CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 13 of 13

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
email akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0fd5
authors Borkin, Harold J., McIntosh, John F. and Turner, James A.
year 1978
title The Development of Three-Dimensional Spatial Modeling Techniques for the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants
source SIGGRAPH-ACM Quarterly Report. August, 1978. pp. 26-30 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper presents the results of the first phase of a research project on the application of spatial modeling techniques to the process of planning and executing the construction of a nuclear power plant. A computer modeling technique, based on sets of polyhedra and spatial set operations, was developed and applied to modeling the components of a nuclear power plant. The objectives of the modeling are: To store and retrieve information about the various systems in the facility; to produce drawings of those systems from any angle in differing amounts of detail; to aid in the search for interference among the parts of the plant by identifying those elements that occupy the same space or are too close to each other; to calculate information such as surface area, length, and volume of selected elements of the plant; and to aid in finding the optimum construction sequence by simulating the construction of selected areas of the plant. Computer techniques are described for inputing information by digitizing directly from engineering drawings, for editing the spatial model, for management of the spatial and non-spatial data, and for graphic output from the model. The software is implemented on the University central time- sharing computer system and on a mini-computer system in the Architectural Research Laboratory
keywords geometric modeling, polyhedra, relational database, construction, synthesis, evaluation, design, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 35a7
authors Brown, André G.P.
year 2001
title Architectural critique through digital scenariobuilding. Augmenting Architectural Criticism and Narrative
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 697-709
summary As an idea scenario-building has parallels the use of creative faking in related disciplines, most particularly, in contemporary art. The techniques involved in scenario-building and faking offer us enhanced ways of undertaking creative thinking and critical review of architecture and architectural projects. Critical review and theoretical analysis of architecture can be undertaken via a range of methods that Attoe (1978) classifies as Normative, Interpretive and Descriptive. Digital representation now offers us new ways of augmenting these critical styles in ways that have yet to be fully exploited, and possible means of exploitation are illustrated in this paper. In short the work described here shows how digital techniques can be used to enrich architectural investigation, critical reporting and debate.
keywords Digital Recreation, Scenario-Building, Narrative, Fake, Architectural Critique
series CAAD Futures
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id a8ca
authors Courtieux, Gerard
year 1981
title Man Machine Interface Problems in Computer Aided Architectural Design
source 1981. pp. 231-250 : ill. includes bibliography. -- discussion (pp. 247-250)
summary The author and two other researchers conducted a world-wide survey of existing computer aided architectural design programs in 1978. The purpose of the survey was to validate an earlier study of the architectural design process and to investigate problem areas in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). The survey indicated that two problems of man machine interaction in CAAD, though partly solved, remain a challenge for computer scientists: the description and graphical representation of three-dimensional objects. The formalization of the information collected in the survey, together with the experience of the author in teaching computer graphics to architecture students for the past ten years, is used to give some insight in these two problems and to make some recommendations for the improvement of the man machine interface in CAAD
keywords architecture, CAD, user interface
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id caadria2003_c6-2
id caadria2003_c6-2
authors Li Suping, Joo-Hwa Bay
year 2003
title A Cognitive Framework of Collaborative Design Between Architects and Manufacturer-Designers
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 855-870
summary The widespread application of prefabricated products in building has made prefabrication an indispensable part of building processes. In this context, instead of handling every detail by architects themselves, some parts of architectural design have been transferred to manufacturer-designers. This inevitably brings about problems in the integration of prefabricated products and the specific buildings they serve. As a result, collaboration between architects and manufacturer-designers takes place in building processes in various forms and extents (non-, semi-, and full-collaboration). In this study, we aim to investigate collaborative design process from the cognitive aspect of design generation between architects and manufacturer-designers in terms of project-related products design. By applying the Kernel of Conceptual System theory (Tzonis et al., 1978), we intend to set up two empirical models in terms of design differences' formation in collaborative design process based on a case study with seeking the answers for the following research questions: 1. What kinds of design differences are raised in design processes? 2. Why the design differences are raised in design processes? 3. What implications could be made in developing computational models to facilitate collaborative design between architects and manufacturer-designers?
