summary There are many ways in which curves and surfaces may be represented mathematically. This paper discusses some methods which are appropriate for computer-aided design and provides a semi-formal structure within which comparisons may be made. The subject is approached from the point of view of computational geometry - a blend of differential geometry, approximation theory, computer science and other disciplines
keywords curves, curved surfaces, representation, CAD, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2b77
authors Winograd, Terry
year 1972
title SHRDLU : A System for Dialog
source 1972? Lecture 2: pp. 20-48 : ill. and diagrams. includes bibliography
summary In this lecture the author describes in some detail a program he wrote at MIT for understanding natural language. There are many things in that program which would be done differently today, and many new ideas which have been developed since then. Therefore, the author does not want to convey the impression that this program represents the last word in how things should be done, but it is important to look at a whole program -- to see how things fit together. Many of the newer ideas are still fragments which have not been combined in an integrated way. In this lecture the author uses the program to illustrate the range of things which must go into language understanding, and some of the problems of organization in putting together a complete system
keywords natural languages, AI, systems
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:10

_id 8af2
authors Bezier, Pierre E.
year 1972
title UNISURF SYSTEM : Principles, Programme, Language
source North Holland Pub. Co., 1972? pp. 417-426
summary UNISURF is aimed at computer-assisted conception of sculptured surfaces. It is also used for numerical definition of shapes previously defined, whether they are the result of experiments based on physical measurements, or they materialize purely subjective aesthetic conceptions
keywords curves, curved surfaces, Bezier, representation, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3a7
authors Beck, Clyde B.
year 1972
title The Apple, Core of a Drafting System
source computer Graphics World. March, 1972. vol. 5: pp.68-69
summary Since a small architecture firm can not afford a big computing system, what is needed is some kind of a computer- aided drafting system that a small firm could afford, which would increase productivity and be readily understood by drafting technicians. The system must be built around a microcomputer. The author takes the Apple II and builds around it his system. The article discusses hardware and software of this project
keywords architecture, CAD, practice, drafting, hardware, software
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c703
authors Flutter, A.G.
year 1972
title The POLYSURF System
source North Holland Pub. Co., 1972? pp. 403-415 : ill. includes bibliography
summary POLYSURF is a system for the computer aided design and manufacture of engineering objects which are composed largely of 3D curved surfaces. The POLYSURF routines enable a design engineer to assemble a mathematical model of such objects in terms of bounded surface geometry. The model can then be appraised, analyzed and interactively adapted, and finally used as a basis for n/c manufacture
keywords engineering, systems, CAD, CAM, solid modeling, curved surfaces
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c310
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1972
title PACE: The Concept, Form and Use of a Program Package for Building Design Appraisal
source Proceedings of CSI Symposium, Rotterdam
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id a8ac
authors Pavlidis, T.
year 1972
title Linear and Context-Free Graph Grammars
source Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery 19 pp. 11-22
summary Topological characterizations of sets of graphs which can be generated by context- free or linear grammars are given. It is shown, for example, that the set of all planar graphs cannot be generated by a context-free grammar while the set of all outerplanar graphs can
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id sigradi2007_af68
id sigradi2007_af68
authors Veloso, Claudia; Carlos Murad
year 2007
title The Film as urban experience: The Fellini´s Roma [O Filme enquanto experiência urbana: A Roma fragmentária de Fellini]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 448-451
summary This research is done in the field of studies about the potential of imaginal images in the unveiling of the multiple space-time alternances which make up our urban experience and is supported by phenomenological perspective of the imagination and Bachelard´s poetical image (1957,60) in the analysis do filme “Roma de Fellini”(1972). Of cinema as a possibility of highlighting the city and its geometry in a fragmentary and spectacular form. With the intention of arriving at a better dialogue among new languages and styles of life with the intention of opening new possibilities of a better understanding of the urban.
keywords Poetical image; cinema; poetical urban; landscapes urban; imaginal film
series SIGRADI
email clauveloso@terra.com.br
last changed 2016/03/10 09:02

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