CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c4dc
authors Simon, H.A.
year 1973
title The structure of ill structured problems
source Artificial Intelligence, 4, pp. 181-201
summary Reviews of the state of the professional practice in Requirements Engineering (RE) stress that the RE process is both complex and hard to describe, and suggest there is a significant difference between competent and "approved" practice. "Approved" practice is reflected by (in all likelihood, in fact, has its genesis in) RE education, so that the knowledge and skills taught to students do not match the knowledge and skills required and applied by competent practitioners.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ef80
authors Knuth, Donald E.
year 1973
title Fundamental Algorithms
source The Art of Computer Programming. 2nd. ed. 634 p. : some ill. Addison- Wesley Series in Computer Science and Information Processing Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Pub. Co., 1973. vol.1: includes index.
summary -- This vol. is part of 7 vol. set. CADLINE has vol.1 and 3. Introduces basic concept in algorithms and information structure with exercises. Requires some knowledge in programming, techniques and computer jargon
keywords algorithms, education, data structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e206
authors Nicolo, V. and Piccini, M.
year 1973
title Interactive Curve Fitting
source Amsterdam, London: North-Holland Pub. Co., 1973? pp. 427-437 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Interactive curve fitting is one of the main problems met when trying to fulfill the task of converting the description of the shape of a car body model into a computer compatible form. The solution proposed by Bezier has gained wide attention and acceptance mainly because of the idea of relating the shape of the curve to a polygon that mimics the curve itself. It is noted that the degree to which the polygon mimics the associated curve decreases as the number of points of inflexion, sharp bends or other odd behaviors require higher order polygons. Some solutions proposed by other authors to overcome this problem are briefly discussed and a contribution to the problem is given
keywords curves, Bezier, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6b90
authors Elson, Mark
year 1973
title Concepts of Programming Languages
source xii, 333 p. : ill. Chicago: Science Research Associates, Inc., 1973
summary Includes bibliography: p. [317]-325 -- (The SRA Computer Science Series). The primary purpose is of this paper is to study the important structural characteristic of various prominent high-level languages. The first part provides a brief, informal introduction to a cross-section of prominent languages that are latter drawn upon for illustration. The second and third parts provide an analysis of language features. They differ from each other in the degree of generality of the concepts discussed. The appendices provide ancillary information ranging from elementary automata theory to language-syntax description to compilation techniques
keywords programming, languages, theory, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 85c8
authors Gill, Robert W.
year 1973
title The Thames and Hudson Manual of Rendering With Pen and Ink
source 368 p. : ill. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1973. includes bibliography and index
summary Rendering is the reproduction of an architect`s design in the form of a drawing of a building as it will appear. This is a guide to techniques and methods. Including section on perspective, projection, shadow reflection, instrument and equipment and so on
keywords rendering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ga0024
id ga0024
authors Ferrara, Paolo and Foglia, Gabriele
year 2000
title TEAnO or the computer assisted generation of manufactured aesthetic goods seen as a constrained flux of technological unconsciousness
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary TEAnO (Telematica, Elettronica, Analisi nell'Opificio) was born in Florence, in 1991, at the age of 8, being the direct consequence of years of attempts by a group of computer science professionals to use the digital computers technology to find a sustainable match among creation, generation (or re-creation) and recreation, the three basic keywords underlying the concept of “Littérature potentielle” deployed by Oulipo in France and Oplepo in Italy (see “La Littérature potentielle (Créations Re-créations Récréations) published in France by Gallimard in 1973). During the last decade, TEAnO has been involving in the generation of “artistic goods” in aesthetic domains such as literature, music, theatre and painting. In all those artefacts in the computer plays a twofold role: it is often a tool to generate the good (e.g. an editor to compose palindrome sonnets of to generate antonymic music) and, sometimes it is the medium that makes the fruition of the good possible (e.g. the generator of passages of definition literature). In that sense such artefacts can actually be considered as “manufactured” goods. A great part of such creation and re-creation work has been based upon a rather small number of generation constraints borrowed from Oulipo, deeply stressed by the use of the digital computer massive combinatory power: S+n, edge extraction, phonetic manipulation, re-writing of well known masterpieces, random generation of plots, etc. Regardless this apparently simple underlying generation mechanisms, the systematic use of computer based tools, as weel the analysis of the produced results, has been the way to highlight two findings which can significantly affect the practice of computer based generation of aesthetic goods: ? the deep structure of an aesthetic work persists even through the more “desctructive” manipulations, (such as the antonymic transformation of the melody and lyrics of a music work) and become evident as a sort of profound, earliest and distinctive constraint; ? the intensive flux of computer generated “raw” material seems to confirm and to bring to our attention the existence of what Walter Benjamin indicated as the different way in which the nature talk to a camera and to our eye, and Franco Vaccari called “technological unconsciousness”. Essential references R. Campagnoli, Y. Hersant, “Oulipo La letteratura potenziale (Creazioni Ri-creazioni Ricreazioni)”, 1985 R. Campagnoli “Oupiliana”, 1995 TEAnO, “Quaderno n. 2 Antologia di letteratura potenziale”, 1996 W. Benjiamin, “Das Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reprodizierbarkeit”, 1936 F. Vaccari, “Fotografia e inconscio tecnologico”, 1994
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
title LOST IN SPACE? ARCHITECTURAL PSYCHOLOGY - PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
email alexander.keul@sbg.ac.at
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id e1a1
authors Rodriguez, G.
year 1996
title REAL SCALE MODEL VS. COMPUTER GENERATED MODEL
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Advances in electronic design and communication are already reshaping the way architecture is done. The development of more sophisticated and user-friendly Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and of cheaper and more powerful hardware is making computers more and more accessible to architects, planners and designers. These professionals are not only using them as a drafting tool but also as a instrument for visualization. Designers are "building" digital models of their designs and producing photo-like renderings of spaces that do not exist in the dimensional world.

