CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 17 of 17

_id 85c8
authors Gill, Robert W.
year 1973
title The Thames and Hudson Manual of Rendering With Pen and Ink
source 368 p. : ill. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1973. includes bibliography and index
summary Rendering is the reproduction of an architect`s design in the form of a drawing of a building as it will appear. This is a guide to techniques and methods. Including section on perspective, projection, shadow reflection, instrument and equipment and so on
keywords rendering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2005_723
id 2005_723
authors Norman, Richard
year 2005
title Digital Color as a Paradigm for 3D Modeling
source Digital Design: The Quest for New Paradigms [23nd eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-3-2] Lisbon (Portugal) 21-24 September 2005, pp. 723-728
summary Johannes Itten wrote in the 1920’s that seven distinct possibilities exist for the contrast of color: “Each (is) unique in character and artistic value, in visual, expressive and symbolic effect...together these constitute the fundamental resource of color design” Itten (1973). In either the digital world or in the world of painting, there has never been a more profound statement about color arrangement. Of Itten’s seven contrasts, the contrast of hue, value, and saturation, taken together have become a standard description of digital color today. As most projects reach the final stage of presentation, color selection becomes a possible paradigm for their development. It is customary to leave the selection of color to the end of a project — if time permits, then the colors are changed to make the project “appear better”, otherwise the selection of color is put in a pile of “good intentions” — overlooked. Proposed here is an alternative, a method of selecting color “up front”. Student projects are used to illustrate just how a building, or even a group of buildings may be better illustrated if one bases a presentation on a successful and understood work of art. The use of a painting as a source of color is proposed as a specific way of working. Most libraries contain an abundance of examples. The web, too, has many paintings; painters generally have more experience at putting colors together than architects and usually do not mind if their color ideas are borrowed, Done right, the result can be a happy merger of idea, emotion, and color, providing another paradigm for studying digital modeling.
keywords Color ; Painting ; Itten ; Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2012/11/23 18:17

_id 5cf4
id 5cf4
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F.
year 2004
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Special Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 179-187.
summary This paper deals with “Spirospaces”. These are a conversion to the third dimension of the two dimensional geometric entities called “Spirolaterals”.

Abelson, Harold, diSessa and Andera (1968) gave the first rules concerning Spirolaterals. To obtain a Spirolateral from a set of straight lines, the first of them must be one unit long and the following must be incremented one unit at each step, at the same time that they turn in a constant direction. Odds (1973) establish the variation of the rotation direction, either to the left or the right. However, he did not give a mathematical relation able to calculate open Spirolaterals. Krawczyk (2001) developed a computer program that generates Spirolaterals following the method suggested by Abelson. These are Spirolaterals obtained by enumeration without a predictive mathematical formula. Krawczyc went farther proposing Spirolaterals based in curved lines. He pointed out that there are a variety of spirolateral forms that have architectural potentiality. Following this, the architectural potentiality of Spirolaterals is the basis of this paper.

To take advantage of that potentiality a computer program was implemented to generate spatial configurations based in Spirolaterals. When a third dimension is given to the Spirolaterals they become Spirospaces. These new entities need spatial and design parameters to be useful for architectural purposes. Barrionuevo and Borsetti (2001) gave results about that work establishing the concept of Spirospaces.

The aim of this paper is to describe a work directed to improve rules and procedures concerning Spirospaces. It is expected that these procedures governed by the proposed rules can be employed as tools during the early steps in the architectural design process.

In this work some aspects concerning Spirospaces are considered. First, Spirolaterals are presented as the predecessors of Spirospaces. Second, Spirospaces are defined, together with their structural parameters. Architectural modeling is studied at the light of two special elements of the Spirospaces: Interstitial spaces and Object spaces. Next, a computer program is presented as the appropriate tool to model configurations having architectural potentiality. Finally, the results obtained running the computer program are analyzed to determine their possible use as architectural forms. Several graphic illustrations are presented showing steps going from the exploration of spatial alternatives to the selection of a specific configuration to be developed.

