CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id cf2009_poster_27
id cf2009_poster_27
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2009
title Towards A Smart Living Environment: Happy Healthy Living With Ambient Intelligence and Technology
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Achieving wellness is a Grand Challenge. We are concerned about the quality of life for ourselves and for our society. As human beings we want to develop and cultivate our untapped potential for a happy, healthy, creative and fulfilling life. Technological innovation may be just the key to unlock human potential for the Holy Grail of wellness. Wellness has multiple dimensions: physical, emotional, occupational, social, intellectual and spiritual (Hettler 1976). Below we briefly describe interesting design computing projects employing technological innovations to contribute toward a smart living environment for wellness.
keywords Ambient, intelligence, ubiquitous computing, smart living
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/07/08 20:11

_id fb37
authors Knight, T.
year 1999
title Applications in architectural design and education and practice
source Report for the NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, Mass., 25-26 April 1999
summary Shortly after shape grammars were invented by Stiny and Gips, a two part project for shape grammars was outlined by Stiny. In a 1976 paper,1 Stiny described "two exercises in formal composition". These simple exercises became the foundation for the many applications of shape grammars that followed, and suggested the potential of such applications in education and practice. The first exercise showed how shape grammars could be used in original composition, that is, the creation of new design languages or styles from scratch. The second exercise showed how shape grammars could be used to analyze known or existing design languages. Both exercises illustrated the unique characteristics of the shape grammar formalism that helped motivate a quarter century (almost!) of shape grammar work. General but simple, formal yet intuitive: qualities that continue to make shape grammar disciples and confound skeptics. The history of shape grammar applications in architecture and the arts for the two complementary purposes of synthesis and analysis, as well as for a third, joint purpose is sketched in the first section of this report. These three categories of applications do not have rigid boundaries. They are used in this report mostly as a framework for discussion. An overview of the roles of shape grammar applications in education and practice is given in the second section. New and ongoing issues concerning shape grammars in education and practice are discussed in the last section.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id e9e6
authors Lowerre, Bruce and Reddy, Raj D.
year 1976
title The Harpy Speech Understanding
source 1976. pp. 1-19
summary Harpy is one of the first systems to demonstrate that high performance, large vocabulary connected speech recognition systems can in fact be realized economically for task- oriented (restricted) languages. In this chapter the authors present, using simple examples, the principles of organization of the Harpy system. They illustrate how knowledge sources (KSs) are specified, how the knowledge compiler integrates the KSs into a unified directional graph representation, and how this knowledge is utilized. In conclusion, they discuss many of the limitations of the present system and how these can be eliminated or reduced in future systems
keywords speech recognition, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id b0e7
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Re-Convergence of Art and Science: A Vehicle for Creativity
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 491-500
summary Ever-increasing complexity in product design and the need to deliver a cost-effective solution that benefits from a dynamic approach requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods which ensure that products are of the highest quality and meet or exceed customers' expectations. According to Bronowski (1976) science and art were originally two faces of the same human creativity. However, as civilisation advances and works became specialised, the dichotomy of science and art gradually became apparent. Hence scientists and artists were born, and began to develop work that was polar opposite. The sense of beauty itself became separated from science and was confined within the field of art. This dichotomy existed through mankind's efforts in advancing civilisation to its present state. This paper briefly examines the relationship between art and science through the ages and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. Based on this hypothesis, this paper studies the current state of the convergence between arts and sciences and examines the current relationship between the two by considering real world applications and products. The study of such products and their successes and impact they had in the marketplace due to their designs and aesthetics rather than their advanced technology that had partially failed them appears to support this argument. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring and highlights the need for accelerating this process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies which are adopted by practitioners that include effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts. Such elements are widely found today in multimedia and Virtual Environments (VEs) where such tools offer increased power and new abilities to both scientists and designers as both venture in each other's domains. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through real-time prototyping and visualisation, better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, lessor error and reduced design cycles. Effective employment and adoption of innovative design methods that ensure products are delivered on time, and within budget, are of the highest quality and meet customer expectations are becoming of ever increasing importance. Such tools and concepts are outlined and their roles in the industries they currently serve are identified. Case studies from differing fields are also studied. It is also suggested that Virtual Reality interfaces should be used and given access to Computer Aided Design (CAD) model information and data so that users may interrogate virtual models for additional information and functionality. Adoption and appliance of such integrated technologies over the Internet and their relevance to electronic commerce is also discussed. Finally, emerging software and hardware technologies are outlined and case studies from the architecture, electronic games, and retail industries among others are discussed, the benefits are subsequently put forward to support the argument. The requirements for adopting such technologies in financial, skills required and process management terms are also considered and outlined.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id aa83
authors Aho, Alfred V., Hopcroft , John E. and Ullman, Jeffrey D.
