CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id fb37
authors Knight, T.
year 1999
title Applications in architectural design and education and practice
source Report for the NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, Mass., 25-26 April 1999
summary Shortly after shape grammars were invented by Stiny and Gips, a two part project for shape grammars was outlined by Stiny. In a 1976 paper,1 Stiny described "two exercises in formal composition". These simple exercises became the foundation for the many applications of shape grammars that followed, and suggested the potential of such applications in education and practice. The first exercise showed how shape grammars could be used in original composition, that is, the creation of new design languages or styles from scratch. The second exercise showed how shape grammars could be used to analyze known or existing design languages. Both exercises illustrated the unique characteristics of the shape grammar formalism that helped motivate a quarter century (almost!) of shape grammar work. General but simple, formal yet intuitive: qualities that continue to make shape grammar disciples and confound skeptics. The history of shape grammar applications in architecture and the arts for the two complementary purposes of synthesis and analysis, as well as for a third, joint purpose is sketched in the first section of this report. These three categories of applications do not have rigid boundaries. They are used in this report mostly as a framework for discussion. An overview of the roles of shape grammar applications in education and practice is given in the second section. New and ongoing issues concerning shape grammars in education and practice are discussed in the last section.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 2ca1
authors Montagu, A. and Bermudez, J.
year 1998
title Datarq: The Development of a Website of Modern Contemporary Architecture
source Computerised Craftsmanship [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Paris (France) 24-26 September 1998
summary The pedagogic approach in the architectural field is suffering a deep change taking in consideration the impact that has been produced mainly by the CAD and multimedia procedures. An additional view to be taken in consideration is the challenge produced by the influence of advanced IT which since 1990-92, has affected positively the exchange of information among people of the academic environment. Several studies confirm this hypothesis, from the wide cultural spectrum when the digitalization process was emerging as an alternative way to data processing (Bateson 1976) to the pedagogical-computational side analyzed by (Papert 1996). One of the main characteristics indicated by S. Papert (op.cit) is the idea of "self teaching" which students are used everywhere due to the constant augment of "friendly" software and the decreasing costs of hardware. Another consequences to point out by S. Paper (op.cit) is that will be more probably that students at home will have more actualized equipment that most of the computer lab. of schools in general. Therefore, the main hypothesis of this paper is, "if we are able to combine usual tutorials design methods with the concept of "self-teaching" regarding the paradigmatic architectural models that are used in practically all the schools of architecture (Le Corbusier, F.L.Wright, M.v. der Rohe, M.Botta, T.Ando, etc.) using a Web site available to everybody, what we are doing is expanding the existing knowledge in the libraries and fulfill the future requirements of the newly generations of students".
series eCAADe
email amontagu@fadu.uba.ar
more http://www.paris-valdemarne.archi.fr/archive/ecaade98/html/35montagu/index.htm
last changed 1998/09/25 17:23

_id cf2009_poster_27
id cf2009_poster_27
authors Do, Ellen Yi-Luen
year 2009
title Towards A Smart Living Environment: Happy Healthy Living With Ambient Intelligence and Technology
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary Achieving wellness is a Grand Challenge. We are concerned about the quality of life for ourselves and for our society. As human beings we want to develop and cultivate our untapped potential for a happy, healthy, creative and fulfilling life. Technological innovation may be just the key to unlock human potential for the Holy Grail of wellness. Wellness has multiple dimensions: physical, emotional, occupational, social, intellectual and spiritual (Hettler 1976). Below we briefly describe interesting design computing projects employing technological innovations to contribute toward a smart living environment for wellness.