The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?

Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?

The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa/
last changed 2004/05/04 12:42

_id 0d41
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1973
title Continuous Modular Surface Structures : A Computer Graphics Approach
source IASS - International Symposium on Prefabricated Shells. September, 1973. pp. 201-217 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The conditions for obtaining modular surface structures with minimal ribs and edge beams are derived. The general membrane equation is solved for the geometry assuming known stresses distribution. Several solutions obtained by a digital computer and plotter are presented
keywords curved surfaces, construction, computer graphics, architecture, structures, CAD
series CADline
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/17 08:20

_id 5cf4
id 5cf4
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 2004
title LOS "SPIROSPACES"
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 179-187.
summary This paper deals with “Spirospaces”. These are a conversion to the third dimension of the two dimensional geometric entities called “Spirolaterals”.

Abelson, Harold, diSessa and Andera (1968) gave the first rules concerning Spirolaterals. To obtain a Spirolateral from a set of straight lines, the first of them must be one unit long and the following must be incremented one unit at each step, at the same time that they turn in a constant direction. Odds (1973) establish the variation of the rotation direction, either to the left or the right. However, he did not give a mathematical relation able to calculate open Spirolaterals. Krawczyk (2001) developed a computer program that generates Spirolaterals following the method suggested by Abelson. These are Spirolaterals obtained by enumeration without a predictive mathematical formula. Krawczyc went farther proposing Spirolaterals based in curved lines. He pointed out that there are a variety of spirolateral forms that have architectural potentiality. Following this, the architectural potentiality of Spirolaterals is the basis of this paper.

To take advantage of that potentiality a computer program was implemented to generate spatial configurations based in Spirolaterals. When a third dimension is given to the Spirolaterals they become Spirospaces. These new entities need spatial and design parameters to be useful for architectural purposes. Barrionuevo and Borsetti (2001) gave results about that work establishing the concept of Spirospaces.

The aim of this paper is to describe a work directed to improve rules and procedures concerning Spirospaces. It is expected that these procedures governed by the proposed rules can be employed as tools during the early steps in the architectural design process.