year 1976
title The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms
source x, 470 p. : ill Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Weslely Pub. Co., 1976. includes bibliography: p. [452]-462 and index.
summary A text book for a first course in design and analysis of algorithms. The emphasis is on ideas and ease of understanding rather then on implementation details or programming tricks. It starts with formulating several models that include random access register machine, random access stored program machine and variants of these, so one can establish analytical results and at the same time accurately reflect on the salient features of real machines
keywords algorithms, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 186e
authors Blinn, J.F. and Newell, M.E.
year 1976
title Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images
source Communications of the ACM 19 10 542-547
summary In 1974 Catmull developed a new algorithm for rendering images of bivariate surface patches. This paper describes extensions of this algorithm in the areas of texture simulation and lighting models. The parametrization of a patch defines a coordinate system which is used as a key for mapping patterns onto the surface. The intensity of the pattern at each picture element is computed as a weighted average of regions of the pattern definition function. The shape and size of this weighting function are chosen using digital signal processing theory. The patch rendering algorithm allows accurate computation of the surface normal to the patch at each picture element, permitting the simulation of mirror reflections. The amount of light coming from a given direction is modeled in a similar manner to the texture mapping and then added to the intensity obtained from the texture mapping. Several examples of images synthesized using these new techniques are included.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 62c4
authors Blinn, James F. and Newell, Martin E.
year 1976
title Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images
source communications of the ACM October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 542-547 : ill. (col.). includes bibliography.
summary In 1974 Catmull developed a new algorithm for rendering images of bivariate surface patches. This paper describes extensions of this algorithm in the areas of texture simulation and lighting models. The parametrization of a patch defines a coordinate system which is used as a key for mapping patterns onto the surface. The intensity of the pattern at each picture element is computed as a weighted average of regions of the pattern definition function. The shape and size of this weighting function are chosen using digital signal processing theory. The patch rendering algorithm allows accurate computation of the surface normal to the patch at each picture element, permitting the simulation of mirror reflections. The amount of light coming from a given direction is modeled in a similar manner to the texture mapping and then added to the intensity obtained from the texture mapping. Several examples of images synthesized using these new techniques are included
keywords algorithms, computer graphics, shading, hidden surfaces, texture mapping, curved surfaces, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2014_113
id ecaade2014_113
authors Burak Pak and Johan Verbeke
year 2014
title ICT-enabled Civic Empowerment and Participation: in Design, through Design
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 89-97
wos WOS:000361384700008
summary This paper aims to discuss the potentials of novel modes of participatory design in relation to the latest developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The first part of the study involves the extraction of the basic principles from the extraordinary cases of the Medical Faculty Housing by Lucien Kroll (1976) and Cedric Price's Fun Place (1965) in which various forms of ICT-enabled participation were conceived. In the second part, we reframe the existing ICT tools and strategies and elaborate their potentials to support the modes of participation performed in these two cases. As a result, by distilling the created knowledge, we introduce a model of ICT-enabled design participation which exploits a set of collective action tools to support sustainable ways of self-organization and bottom-up design.
keywords Participatory architectural design; crowdsourcing; crowdfunding; self-organization
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2866
authors Clark, James H.