It is expected that the described computer program could be employed as a design aid tool. As the operation of the program generates a variety of spaces able to dwell architectural objects, it eases the search of configurations suitable to specific functions. The results obtained have the possibility of being exported to computer graphic applications able to add materials, lights and cameras.

keywords Spirolaterals, Spirospaces, architectural spaces, interstitial spaces, objectual spaces
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2005/04/07 13:34

_id 8d2b
id 8d2b
authors Cross, N. and Maver, T.W.
year 1973
title Computer Aids for Design Participation
source Architectural Design, vol XL 111, 5, 274
series journal paper
last changed 2003/09/06 06:41

_id a4d9
authors Foerster, H.
year 1973
title On Constructing a Reality
source Preiser, F, Environmental Design Research Stroudberg. Dowden, Hutchinson and Ross
summary I first met Heinz von Foerster on a visit to his home at One Eden West Rd. near Pescadero, California, in the fall of 1997. I was in the company of Frank Galuzska, my professor at the time, and two other students - the four of us constituting an experimental course in design theory at the University of California, Santa Cruz that was my introduction to cybernetics and design. As part of that course, Frank had assigned "On Constructing A Reality" and I was eager to make my acquaintance with the man behind those words.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 88d7
authors Kulcke, Richard
year 1995
title CAAD in the Architectural Education of the Fachhochschulen in Germany
source CAD Space [Proceedings of the III International Conference Computer in Architectural Design] Bialystock 27-29 April 1995, pp. 7-13
summary Like the most teachers of Computer Aided Architectural Design at the Fachhochschulen I am an architect not a computer specialist. I studied architecture in the sixties at the universities of Stuttgart and Berlin, In 1973 I became a lecturer at the Fachhochschule Nordostniedersachsen. My subjects are building economics, urban planning and computer aided architectural design (CAAD). My report wants to show what is going on at the Fachhochschulen. This report is based on the paper presented at the eCAADe conference 1989 in Aarhus, Denmark
series plCAD
last changed 2000/01/24 09:08

_id 7e15
authors Kvan, Thomas
year 1997
title Chips, chunks and sauces
source International Journal of Design Computing, 1, 1997 (Editorial)
summary I am sure there is an art in balancing the chunks to use with your chips. Then there is the sauce that envelops them both. I like my chips chunky and not too saucy. Not that I am obsessed with food but I don't think you can consider design computing without chunks. It's the sauce I'm not sure about. The chunks of which I write are not of course those in your salsa picante but those postulated by Chase and Simon (1973) reflecting on good chess players; the chunks of knowledge with which an expert tackles a problem in their domain of expertise. The more knowledge an expert has of complex and large configurations of typical problem situations (configurations of chess pieces), the greater range of solutions the expert can bring a wider to a particular problem. Those with more chunks have more options and arrive at better solutions. In other words, good designs come from having plenty of big chunks available. There has been a wealth of research in the field of computer-supported collaborative work in the contexts of writing, office management, software design and policy bodies. It is typically divided between systems which support decision making (GDSS: group decision support systems) and those which facilitate joint work (CSCW: computer-based systems for co-operative work) (see Dennis et al. (1988) for a discussion of the distinctions and their likely convergence). Most implementations in the world of design have been on CSCW systems, few have looked at trying to make a group design decision support system (GDDSS?). Most of the work in CSCD has been grounded in the heritage of situated cognition - the assumption that collaborative design is an act that is intrinsically grounded in the context within which it is carried out, that is, the sauce in which we find ourselves swimming daily. By sauce, therefore, I am referring to anything that is not knowledge in the domain of expertise, such as modes of interaction, gestures, social behaviours.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id fbe6
authors Lee, D. B.
year 1973
title Requiem for Large-Scale Models
source Journal of the American Institute of Planners 39, pp. 163-178
summary Contributed by Susan Pietsch (
keywords 3D City Modeling, Development Control, Design Control
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:45