keywords Ambient, intelligence, ubiquitous computing, smart living
series CAAD Futures
type poster
email ellendo@gatech.edu
last changed 2009/07/08 20:11

_id 4d59
authors Greer, Kenneth
year 1976
title SPACS : Graphics Editor
source July, 1976. 22 p. : ill. includes index
summary SPACS is an interactive graphics editor for use with a stylus/tablet input device in conjunction with a graphics display terminal. SPACS is well suited for making tables, flow charts, logic diagrams, and other similar schematic diagrams. The user may ultimately obtain a hard copy of her work via the Xerox Graphic Processor (XGP). SPACS is composed of a large PDP-11 program, where the picture processing is performed, and a SAIL program on the PDP-10, which acts as an I/O link for saving and retrieving files. In addition there is another SAIL program for creating image files for the XGP
keywords computer graphics, programming, software
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 8f1d
authors Herot, C.
year 1976
title Graphical Input Through Machine Recognition of Sketches
source Computer Graphics, SIGGRAPH Quarterly Report, Vol. 10, No. 2
summary A family of programs has been developed to allow graphical input through continuous digitizing. Drawing data, sampled at a high and constant rate, is compressed and mapped into lines and splines, in two and three dimensions. This is achieved by inferring a particular user's intentions from measures of speed and pressure.Recent experiments have shown that even the most basic inference making cannot rely solely upon knowledge of the user's drawing style, but needs additional knowledge of the subject being drawn, the protocols of its domain, and the stage of development of the user's design. This requirement implies a higher level of machine intelligence than currently exists. An alternate approach is to increase the user's involvement in the recognition process.Contrary to previous efforts to move from sketch to mechanical drawing without human intervention, this paper reports on an interactive system for graphical input in which the user overtly partakes in training the machine and massaging the data at all levels of interpretation. The initial routines for data compression employ parallel functions for extracting such features as bentness, straightness, and endness. These are planned for implementation in microprocessors.Results offer a system for rapid (and enjoyable) graphical input with real-time interpretation, the beginnings of an intelligent tablet.
series report
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 4f07
authors Leach, Edmund
year 1976
title Culture and Communication. The logic by which symbols are connected
source Cambridge University Press. London
summary The recent spread of 'structuralist' writing has been hailed as the dawn of a new age and condemned as an intellectual disaster but, like all fashionable diseases, it is more talked about than understood. Edmund Leach's new book is designed for the use if teaching undergraduates in anthropology, linguistics, literary studies, philosophy and related disciplines faced for the first time with structuralist argument; it provides the prolegomena necessary to understand the final chapter of Levi-Strauss's massive four-volume Mythologiques. The objective is complex, the manner simple. Some prior knowledge of anthropological literature is useful but not essential; the principal ethnographic source is the Book of Leviticus; this guide should help anyone who is trying to grasp the essentials of 'seminology' - the general theory of how signs and symbols come to convey meaning.Although, in essence, a textbook, substantial portions of the argument are here presented for the first time; thus Section 16 contains an innovating contribution to general incest theory, and the analysis of the logic of animal sacrifice presented in Section 18 is an advance on anything previous published on this theme. The author's core thesis is that: 'the indices in non-verbal communication systems, like the sound elements in spoken language, do not have meaning as isolates, but only as members of set'; the book's special merit is that it makes this kind of jargon comprehensible in terms of our everyday experience.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 888b
authors Levin, Joshua
year 1976
title A Parametric Algorithm for Drawing Pictures of Solid Objects Composed of Quadric Surfaces
source Communications of the ACM. October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 555- 563. includes bibliography
