CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 7a2a
authors Minsky, M.
year 1975
title A framework for representing knowledge
source P.H. Winston (ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 211-277
summary Briefly describes frame systems as a formalism for representing knowledge and then concentrates on the issue of what the content of knowledge should be in specific domains. Argues that vision should be viewed symbolically with an emphasis on forming expectations and then using details to fill in slots in those expectations. Discusses the enormous problem of the volume of background common sense knowledge required to understand even very simple natural language texts and suggests that networks of frames are a reasonable approach to represent such knowledge. Discusses the concept of expectation further including ways to adapt to and understand expectation failures. Argues that numerical approaches to knowledge representation are inherently limited.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ddss2004_d-63
id ddss2004_d-63
authors Wen, K.-C. and W.-L. Chen
year 2004
title Applying Genetic Algorithms to Establish Disaster Decision Support System for Flooding Evacuation Path of Hsichih Area in Taiwan
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Developments in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Eindhoven: Eindhoven University of Technology, ISBN 90-6814-155-4, p. 63-75
summary Because of the special geography features and subtropics weather in Taiwan, we need to provide correct information to help people making decision when they are in disaster. So the disaster decision support system must offer proper information of evacuation path to people. This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. Firstly, we establish the node relationship of GA calculation, the level of the weight is the standard of the date that is exported by Disaster Database. Secondly, we apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Finally, we build the model of choosing flooding evacuation path.
keywords Genetic Algorithms, Decision Support System, GIS, Evacuation Path
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

_id ca8e
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1975
title Multidimensional Binary Search Trees Used for Associative Searching
source communications of the ACM September, 1975. vol. 18: pp. 509-517 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper develops the multidimensional binary search tree (or k-d tree, where k is the dimensionality of the search space) as a data structure for storage of information to be retrieved by associative searches. The k-d tree is defined and examples are given. It is shown to be quite efficient in its storage requirements. A significant advantage of this structure is that a single data structure can handle many types of queries very efficiently. Various utility algorithms are developed; their proven average running times in an n record file are: insertion, O(log(n)); deletion of the root, O(n(k-1)/k); deletion of a random node, O(n); and optimization (guarantees logarithmic performance of searches), O(n(log(n))). Search algorithms are given for partial match queries with t keys specified [proven maximum running time of O(n(k-t)/k)] and for nearest neighbor queries [empirically observed average running time of O(log n).] These performances far surpass the best currently known algorithms for these tasks. An algorithm is presented to handle any general intersection query. The main focus of this paper is theoretical. It is felt, however, that k-d trees could be quite useful in many applications, and examples of potential uses are given
keywords search, attributes, information, systems, queries, database, intersection, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 06e1
authors Keul, Alexander
year 1996
source Full-Scale Modeling in the Age of Virtual Reality [6th EFA-Conference Proceedings]
summary A methodological review by Kaminski (1995) summed up five perspectives in environmental psychology - patterns of spatial distribution, everyday “jigsaw puzzles”, functional everyday action systems, sociocultural change and evolution of competence. Architectural psychology (named so at the Strathclyde conference 1969; Canter, 1973) as psychology of built environments is one leg of environmental psychology, the second one being psychology of environmental protection. Architectural psychology has come of age and passed its 25th birthday. Thus, a triangulation of its position, especially in Central Europe, seems interesting and necessary. A recent survey mainly on university projects in German-speaking countries (Kruse & Trimpin, 1995) found a marked decrease of studies in psychology of built environments. 1994, 25% of all projects were reported in this category, which in 1975 had made up 40% (Kruse, 1975). Guenther, in an unpublished survey of BDP (association of professional German psychologists) members, encountered only a handful active in architectural psychology - mostly part-time, not full-time. 1996, Austria has two full-time university specialists. The discrepancy between the general interest displayed by planners and a still low institutionalization is noticeable.

How is the research situation? Using several standard research data banks, the author collected articles and book(chapter)s on architectural psychology in German- and English-language countries from 1990 to 1996. Studies on main architecture-psychology interface problems such as user needs, housing quality evaluations, participatory planning and spatial simulation / virtual reality did not outline an “old, settled” discipline, but rather the sketchy, random surface of a field “always starting anew”. E.g., discussions at the 1995 EAEA-Conference showed that several architectural simulation studies since 1973 caused no major impact on planner's opinions (Keul&Martens, 1996). “Re-inventions of the wheel” are caused by a lack of meetings (except this one!) and of interdisciplinary infrastructure in German-language countries (contrary to Sweden or the United States). Social pressures building up on architecture nowadays by inter-European competition, budget cuts and citizen activities for informed consent in most urban projects are a new challenge for planners to cooperate efficiently with social scientists. At Salzburg, the author currently manages the Corporate Design-process for the Chamber of Architecture, Division for Upper Austria and Salzburg. A “working group for architectural psychology” (Keul-Martens-Maderthaner) has been active since 1994.