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 5669
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1973
title Three Design paradigms: A Tentative Philosophy
source DMG-DRS Journal, vol Vol 9, No 2, 130-132
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id b7c1
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1973
title The Architecture and Building Aids Computer Unit
source Computer Aided Design, vol Vol 5, No 2, 109-110
series journal paper
type normal paper
last changed 2015/02/20 10:26

_id ecaade2013_057
id ecaade2013_057
authors Orbey, Betül and Gürel, Nihan
year 2013
title Digital Design Tools versus Architectural Representation and Design Approach
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 415-423
wos WOS:000340643600042
summary This study aims to investigate the relation between evolving graphic representations and due to new digital tools and how they affect architects’ approach to design process. In order to do this, Yap_ Magazine being published since 1973 in Turkey will be retrieved and data related to types of architectural design representation used will be recorded. The study will conclude with an evaluation of new representation means such as 3D render, other 3D digital products and diagrams and how they have influenced new approach to design.
keywords Digital design tool; architectural representation, architectural design thinking.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id e1a1
authors Rodriguez, G.
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary Advances in electronic design and communication are already reshaping the way architecture is done. The development of more sophisticated and user-friendly Computer Aided Design (CAD) software and of cheaper and more powerful hardware is making computers more and more accessible to architects, planners and designers. These professionals are not only using them as a drafting tool but also as a instrument for visualization. Designers are "building" digital models of their designs and producing photo-like renderings of spaces that do not exist in the dimensional world.

The problem resides in how realistic these Computer Generated Models (CGM) are. Moss & Banks (1958) considered realism “the capacity to reproduce as exactly as possible the object of study without actually using it”. He considers that realism depends on: 1)The number of elements that are reproduced; 2) The quality of those elements; 3) The similarity of replication and 4) Replication of the situation. CGM respond well to these considerations, they can be very realistic. But, are they capable of reproducing the same impressions on people as a real space?

Research has debated about the problems of the mode of representation and its influence on the judgement which is made. Wools (1970), Lau (1970) and Canter, Benyon & West (1973) have demonstrated that the perception of a space is influenced by the mode of presentation. CGM are two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional space. Canter (1973) considers the three-dimensionality of the stimuli as crucial for its perception. So, can a CGM afford as much as a three-dimensional model?

The “Laboratorio de Experimentacion Espacial” (LEE) has been concerned with the problem of reality of the models used by architects. We have studied the degree in which models can be used as reliable and representative of real situations analyzing the Ecological Validity of several of them, specially the Real-Scale Model (Abadi & Cavallin, 1994). This kind of model has been found to be ecologically valid to represent real space. This research has two objectives: 1) to study the Ecological Validity of a Computer Generated Model; and 2) compare it with the Ecological Validity of a Real Scale Model in representing a real space.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 12:42