year 1976
title Hierarchical Geometric Model for Visible Surface Algorithms
source communications of the ACM. October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 547-554 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The geometric structure inherent in the definition of the shapes of three-dimensional objects and environments is used not just to define their relative motion and placement, but also to assist in solving many other problems of systems for producing pictures by computers. By using an extension of traditional structure information, or a geometric hierarchy, five significant improvements to current techniques are possible. First, the range of complexity of an environment is greatly increased while the visible complexity of any given scene is kept within a fixed upper limit. Second, a meaningful way is provided to vary the amount of detail presented in a scene. Third, 'clipping' becomes a very fast logarithmic search for the resolvable parts of the environment within the field of view. Fourth, frame to frame coherence and clipping define a graphical 'working set,' or fraction of the total structure that should be present in primary store for immediate access by the visible surface algorithm. Finally, the geometric structure suggests a recursive descent, visible surface algorithm in which the computation time potentially grows linearly with the visible complexity of the scene
keywords hidden lines, hidden surfaces, data structures, clipping, geometric modeling, algorithms, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4d59
authors Greer, Kenneth
year 1976
title SPACS : Graphics Editor
source July, 1976. 22 p. : ill. includes index
summary SPACS is an interactive graphics editor for use with a stylus/tablet input device in conjunction with a graphics display terminal. SPACS is well suited for making tables, flow charts, logic diagrams, and other similar schematic diagrams. The user may ultimately obtain a hard copy of her work via the Xerox Graphic Processor (XGP). SPACS is composed of a large PDP-11 program, where the picture processing is performed, and a SAIL program on the PDP-10, which acts as an I/O link for saving and retrieving files. In addition there is another SAIL program for creating image files for the XGP
keywords computer graphics, programming, software
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 01ed
authors Haberman, N. and DeWayne, M.C.
year 1976
title ADA for Experienced Programmers
source Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
summary A unique presentation of Ada, the powerful programming language sponsored and championed by the Department of Defense, and mandated to be used for developing all mission-critical software to used by the U.S. Armed Forces. This text is offered to experienced programmers, who most often lack the resources to learn a new language: either the existing texts are too simple, designed for beginners, or the texts are of reference quality, designed to be of use to users with extensive experience "behind the wheel," so to speak. Contains sample situations and study questions to help learners absorb Ada concepts.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 8f1d
authors Herot, C.
year 1976
title Graphical Input Through Machine Recognition of Sketches
source Computer Graphics, SIGGRAPH Quarterly Report, Vol. 10, No. 2
summary A family of programs has been developed to allow graphical input through continuous digitizing. Drawing data, sampled at a high and constant rate, is compressed and mapped into lines and splines, in two and three dimensions. This is achieved by inferring a particular user's intentions from measures of speed and pressure.Recent experiments have shown that even the most basic inference making cannot rely solely upon knowledge of the user's drawing style, but needs additional knowledge of the subject being drawn, the protocols of its domain, and the stage of development of the user's design. This requirement implies a higher level of machine intelligence than currently exists. An alternate approach is to increase the user's involvement in the recognition process.Contrary to previous efforts to move from sketch to mechanical drawing without human intervention, this paper reports on an interactive system for graphical input in which the user overtly partakes in training the machine and massaging the data at all levels of interpretation. The initial routines for data compression employ parallel functions for extracting such features as bentness, straightness, and endness. These are planned for implementation in microprocessors.Results offer a system for rapid (and enjoyable) graphical input with real-time interpretation, the beginnings of an intelligent tablet.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 266a
authors Klinger, Allen and Dyer, Charles R.
year 1976
title Experiments on Picture Representation Using Regular Decomposition
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing. 1976. vol. 5: pp. 68-105 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The problem of building a computer-searchable data representation for a complex image and the effect of representation on algorithms for scene segmentation into regions is considered. A regular decomposition of picture area into successively smaller quadrants is defined, which involves logarithmic search. This hierarchical search and resulting picture representation are shown to enable rapid access of image data without regard to position, efficient storage, and approximate structural descriptions of constituent patterns. Examples involving solid geometrical objects and alphabetic characters are given
keywords algorithms, image processing, search, decomposition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 407caadria2004
id 407caadria2004
authors Larry Sass
year 2004
title Rapid Prototyping Techniques for Building Program Study
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 655-670
summary This paper is original research that demonstrates new design possibilities for evaluation in the schematic phase of design through the use rapid prototyping as a tool of representation verses 2D drawing. These program shapes are created from CAD files using a threedimensional printing and laser cutting CAM tools. This way of working is in response to two dimensional plan representation and evaluation (Mitchell 1976). This research combines the best of the visual aspects of plan representation and the formal representation of solid block modeling. The models in this paper demonstrate the building’s physical scale of spaces, building use and overall form. Resulting models will demonstrate a new way of designing in CAD one that combined physical and visual ways or representation.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