keywords Model Simulation, Real Environments
series EAEA
type normal paper
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 315caadria2004
id 315caadria2004
authors Kuo-Chung Wen, Wei-Lung Chen
year 2004
title Application of Genetic Algorithms to Establish Flooding Evacuation Path Model in Metropolitan Area
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 557-570
summary This research has shown the difficulties associated with the GIS and the flooding evacuation path search through the huge searching space generated during the network analysis process. This research also presents an approach to these problems by utilizing a search process whose concept is derived from natural genetics. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been introduced in the optimization problem solving area by Holland (1975) and Goldberg (1989) and have shown their usefulness through numerous applications. We apply GA and GIS to choice flooding evacuation path in metropolitan area in this study. We take the region of Shiji city in Taiwan for case. That could be divided into four parts. First, is to set the population of GA operation. Second, is to choose crossover and mutation. Third, is to calculate the fitness function of each generation and to select the better gene arrangement. Fourth, is to reproduce, after evolution, we can establish Flooding Evacuation Path that more reflect really human action and choice when flood takes place. However we can apply GA to calculate different evacuation path in different time series. Final, we compare and establish real model of evacuation path model to choosing flooding evacuation path.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:39

_id 2e5a
authors Matsumoto, N. and Seta, S.
year 1997
title A history and application of visual simulation in which perceptual behaviour movement is measured.
source Architectural and Urban Simulation Techniques in Research and Education [3rd EAEA-Conference Proceedings]
summary For our research on perception and judgment, we have developed a new visual simulation system based on the previous system. Here, we report on the development history of our system and on the current research employing it. In 1975, the first visual simulation system was introduced, witch comprised a fiberscope and small-scale models. By manipulating the fiberscope's handles, the subject was able to view the models at eye level. When the pen-size CCD TV camera came out, we immediately embraced it, incorporating it into a computer controlled visual simulation system in 1988. It comprises four elements: operation input, drive control, model shooting, and presentation. This system was easy to operate, and the subject gained an omnidirectional, eye-level image as though walking through the model. In 1995, we began developing a new visual system. We wanted to relate the scale model image directly to perceptual behavior, to make natural background images, and to record human feelings in a non-verbal method. Restructuring the above four elements to meet our equirements and adding two more (background shooting and emotion spectrum analysis), we inally completed the new simulation system in 1996. We are employing this system in streetscape research. Using the emotion spectrum system, we are able to record brain waves. Quantifying the visual effects through these waves, we are analyzing the relation between visual effects and physical elements. Thus, we are presented with a new aspect to study: the relationship between brain waves and changes in the physical environment. We will be studying the relation of brain waves in our sequential analysis of the streetscape.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy, Endoscopy, Simulation, Visualisation, Visualization, Real Environments
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id b9e9
authors Pask, G.
year 1975
title Conversation, Cognition and Learning
source Amsterdam, Elsevier
summary The Conversation Theory developed by G. Pask originated from a cybernetics framework and attempts to explain learning in both living organisms and machines. The fundamental idea of the theory was that learning occurs through conversations about a subject matter which serve to make knowledge explicit. Conversations can be conducted at a number of different levels: natural language (general discussion), object languages (for discussing the subject matter), and metalanguages (for talking about learning/langu age). In order to facilitate learning, Pask argued that subject matter should be represented in the form of entailment structures which show what is to be learned. Entailment structures exist in a variety of different levels depending upon the extent of relatio nships displayed (e.g., super/subordinate concepts, analogies). The critical method of learning according to conversation theory is "teachback" in which one person teaches another what they have learned. Pask identified two different types of learning strategies: serialists who progress through an entailment structure in a sequential fashion and holists who look for higher order relations.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id f951
authors Richens, P.
year 1975
title Geometry and Numbers in Building Systems
source Hawkes, D. U. (Ed.) Models and Systems in Architecture and Building LUBFS Conference Proceedings No 2. Construction Press
series other
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id ae1b
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1998
title Chaos, Databases and Fractal Dimension of Regional Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998, pp. 267-270
summary Modern research on chaos started in the 60's from an incredible finding that simple mathematical equations can model systems as complicated as waterfalls. In the 70's some scientists in the USA and in Europe started to find their way through the chaos. They were dealing with different spheres of science: mathematics, physics, biology, chemistry, physiology, ecology, economy. In the next 10 years? time the term 'chaos' has become generally known in science. Scientists gather in research groups according to their interests as to chaos and secondly according to their scientific specialities. (Gleick 1996) Objects that described chaos were irregular in shape, ripped. In 1975 Benoit Mandelbrot called them fractals. Fractal dimension that described fractal objects was also his invention. Fractal dimension is a way to measure quality: the degree of harshness, uneveness, irregularity of a given object. Carl Bovill (1996) showed how one can use fractal geometry in architecture and designing. This very fact made me try to use fractal geometry to deal with regional architecture. What or who is the degree of regionality of a given object to be for? A specially qualified person is able to state it nearly automatically. However, regionality is in some sense an unmeasurable feature. While dealing with data basis or checking particular projects, creation of procedures of automatic acquiring information concerning regionality is becoming a necessity.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/26 08:39