summary An algorithm for drawing pictures of three-dimensional objects, with surfaces made up of patches of quadric surfaces, is described. The emphasis of this algorithm is on calculating the intersections of quadric surfaces. A parametrization scheme is used. Each quadric surface intersection curve (QSIC) is represented as a set of coefficients and parameter limits. Each value of the parameter represents at most two points, and these may easily be distinguished. This scheme can find the coordinates of points of even quartic (fourth-order) intersection curves, using equations of no more than second order. Methods of parametrization for each type of QSIC are discussed, as well as surface bounding and hidden surface removal
keywords algorithms, curves, curved surfaces, intersection, hidden surfaces, parametrization, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id c7e0
id c7e0
authors Maria Gabriela Caffarena Celani
year 2002
title BEYOND ANALYSIS AND REPRESENTATION IN CAD: A NEW COMPUTATIONAL APPROACH TO DESIGN EDUCATION
source Submitted to the Department of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the field of Architecture: Design & Computation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
summary This thesis aims at changing students' attitude towards the use of computer-aided design (CAD) in architecture. It starts from the premise that CAD is used mostly for analysis and representation, and not as a real design aide, and that architecture students have a bias against learning computer programming. For this purpose, a prototypical instruction system that mixes computer-aided design and computational design theory was developed, based on a series of fundamental concepts that are common to both fields. This system was influenced by Mitchell's (1987) The Art of Computer Graphics Programming and Stiny's (1976) shape grammars. Despite being based on solid theoretical foundations, CAD has progressively become an exclusively practical tool, since its origins in the 50's and 60's, while computational design theories have been mostly restricted to the academic circles. This thesis proposes an inversion in the present situation: the study of CAD theory, and the application of computational design into practice. The system proposed provides a conceptual framework that can be adapted to different circumstances, including course formats and resources, as well as students' background and technical training. It is based on seven fundamental concepts from computational design theories that are also important to the study of shape grammars: symmetry, recursion, rule-based compositions, parameterization of shapes, generative systems, algorithmization of design procedures, and shape emergence. These concepts are introduced within a CAD context, where their practical implementation and experimentation are possible, focusing the understanding of the computational nature of design. During this research, the proposed system was tested in two case studies with students from schools that had contrary orientations in terms of the importance of CAD in the architectural curriculum. In these experimental courses, students' activities evolved from using a commercial CAD tool in an innovative way, to the use of programming techniques for creating meaningful tools. Despite not having a statistical reach, the fieldwork allowed drawing preliminary conclusions about the proposed system's efficacy, since virtually all the students reported changing their understanding of the role of CAD in architecture, while some also acknowledged a conceptual influence in other subjects and in the way they see architecture.
keywords Symmetry
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email celani@fec.unicamp.br
more http://www.fec.unicamp.br/~celani/
last changed 2004/11/17 19:51

_id 7793
authors Montañez, Darién
year 2001
title TESIS: ARQ.PMA.76/00 (Thesis: ARQ.PMA.76/00)
source SIGraDi biobio2001 - [Proceedings of the 5th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics / ISBN 956-7813-12-4] Concepcion (Chile) 21-23 november 2001, pp. 13-15
summary Chaos and disorder are adjectives repeated ad nauseam in contemporary discussions on the City of Panama and its architecture. This study intends to find an order in this apparent chaos and chart the development of Panamanian Architecture during the last 25 years. Going beyond the expected list of every important building of the period, we offer a vision of Architecture as a blob generated by these milestones and that envelops them, moving and changing shape with time. This fluctuating form, which is the Architecture of Panama from 1976 to 2000, is generated by using a Style Vs. Time graph, a diagram that allows us to plot each building according to its “style”.