In this work some aspects concerning Spirospaces are considered. First, Spirolaterals are presented as the predecessors of Spirospaces. Second, Spirospaces are defined, together with their structural parameters. Architectural modeling is studied at the light of two special elements of the Spirospaces: Interstitial spaces and Object spaces. Next, a computer program is presented as the appropriate tool to model configurations having architectural potentiality. Finally, the results obtained running the computer program are analyzed to determine their possible use as architectural forms. Several graphic illustrations are presented showing steps going from the exploration of spatial alternatives to the selection of a specific configuration to be developed.

It is expected that the described computer program could be employed as a design aid tool. As the operation of the program generates a variety of spaces able to dwell architectural objects, it eases the search of configurations suitable to specific functions. The results obtained have the possibility of being exported to computer graphic applications able to add materials, lights and cameras.

keywords Spirolaterals, Spirospaces, architectural spaces, interstitial spaces, objectual spaces
series other
type normal paper
email labsist@hotmail.com
last changed 2005/04/07 13:34

_id 6559
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F. and Borsetti, Ricardo
year 2001
title LA POTENCIALIDAD ESPACIAL DE LOS "SPIROLATERALS" EN LA ARQUITECTURA (The Spacial Potential of the "Spirolaterals" in Architecture)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 74-76
summary “Spirolaterals” (Odds, 1973) are mathematical entities created by drawing a set of lines, the first at a unit length, then each additional line increasing by a value of certain longitude while turning a constant or variable direction. (Krawczyk, 2000) The objective of this work is to propose the use of spirolaterals as a geometric support to produce preliminary alternatives for architectural layouts. A computation program is implemented to demonstrate the automatic production of spatial spirolaterals: spirospace, and images of results are exposed.
series SIGRADI
email lbarrio87@hotmail.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 4489
authors Blinn, J.F.
year 1977
title Models of light reflection for computer synthesised pictures
source Computer Graphics, 11 2, 192-198
summary Bui-Tuong Phong published his illumination model in 1973, in the paper titled "Illumination for Computer-Generated Images". Phong's model is a local illumination model, which means only direct reflections are taken into account. Light that bounces off more than one surface before reaching the eye is not accounted for. While this may not be very realistic, it allows the lighting to be computed efficiently. To properly handle indirect lighting, a global illumination method such as radiosity is required, which is much more expensive. In addition to Phong's basic lighting equation, we will look at a variation invented by Jim Blinn. Blinn changed the way specular is calculated, making the computations slightly cheaper. Blinn published his approach in his paper "Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesised Pictures" in 1977.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6509
authors Blinn, J.F.
year 1978
title Simulation of Wrinkled Surfaces
source Computer Graphics 12 3. 286-292
summary Computer generated shaded images have reached an impressive degree of realism with the current state of the art. They are not so realistic, however, that they would fool many people into believing they are real. One problem is that the surfaces tend to look artificial due to their extreme smoothness. What is needed is a means of simulating the surface irregularities that are on real surfaces. In 1973 Ed Catmull introduced the idea of using the parameter values of parametrically defined surfaces to index into a texture definition function which scales the intensity of the reflected light. By tying the texture pattern to the parameter values, the texture is guaranteed to rotate and move with the object. This is good for showing patterns painted on the surface, but attempts to simulate rough surfaces in this way are unconvincing. This paper presents a method of using a texturing function to perform a small perturbation on the direction of the surface normal before using it in the intensity calculations. This process yields images with realistic looking surface wrinkles without the need to model each wrinkle as a separate surface element. Several samples of images made with this technique are included.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id sigradi2004_415
id sigradi2004_415
authors Carmen Aroztegui
year 2004
title The solitary confinement cell of punta de rieles: A place with stories to tell
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Different people remember the same place differently. The question posed by my research is about how to create a visualization of a place that presents different personal recollections. My research addresses this issue through a case study: the visualization of a women.s political prison, located in Punta de Rieles, Uruguay, during the Uruguayan dictatorship (1973-85). The visualization will be based on the memories recounted by these women. My research will result in a written report and an audiovisual installation. The installation will provide an immersive experience centered on the solitary confinement cell. The implementation suggests changes in lighting in the solitary confinement cell as the main formal expression of the variations in the women.s testimonies.
keywords Visualization, subjectivity, memories, immersion, prison
series SIGRADI
email aroztegui@neo.tamu.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