_id 85d7
authors Braid, I. C.
year 1975
title The Synthesis of Solids Bounded by Many Faces
source communications of the ACM. April, 1975. vol. 18: pp. 209-216 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A technique is presented which allows a class of solid objects to be synthesized and stored using a computer. Synthesis begins with primitive solids like a cube, wedge, or cylinder. Any solid can be moved, scaled, or rotated. Solids may also be added together or subtracted. Two algorithms to perform addition are described. For practical designers, the technique has the advantage that operations are concise, readily composed, and are given in terms of easily imagined solids. Quite short sequences of operations suffice to build up complex solids bounded by many faces
keywords geometric modeling, algorithms, computer graphics, polyhedra, solids, data structures, boolean operations, Euler operators, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 3aed
authors Broadbent, G.
year 1975
title Design in architecture: architecture and the human sciences
source Wiley J, London
summary Broadbent first investigates what an architect is as a person. Trying to understand how an architect thinks and what sets him apart from the other members of a building design team. To achieve this Broadbent makes a study of various psychological reports which have been generated about architects. Although it would seem that the reports are inconclusive about what characterizes an architect. In particular there would seem to be a great difference between the personality of average and outstanding architects. Characterizations have been made about personality types in general and they include, creative and non-creative, tolerant and prejudiced, introverted and extroverted. Many of these terms carry linguistic connotations which are perhaps misleading. One of the less emotionally loaded distinctions is between cyclothymes and schizothymes. Cyclothymes seem to be sensitive and sociable people with good verbal reasoning skills. By contrast the schizothymes dissociate intellectual and emotional aspects of life tending towards self-sufficiency, reserve and intolerance. Some outstanding designers have been characterized as the latter, whereas some studies would favour the former characteristics for average architects. Although there does not appear to be a clear definition of the character of an architect, some interesting distinctions between broad types of thinkers can be identified. One classification is between convergent and divergent thinkers. The difference between convergent and divergent thinkers re-occurs throughout the book. Convergent thinkers are generally associated with the sciences, and will work effectively towards one correct answer to a given problem. Divergent thinkers respond well to open-ended questions, taking pleasure from the task of proposing many alternatives to a given problem. Divergent thinkers seem to enjoy ambiguity in a problem and are happy to work in this situation, convergent thinkers prefer precise problem definitions avoiding "messy" situations. Convergent thinkers seek to find an abstract perfection, through precise logical arguments, something which divergent thinkers mistrust. Although all architects will fall somewhere between these two extremes, as with all the polarizations presented, there are examples of successful architects who show tendencies to either one of these types of thinking. It has been suggested that successful designing requires both types of thinking. The creative process described in simple terms relies upon the creation of a set of possible solutions and a critical selection process to choose the most suitable. Divergent thinking works best at producing alternatives, and convergent thinking works best at selecting the best solution from a given set. The divergent thinker works within a vague framework, while the convergent thinker works within the well-defined set of possibilities presented.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2b3c
authors Carrara, G. and Novembri, G.
year 1986
title KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 202-212
summary The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id b37b
id b37b
authors Gero, J. S.
year 1975
title Ethics in computer-aided design: A polemic
source ACM SIGDA Newsletter, 5(4): 9-14
summary It is one of the difficulties of the scientific approach to problem solving that the variables need to be defined at the beginning of the investigation. This i s further exacerbated when computer based techniques are applied because of the need to define variables explicitly . Current problem solving is directed to handling only well defined problems in which certain variables are assumed to be exogenous - the educational system schools people in methods for manipulating problems at this level. It appears that computer-aided design systems, in general, have not been able to incorporate any adequate value systems within them nor have they been able to provide a means of examining the problem in an ethos borader than' the one defined at the outset. Both of these difficulties are considered within the ambit of ethics. It is suggested that subjective value systems can be easily incorporated with the use of interactive computing but that the 'ethics of the whole system' present a thornier problem.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2006/05/27 16:43