series SIGRADI
email darienm@mac.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id c1a7
authors Nerlich, Graham
year 1976
title The Shape of Space
source London: Cambridge University Press
summary This is a revised and updated edition of Graham Nerlich's classic book The Shape of Space. It develops a metaphysical account of space which treats it as a real and concrete entity. In particular, it shows that the shape of space plays a key explanatory role in space and spacetime theories. Arguing that geometrical explanation is very like causal explanation, Professor Nerlich prepares the ground for philosophical argument, and, using a number of novel examples, investigates how different spaces would affect perception differently. This leads naturally to conventionalism as a non-realist metaphysics of space, an account which Professor Nerlich criticises, rejecting its Kantian and positivistic roots along with Reichenbach's famous claim that even the topology of space is conventional. He concludes that there is, in fact, no problem of underdetermination for this aspect of spacetime theories, and offers an extensive discussion of the relativity of motion.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id caadria2009_026
id caadria2009_026
authors Ostwald, Michael J.; Josephine Vaughan
year 2009
title Calculating Visual Complexity In Peter Eisenman’s Architecture
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 75-84
summary This paper describes the results of the first computational investigation of characteristic visual complexity in the architecture of Peter Eisenman. The research uses a variation of the “box-counting” approach to determining a quantitative value of the formal complexity present in five of Eisenman’s early domestic works (Houses I, II, III, IV and VI all of which were completed between 1968 and 1976). The boxcounting approach produces an approximate fractal dimension calculation for the visual complexity of an architectural elevation. This method has previously been used to analyse a range of historic and modern buildings including the works of Frank Lloyd Wright, Eileen Gray, Le Corbusier and Kazuyo Sejima. Peter Eisenman’s early house designs–important precursors to his later Deconstructivist works–are widely regarded as possessing a high degree of formal consistency and a reasonably high level of visual complexity. Through this analysis it is possible to quantify both the visual complexity and the degree of consistency present in this work for the first time.
keywords Computational analysis; fractal dimension; box-counting; Peter Eisenman
series CAADRIA
email michael.ostwald@newcastle.edu.au
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id 028f
authors Reggini, Horacio C.
year 1976
title A Generalized Perspective Involving Visual Size Constancy
source Estudos Cognitivos. San-Paulo, Argentine: December, 1976. vol. 1: pp. [71]-101 : ill. Written in spanish. --- includes bibliography
summary This article deals with a new idea for generating plane representation figures of three dimensional objects and describes a corresponding computer program. Instead of using the classical perspective rules that govern retinal images as well as common cameras, a different projection method is elaborated based upon the use of a particular kind of curved projection rays instead of the usual straight ones. Curvature of projection lines is made depending on an index variable between zero and one. Meanwhile conical and parallel classical images are obtained for the limit values, compromise images result with intermediate values. Fundamentals, analytical procedure and program for displaying images are presented. Finally, examples are shown and the development possibility of a new type of camera with the property of producing pictures according to different indexes is raised
keywords computer graphics, perspective, rendering, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6215
authors Samlowski, Wolfgang
year 1976
title Case Grammar
source North-Holland Pub. Co., 1976. pp. 55-72 : some ill
summary Case Grammar is another approach among transformational linguistic theories of semantics having an important influence on AI. In this chapter the author present Fillmore's approach to Case Grammar, not only because he is the most important representative of Case Grammar theorists, but also because several leading researchers within AI explicitly refer to him, though not always with justification
keywords grammars, semantics, AI, theory, representation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id d59a
authors Zarnowiecka, Jadwiga C.
year 1999
title AI and Regional Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 584-588
summary In 1976 Richard Foqué established periods in the development of methods of designing. The first stage (the 50's and early 60's) - automatization of the designing process - properly identified language of description that is understood by a machine is vital. Christopher Alexander publishes 'Pattern Language'. The second stage (late 60's) - the use of the Arts - research techniques as interview, questionnaire, active observation; ergonomic aspects are also taken into consideration. The third stage (starts at the turn of the 60's and 70's) - co-participation of all of the parties involved in the designing process, and especially the user. The designing process becomes more complex but at the same time more intelligible to a non-professional - Alexander's 'Pattern Language' returns. It's been over 20 years now since the publication of this work. In the mid 70's prototypes of integrate building description are created. We are dealing now with the next stage of the designing methods development. Unquestionable progress of computer optimalization of technical and economical solutions has taken place. It's being forecasted that the next stage would be using computer as a simulator of the designing process. This stage may be combined with the development of AI. (Already in 1950 Alan Turing had formulated the theoretical grounds of Artificial Intelligence.) Can the development of the AI have the influence on the creation of present time regional architecture? Hereby I risk a conclusion that the development of AI can contribute to the creation of modern regional architecture.