_id a4d9
authors Foerster, H.
year 1973
title On Constructing a Reality
source Preiser, F, Environmental Design Research Stroudberg. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross
summary I first met Heinz von Foerster on a visit to his home at One Eden West Rd. near Pescadero, California, in the fall of 1997. I was in the company of Frank Galuzska, my professor at the time, and two other students - the four of us constituting an experimental course in design theory at the University of California, Santa Cruz that was my introduction to cybernetics and design. As part of that course, Frank had assigned "On Constructing A Reality" and I was eager to make my acquaintance with the man behind those words.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2954
authors Knuth, Donald E.
year 1973
title Sorting and Searching
source The Art of Computer Programming. 722 p. : tables, diagrams Computer Science and Information Processing . Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Pub. Co., 1973. vol.3: part of 7 vol. set. CADLINE has vol. 1 and 3
summary Chapter 5 is concerned with sorting into order, internal sorting and external sorting. Chapter 6 deals with the problem of searching for specified items in tables or files. It is subdivided into methods which search sequentially, or by comparison of keys, or by digital properties, or by 'hashing.' It then discusses the more difficult problem of secondary key retrieval
keywords sorting, search, algorithms, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 88d7
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1995
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in Germany
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 7-13
summary Like the most teachers of Computer Aided Architectural Design at the Fachhochschulen I am an architect not a computer specialist. I studied architecture in the sixties at the universities of Stuttgart and Berlin, In 1973 I became a lecturer at the Fachhochschule Nordostniedersachsen. My subjects are building economics, urban planning and computer aided architectural design (CAAD). My report wants to show what is going on at the Fachhochschulen. This report is based on the paper presented at the eCAADe conference 1989 in Aarhus, Denmark
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 7e15
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1997
title Chips, chunks and sauces
source International Journal of Design Computing, 1, 1997 (Editorial)
summary I am sure there is an art in balancing the chunks to use with your chips. Then there is the sauce that envelops them both. I like my chips chunky and not too saucy. Not that I am obsessed with food but I don't think you can consider design computing without chunks. It's the sauce I'm not sure about. The chunks of which I write are not of course those in your salsa picante but those postulated by Chase and Simon (1973) reflecting on good chess players; the chunks of knowledge with which an expert tackles a problem in their domain of expertise. The more knowledge an expert has of complex and large configurations of typical problem situations (configurations of chess pieces), the greater range of solutions the expert can bring a wider to a particular problem. Those with more chunks have more options and arrive at better solutions. In other words, good designs come from having plenty of big chunks available. There has been a wealth of research in the field of computer-supported collaborative work in the contexts of writing, office management, software design and policy bodies. It is typically divided between systems which support decision making (GDSS: group decision support systems) and those which facilitate joint work (CSCW: computer-based systems for co-operative work) (see Dennis et al. (1988) for a discussion of the distinctions and their likely convergence). Most implementations in the world of design have been on CSCW systems, few have looked at trying to make a group design decision support system (GDDSS?). Most of the work in CSCD has been grounded in the heritage of situated cognition - the assumption that collaborative design is an act that is intrinsically grounded in the context within which it is carried out, that is, the sauce in which we find ourselves swimming daily. By sauce, therefore, I am referring to anything that is not knowledge in the domain of expertise, such as modes of interaction, gestures, social behaviours.
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id fbe6
authors Lee, D. B.
year 1973
title Requiem for Large-Scale Models
source Journal of the American Institute of Planners 39, pp. 163-178
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (spietsch@arch.adelaide.edu.au)
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id 2ee6
authors Lee, D.B.
year 1973
title Requiem for Large-Scale Models
source Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 39, pp. 163-178
summary In his classic article, "Requiem for Large-Scale Models," Douglass Lee attributed their limited success to their data-hungriness and a complexity that defied understanding by would-be users.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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