_id 62ad
authors Kuan, L.P. and Hinds, John K.
year 1975
title A New Breed of Geometry for Numerical Control-Surfaces Through General Curves
source pp. 133- 169 : ill. (pp.144-169)
summary Recent geometric developments in the CAM-I Sculptured Surface project show promising applications to the perplexing problems of describing blends and fillets for conventional geometric parts, as well as providing greatly increased capability in the expression of pure sculptured shapes. The new geometry -- named 'Surfaces Through General Curves' -- is integrated into both the APT processor and the CASPA preprocessor. The CASPA (acronym for Computer-Aided Sculptures Pre-APT) processor is discussed briefly. All graphics material for this presentation was prepared through the use of this preprocessor. The original purpose of this talk was to discuss a preprocessor to the APT system. This preprocessor -- CASPA -- was first released in July of 1975 and contains the majority of sculptured geometry combined with a graphics processor. The preprocessor has been a great success as a development tool and has also been used by a number of sponsors in design and manufacturing applications. The system has been so successful that the main theme of this talk had to be changed to cover the new geometric developments in Sculptured Surfaces which were made possible by having a development tool such as CASPA. So the first part of this talk will sketch an outline of CASPA and the second part will describe the concepts and applications for some of these new geometric developments. Briefly, the CASPA system was developed in response to a single critical requirement: the need to have a system, simpler and more flexible then the full APT system, for implementing and testing new developments in Sculptured Geometry. The CASPA system today contains all of the Sculptured Geometric capability together with an integrated and extensive 3-dimensional graphics capability. It is a single-pass processor with a very simple, fixed-format input and interfaces with APT by punching APT- readable canonical forms. it is also capable of generating APT readable 'GOTO' cards to accomplish numerical control pattern machining of geometric models
keywords curves, curved surfaces, representation, computational geometry, CAM, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 781d
id 781d
authors Mayer, Rosirene; Turkienicz, Benamy
year 2005
title Generative Process of Oskar Niemeyer‘s Style
source 2005 Aesthetics and Architectural Composition. Proceedings of the Dresden International Symposium of Architecture 2004 (to appear in "pro Literatur Verlag", D-82291 Mammendorf ISBN: 3-86611-022-7 / Editors: Ralf Weber/Matthias Albrecht Amann/ TU Dresden
summary The aim of this study is to outline the structure of a possible grammar of Oscar Niemeyer’s architectural language, focusing on the so-called “free forms.” The idea is to assess the extent to which it is possible to shed some light on the discussion of architectural freedom as used by many authors when describing the work of the Brazilian architect. The investigation associates geometric relations present in Niemeyer’s buildings to the Shape Grammar model as proposed by Stiny & Gips (1975). The model made possible the depiction of consistencies in vocabulary, rules and operations deployed by Niemeyer. This eventually led to the description of an original architectural language present in Niemeyer’s buildings.
keywords Shape Grammars, Oskar Niemeyer, Generative process
series other
type symposium
last changed 2006/10/01 06:39

_id e016
authors Mitchell, William J.
year 1975
title The Theoretical Foundation of Computer- Aided Architectural Design
source Environment and Planning B December, 1975. vol. 2: pp. 127-150 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper tries to elucidate some of the basic unifying theoretical concepts which form the foundation of much of the work that has been done in computer-aided architectural design, to relate these concepts to their historical predecessors, and to use the theoretical framework that is developed to make some comparison between computer-aided and manual design methods. The question of how design problems are defined, how potential solutions are represented, how they are generated, and how they are evaluated, are taken in turn. A distinction is drawn between well-defined and ill-defined design problems. The issue of originality and style are considered, and the division of tasks between human designers and machine is discussed
keywords theory, CAD, design, problem solving, methods, architecture, representation
series CADline
email wjm@MIT.EDU
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8317
authors Phong, Bui Tuong
year 1975
title Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures
source Communications of the ACM. June, 1975. vol. 18: pp. 311-317 : ill. (some col.). includes a short bibliography
summary The quality of computer generated images of three-dimensional scenes depends on the shading technique used to paint the objects on the cathode-ray tube screen. The shading algorithm itself depends in part on the method for modeling the object, which also determines the hidden surface algorithm. The various methods of object modeling, shading, and hidden surface removal are thus strongly interconnected. Several shading techniques corresponding to different methods of object modeling and the related hidden surface algorithms are presented here. Human visual perception and the fundamental laws of optics are considered in the development of a shading rule that provides better quality and increased realism in generated images
keywords shading, algorithms, hidden surfaces, rendering, visualization, computer graphics, modeling
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

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