keywords Design Process, Artificial Intelligence, Regional Architecture
series eCAADe
email zarnow@cksr.ac.bialystok.pl
last changed 1999/10/10 12:53

_id b0e7
authors Ahmad Rafi, M.E. and Karboulonis, P.
year 2000
title The Re-Convergence of Art and Science: A Vehicle for Creativity
source CAADRIA 2000 [Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 981-04-2491-4] Singapore 18-19 May 2000, pp. 491-500
summary Ever-increasing complexity in product design and the need to deliver a cost-effective solution that benefits from a dynamic approach requires the employment and adoption of innovative design methods which ensure that products are of the highest quality and meet or exceed customers' expectations. According to Bronowski (1976) science and art were originally two faces of the same human creativity. However, as civilisation advances and works became specialised, the dichotomy of science and art gradually became apparent. Hence scientists and artists were born, and began to develop work that was polar opposite. The sense of beauty itself became separated from science and was confined within the field of art. This dichotomy existed through mankind's efforts in advancing civilisation to its present state. This paper briefly examines the relationship between art and science through the ages and discusses their relatively recent re-convergence. Based on this hypothesis, this paper studies the current state of the convergence between arts and sciences and examines the current relationship between the two by considering real world applications and products. The study of such products and their successes and impact they had in the marketplace due to their designs and aesthetics rather than their advanced technology that had partially failed them appears to support this argument. This text further argues that a re-convergence between art and science is currently occurring and highlights the need for accelerating this process. It is suggested that re-convergence is a result of new technologies which are adopted by practitioners that include effective visualisation and communication of ideas and concepts. Such elements are widely found today in multimedia and Virtual Environments (VEs) where such tools offer increased power and new abilities to both scientists and designers as both venture in each other's domains. This paper highlights the need for the employment of emerging computer based real-time interactive technologies that are expected to enhance the design process through real-time prototyping and visualisation, better decision-making, higher quality communication and collaboration, lessor error and reduced design cycles. Effective employment and adoption of innovative design methods that ensure products are delivered on time, and within budget, are of the highest quality and meet customer expectations are becoming of ever increasing importance. Such tools and concepts are outlined and their roles in the industries they currently serve are identified. Case studies from differing fields are also studied. It is also suggested that Virtual Reality interfaces should be used and given access to Computer Aided Design (CAD) model information and data so that users may interrogate virtual models for additional information and functionality. Adoption and appliance of such integrated technologies over the Internet and their relevance to electronic commerce is also discussed. Finally, emerging software and hardware technologies are outlined and case studies from the architecture, electronic games, and retail industries among others are discussed, the benefits are subsequently put forward to support the argument. The requirements for adopting such technologies in financial, skills required and process management terms are also considered and outlined.
series CAADRIA
email ahmadrafi.eshaq@mmu.edu.my, karboulonis@clara.co.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id 186e
authors Blinn, J.F. and Newell, M.E.
year 1976
title Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images
source Communications of the ACM 19 10 542-547
summary In 1974 Catmull developed a new algorithm for rendering images of bivariate surface patches. This paper describes extensions of this algorithm in the areas of texture simulation and lighting models. The parametrization of a patch defines a coordinate system which is used as a key for mapping patterns onto the surface. The intensity of the pattern at each picture element is computed as a weighted average of regions of the pattern definition function. The shape and size of this weighting function are chosen using digital signal processing theory. The patch rendering algorithm allows accurate computation of the surface normal to the patch at each picture element, permitting the simulation of mirror reflections. The amount of light coming from a given direction is modeled in a similar manner to the texture mapping and then added to the intensity obtained from the texture mapping. Several examples of images synthesized using these new techniques are included.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 62c4
authors Blinn, James F. and Newell, Martin E.
year 1976
title Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images
source communications of the ACM October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 542-547 : ill. (col.). includes bibliography.