_id cf2011_p018
id cf2011_p018
authors Sokmenoglu, Ahu; Cagdas Gulen, Sariyildiz Sevil
year 2011
title A Multi-dimensional Exploration of Urban Attributes by Data Mining
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 333-350.
summary The paper which is proposed here will introduce an ongoing research project aiming to research data mining as a methodology of knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis. To address the increasing multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires a multidisciplinary approach to urban analysis. This research is an attempt to establish a link between knowledge discovery methodologies and automated urban feature analysis. Therefore, in the scope of this research we apply data mining methodologies for urban analysis. Data mining is defined as to extract important patterns and trends from raw data (Witten and Frank, 2005). When applied to discover relationships between urban attributes, data mining can constitute a methodology for the analysis of multi-dimensional relational complexity of urban environments (Gil, Montenegro, Beirao and Duarte, 2009) The theoretical motivation of the research is derived by the lack of explanatory urban knowledge which is an issue since 1970’s in the area of urban research. This situation is mostly associated with deductive methods of analysis. The analysis of urban system from the perspective of few interrelated factors, without considering the multi-dimensionality of the system in a deductive fashion was not been explanatory enough. (Jacobs, 1961, Lefebvre, 1970 Harvey, 1973) To address the multi-dimensional and relational complexity of urban environments requires the consideration of diverse spatial, social, economic, cultural, morphological, environmental, political etc. features of urban entities. The main claim is that, in urban analysis, there is a need to advance from traditional one dimensional (Marshall, 2004) description and classification of urban forms (e.g. Land-use maps, Density maps) to the consideration of the simultaneous multi-dimensionality of urban systems. For this purpose, this research proposes a methodology consisting of the application of data mining as a knowledge discovery method into a GIS based conceptual urban database built out of official real data of Beyoglu. Generally, the proposed methodology is a framework for representing and analyzing urban entities represented as objects with properties (attributes). It concerns the formulation of an urban entity’s database based on both available and non-available (constructed from available data) data, and then data mining of spatial and non-spatial attributes of the urban entities. Location or position is the primary reference basis for the data that is describing urban entities. Urban entities are; building floors, buildings, building blocks, streets, geographically defined districts and neighborhoods etc. Urban attributes are district properties of locations (such as land-use, land value, slope, view and so forth) that change from one location to another. Every basic urban entity is unique in terms of its attributes. All the available qualitative and quantitative attributes that is relavant (in the mind of the analyst) and appropriate for encoding, can be coded inside the computer representation of the basic urban entity. Our methodology is applied by using the real and official, the most complex, complete and up-to-dataset of Beyoglu (a historical neighborhood of Istanbul) that is provided by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB). Basically, in our research, data mining in the context of urban data is introduced as a computer based, data-driven, context-specific approach for supporting analysis of urban systems without relying on any existing theories. Data mining in the context of urban data; • Can help in the design process by providing site-specific insight through deeper understanding of urban data. • Can produce results that can assist architects and urban planners at design, policy and strategy levels. • Can constitute a robust scientific base for rule definition in urban simulation applications such as urban growth prediction systems, land-use simulation models etc. In the paper, firstly we will present the framework of our research with an emphasis on its theoretical background. Afterwards we will introduce our methodology in detail and finally we will present some of important results of data mining analysis processed in Rapid Miner open-source software. Specifically, our research define a general framework for knowledge discovery in urban feature analysis and enable the usage of GIS and data mining as complementary applications in urban feature analysis. Acknowledgments I would like to thank to Nuffic, the Netherlands Organization for International Cooperation in Higher Education, for funding of this research. I would like to thank Ceyhun Burak Akgul for his support in Data Mining and to H. Serdar Kaya for his support in GIS.
keywords urban feature analysis, data mining, urban database, urban complexity, GIS
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 6559
authors Barrionuevo, Luis F. and Borsetti, Ricardo
year 2001
title LA POTENCIALIDAD ESPACIAL DE LOS "SPIROLATERALS" EN LA ARQUITECTURA (The Spacial Potential of the "Spirolaterals" in Architecture)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 74-76
summary “Spirolaterals” (Odds, 1973) are mathematical entities created by drawing a set of lines, the first at a unit length, then each additional line increasing by a value of certain longitude while turning a constant or variable direction. (Krawczyk, 2000) The objective of this work is to propose the use of spirolaterals as a geometric support to produce preliminary alternatives for architectural layouts. A computation program is implemented to demonstrate the automatic production of spatial spirolaterals: spirospace, and images of results are exposed.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id sigradi2004_415
id sigradi2004_415
authors Carmen Aroztegui
year 2004
title The solitary confinement cell of punta de rieles: A place with stories to tell
source SIGraDi 2004 - [Proceedings of the 8th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Porte Alegre - Brasil 10-12 november 2004
summary Different people remember the same place differently. The question posed by my research is about how to create a visualization of a place that presents different personal recollections. My research addresses this issue through a case study: the visualization of a women.s political prison, located in Punta de Rieles, Uruguay, during the Uruguayan dictatorship (1973-85). The visualization will be based on the memories recounted by these women. My research will result in a written report and an audiovisual installation. The installation will provide an immersive experience centered on the solitary confinement cell. The implementation suggests changes in lighting in the solitary confinement cell as the main formal expression of the variations in the women.s testimonies.
keywords Visualization, subjectivity, memories, immersion, prison
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:48

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