_id 4f07
authors Leach, Edmund
year 1976
title Culture and Communication. The logic by which symbols are connected
source Cambridge University Press. London
summary The recent spread of 'structuralist' writing has been hailed as the dawn of a new age and condemned as an intellectual disaster but, like all fashionable diseases, it is more talked about than understood. Edmund Leach's new book is designed for the use if teaching undergraduates in anthropology, linguistics, literary studies, philosophy and related disciplines faced for the first time with structuralist argument; it provides the prolegomena necessary to understand the final chapter of Levi-Strauss's massive four-volume Mythologiques. The objective is complex, the manner simple. Some prior knowledge of anthropological literature is useful but not essential; the principal ethnographic source is the Book of Leviticus; this guide should help anyone who is trying to grasp the essentials of 'seminology' - the general theory of how signs and symbols come to convey meaning.Although, in essence, a textbook, substantial portions of the argument are here presented for the first time; thus Section 16 contains an innovating contribution to general incest theory, and the analysis of the logic of animal sacrifice presented in Section 18 is an advance on anything previous published on this theme. The author's core thesis is that: 'the indices in non-verbal communication systems, like the sound elements in spoken language, do not have meaning as isolates, but only as members of set'; the book's special merit is that it makes this kind of jargon comprehensible in terms of our everyday experience.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 888b
authors Levin, Joshua
year 1976
title A Parametric Algorithm for Drawing Pictures of Solid Objects Composed of Quadric Surfaces
source Communications of the ACM. October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 555- 563. includes bibliography
summary An algorithm for drawing pictures of three-dimensional objects, with surfaces made up of patches of quadric surfaces, is described. The emphasis of this algorithm is on calculating the intersections of quadric surfaces. A parametrization scheme is used. Each quadric surface intersection curve (QSIC) is represented as a set of coefficients and parameter limits. Each value of the parameter represents at most two points, and these may easily be distinguished. This scheme can find the coordinates of points of even quartic (fourth-order) intersection curves, using equations of no more than second order. Methods of parametrization for each type of QSIC are discussed, as well as surface bounding and hidden surface removal
keywords algorithms, curves, curved surfaces, intersection, hidden surfaces, parametrization, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 485f
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1976
title Democracy and Design Decision Making
source Proceedings of CAD76, London. IPC, 308-312
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id acadia03_046
id acadia03_046
authors Maze, J., McGlothlin, M. and Tanzer, K.
year 2003
title Fluid (in)form:Influencing Design Through Dynamic Particle Simulation
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 357-363
summary “My earliest childhood memories are related to a ranch my family owned near the village of Mazamitla. It was a pueblo with hills, formed by houses with tile roofs and immense eaves to shield passersby from the heavy rains which fall in that area. Even the earth’s color was interesting because it was red earth. In this village, the water distribution system consisted of great gutted logs, in the form of troughs, which ran on a support structure of tree forks, five meters high, above the roofs. The aqueduct crossed over the town, reaching the patios, where there were great stone fountains to receive the water. The patios outside the stables, with cows and chickens, all together. Outside, in the street, there were iron rings to tie the horses. The channeled logs, covered with moss, dripped water all over town, of course. It gave this village the ambience of a fairy tale.”(Luis Barragan,qtd in Ambasz 1976)
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 2ca1
authors Montagu, A. and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Datarq: The Development of a Website of Modern Contemporary Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998
summary The pedagogic approach in the architectural field is suffering a deep change taking in consideration the impact that has been produced mainly by the CAD and multimedia procedures. An additional view to be taken in consideration is the challenge produced by the influence of advanced IT which since 1990-92, has affected positively the exchange of information among people of the academic environment. Several studies confirm this hypothesis, from the wide cultural spectrum when the digitalization process was emerging as an alternative way to data processing (Bateson 1976) to the pedagogical-computational side analyzed by (Papert 1996). One of the main characteristics indicated by S. Papert (op.cit) is the idea of "self teaching" which students are used everywhere due to the constant augment of "friendly" software and the decreasing costs of hardware. Another consequences to point out by S. Paper (op.cit) is that will be more probably that students at home will have more actualized equipment that most of the computer lab. of schools in general. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is, "if we are able to combine usual tutorials design methods with the concept of "self-teaching" regarding the paradigmatic architectural models that are used in practically all the schools of architecture (Le Corbusier, F.L.Wright, M.v. der Rohe, M.Botta, T.Ando, etc.) using a Web site available to everybody, what we are doing is expanding the existing knowledge in the libraries and fulfill the future requirements of the newly generations of students".
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/25 17:23

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