summary In 1974 Catmull developed a new algorithm for rendering images of bivariate surface patches. This paper describes extensions of this algorithm in the areas of texture simulation and lighting models. The parametrization of a patch defines a coordinate system which is used as a key for mapping patterns onto the surface. The intensity of the pattern at each picture element is computed as a weighted average of regions of the pattern definition function. The shape and size of this weighting function are chosen using digital signal processing theory. The patch rendering algorithm allows accurate computation of the surface normal to the patch at each picture element, permitting the simulation of mirror reflections. The amount of light coming from a given direction is modeled in a similar manner to the texture mapping and then added to the intensity obtained from the texture mapping. Several examples of images synthesized using these new techniques are included
keywords algorithms, computer graphics, shading, hidden surfaces, texture mapping, curved surfaces, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2014_113
id ecaade2014_113
authors Burak Pak and Johan Verbeke
year 2014
title ICT-enabled Civic Empowerment and Participation: in Design, through Design
source Thompson, Emine Mine (ed.), Fusion - Proceedings of the 32nd eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of Engineering and Environment, Newcastle upon Tyne, England, UK, 10-12 September 2014, pp. 89-97
wos WOS:000361384700008
summary This paper aims to discuss the potentials of novel modes of participatory design in relation to the latest developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The first part of the study involves the extraction of the basic principles from the extraordinary cases of the Medical Faculty Housing by Lucien Kroll (1976) and Cedric Price's Fun Place (1965) in which various forms of ICT-enabled participation were conceived. In the second part, we reframe the existing ICT tools and strategies and elaborate their potentials to support the modes of participation performed in these two cases. As a result, by distilling the created knowledge, we introduce a model of ICT-enabled design participation which exploits a set of collective action tools to support sustainable ways of self-organization and bottom-up design.
keywords Participatory architectural design; crowdsourcing; crowdfunding; self-organization
series eCAADe
email burak.pak@kuleuven.be
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2866
authors Clark, James H.
year 1976
title Hierarchical Geometric Model for Visible Surface Algorithms
source communications of the ACM. October, 1976. vol. 19: pp. 547-554 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The geometric structure inherent in the definition of the shapes of three-dimensional objects and environments is used not just to define their relative motion and placement, but also to assist in solving many other problems of systems for producing pictures by computers. By using an extension of traditional structure information, or a geometric hierarchy, five significant improvements to current techniques are possible. First, the range of complexity of an environment is greatly increased while the visible complexity of any given scene is kept within a fixed upper limit. Second, a meaningful way is provided to vary the amount of detail presented in a scene. Third, 'clipping' becomes a very fast logarithmic search for the resolvable parts of the environment within the field of view. Fourth, frame to frame coherence and clipping define a graphical 'working set,' or fraction of the total structure that should be present in primary store for immediate access by the visible surface algorithm. Finally, the geometric structure suggests a recursive descent, visible surface algorithm in which the computation time potentially grows linearly with the visible complexity of the scene
keywords hidden lines, hidden surfaces, data structures, clipping, geometric modeling, algorithms, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 407caadria2004
id 407caadria2004
authors Larry Sass
year 2004
title Rapid Prototyping Techniques for Building Program Study
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 655-670
summary This paper is original research that demonstrates new design possibilities for evaluation in the schematic phase of design through the use rapid prototyping as a tool of representation verses 2D drawing. These program shapes are created from CAD files using a threedimensional printing and laser cutting CAM tools. This way of working is in response to two dimensional plan representation and evaluation (Mitchell 1976). This research combines the best of the visual aspects of plan representation and the formal representation of solid block modeling. The models in this paper demonstrate the building’s physical scale of spaces, building use and overall form. Resulting models will demonstrate a new way of designing in CAD one that combined physical and visual ways or representation.
series CAADRIA
email lsass@mit.edu
last changed 2004/05/20 17:41

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