series CAADRIA
email sdep1193@nus.edu.sg, akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 72a2
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1978
title Concept of Modelling in Architectural Design
source Proceedings of Conference Architectural Design, Istanbul
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 4fd8
authors Pohl, Jens and Conrad, Jeff
year 1978
title Introduction to Computer Systems and Programming in Architecture and Construction
source xiii, 432 p. : ill. San Luis Obispo, California: EDUCOL, 1978. includes index
summary An introductory computer text for undergraduate students in architecture, architectural engineering, construction, landscape and planning. It provides working knowledge of BASIC and FORTRAN, using small computer program as an educational tool to facilitate the exploration of the relationships among the parameters of a problem
keywords programming, languages, BASIC, FORTRAN, architecture, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 26ef
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1991
title A Possible Palladian Villa
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 135-166
summary Ever since Wittkower published Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism in 1949, in which he showed that Palladio's villa plans are based on a tartan grid, it seemed that Palladio's design principles had been encapsulated. When subsequently, in 1978, Mitchell and Stiny enunciated all the topological possibilities for Palladian villa plans, it appeared that the case was closed. Freedman and Hersey have since shown that it is precisely in the application of specific building dimensions and proportions that additional design rules come into play, however. The present study builds on the work of Freedman and Hersey. It uses and extends their method which involves incorporation of the known design principles for Palladian villas, as given implicitly in Palladio's Four Books of Architecture and in his built works, into a computer program capable of generating schematic plans and elevations based on those principles and visually comparing the generated plans and elevations with the known works of Palladio. In cases of disagreement, the reasons for the disagreement help formulate further design rules.
series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id c06a
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1978
title The Determination of the Form of Windows and Sunshades in a Hot Climate - A Case Study
source CAD 78 proceedings. 1978. IPC Science & Tech. Press, pp. 11-120 : ill. and tables. includes bibliography: pp. 115
summary Architectural Sciences and Design Methods Working Paper ASDM- 13 A method for the design of fixed external sunshades was developed, using a computer for calculating the exact geometry and a plotter for presentation. The method is applied to the design of the elevations of a hospital building under construction in Haifa, Israel. The emphasis is on finding the form of the correct shape of windows and the necessary sunshades so as to avoid penetration of direct sun during the summer. The method preserves the freedom of the architect and provides reasonable structures and pleasing elevations
keywords architecture, shading, energy, evaluation, synthesis, analysis, methods, tools, algorithms, applications
series CADline
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/17 08:20

_id acadia09_26
id acadia09_26
authors Strehlke, Kai
year 2009
title Digital Technologies, Methods, and Tools in Support of the Architectural Development at Herzog & de Meuron
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 26-29
summary The architectural office of Herzog & de Meuron (HdM) started in 1978 and has grown to a company of about 330 employees. Besides the two founding partners who participate in every project there are nine additional partners who take responsibility for individual projects. Furthermore, the office collaborates with artists and outside experts of various fields to support and enhance the available knowledge and skills. The partners ensure that each project has a distinct and unique identity and is well adapted to its environment. This emphasis on the uniqueness of a project characterizes the design philosophy of HdM.The growth of the office and the size and complexity of the projects has demanded continuous adaptation of the office structure. The amount of required data is increasing exponentially, while the design cycles are, generally, becoming shorter. The challenge is to find the right tools and media. HdM does not restrict itself to the realm of digital tools but, rather, uses all possible media: hand sketches in pencil, together with diagrams, drawings, and images, as well as physical and digital models.
keywords Parametric design, fabrication, prototype, collaboration
series ACADIA
type Keynote paper
email k.strehlke@herzogdemeuron.com
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

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