CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 46

_id 20c1
authors Alavalkama, Ilkka
year 1993
title Technical Aspects of the Urban Simulator in Tampere University of Technology
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 35-46
summary The colour video recording Urban Simulator in TUT was built very early compared with the development of video systems. A contract for planning the simulator electronics, mechanics and camera systems was made in january 1978 with two TUT students: Jani Granholm (computer science and engineering) and Ilkka Alavalkama (machine design and automation). Ease of control and maintenance were asked by side of ”human movement inside coloured small-scale architectural models”. From the beginning, all components of the system were carefully tested and chosen from various alternatives. Financial resources were quite limited, which lead to a long building process and to self-planned and produced mechanical and electronical elements. Some optical systems were constructed by using elements from various manufacturers.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/eaea/
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id b780
authors Chomsky, N.
year 1978
title Syntactic structures
source The Hague : Mouton
summary Noam Chomsky's first book on syntactic structures is one of the first serious attempts on the part of a linguist to construct within the tradition of scientific theory-construction a comprehensive theory of language which may be understood in the same sense that a chemical, biological theory is understood by experts in those fields. It is not a mere reorganization of the data into a new kind of library catalogue, nor another specualtive philosophy about the nature of man and language, but rather a rigorus explication of our intuitions about our language in terms of an overt axiom system, the theorems derivable from it, explicit results which may be compared with new data and other intuitions, all based plainly on an overt theory of the internal structure of languages; and it may well provide an opportunity for the application of explicity measures of simplicity to decide preference of one form over another form of grammar.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2007/04/30 06:13

_id caadria2003_c6-2
id caadria2003_c6-2
authors Li Suping, Joo-Hwa Bay
year 2003
title A Cognitive Framework of Collaborative Design Between Architects and Manufacturer-Designers
source CAADRIA 2003 [Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 974-9584-13-9] Bangkok Thailand 18-20 October 2003, pp. 855-870
summary The widespread application of prefabricated products in building has made prefabrication an indispensable part of building processes. In this context, instead of handling every detail by architects themselves, some parts of architectural design have been transferred to manufacturer-designers. This inevitably brings about problems in the integration of prefabricated products and the specific buildings they serve. As a result, collaboration between architects and manufacturer-designers takes place in building processes in various forms and extents (non-, semi-, and full-collaboration). In this study, we aim to investigate collaborative design process from the cognitive aspect of design generation between architects and manufacturer-designers in terms of project-related products design. By applying the Kernel of Conceptual System theory (Tzonis et al., 1978), we intend to set up two empirical models in terms of design differences' formation in collaborative design process based on a case study with seeking the answers for the following research questions: 1. What kinds of design differences are raised in design processes? 2. Why the design differences are raised in design processes? 3. What implications could be made in developing computational models to facilitate collaborative design between architects and manufacturer-designers?
series CAADRIA
email sdep1193@nus.edu.sg, akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/12/02 06:47

_id 10a8
authors McCall, Raymond Joseph
year 1978
title On the structure and use of issue systems in design
source University of California, Berkeley
summary The purpose of this dissertation is to explain and justify the concept of issue serving-systems as a new paradigm for descriptive and normative models of design processes. This paradigm is based in general on Horst Rittel's "Argumentative Planning Paradigm" and in particular on Rittel's "Issue-Based Information System" --IBIS-- method. Like IBIS, the issue serving-system concept views design as consisting of the raising and answering of various questions, called issues. The addition of the issue serving-system concept to IBIS is the claim that the serving relationship is the main means for structuring issues into a system for design. That relationship is the one in which an issue A serves an issue B, by which it is meant that the answering of A is useful in deriving the answer to B. Collections of issues structured by this relationship are labelled "issue serving-systems." In the dissertation it is explained that an issue servingsystem has a quasi-hierarchical structure and has as its function the answering of a P!L issue, i.e., an issue of the form, "What should this plan be." Two projects are undertaken in order to demonstrate the normative significance of the issue serving-system concept. The first is to show that the concept forms the basis of a variety of techniques for mechanical (algorithmic) generation of issues and answers. The second is to show how the concept provides criteria for determining which issues should be dealt with and in what order. In particular, it is argued that a topdown breadth-first order of raising issues is best. These conclusions are incorporated into procedures for design, and two applications of these procedures are described. One application involves use of an interactive computer program written by the author. The other involves a non-computerized version of the method.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 26ef
authors Seebohm, Thomas
year 1991
title A Possible Palladian Villa
source Reality and Virtual Reality [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-00-4] Los Angeles (California - USA) October 1991, pp. 135-166
summary Ever since Wittkower published Architectural Principles in the Age of Humanism in 1949, in which he showed that Palladio's villa plans are based on a tartan grid, it seemed that Palladio's design principles had been encapsulated. When subsequently, in 1978, Mitchell and Stiny enunciated all the topological possibilities for Palladian villa plans, it appeared that the case was closed. Freedman and Hersey have since shown that it is precisely in the application of specific building dimensions and proportions that additional design rules come into play, however. The present study builds on the work of Freedman and Hersey. It uses and extends their method which involves incorporation of the known design principles for Palladian villas, as given implicitly in Palladio's Four Books of Architecture and in his built works, into a computer program capable of generating schematic plans and elevations based on those principles and visually comparing the generated plans and elevations with the known works of Palladio. In cases of disagreement, the reasons for the disagreement help formulate further design rules.
series ACADIA
email tseebohm@fes.uwaterloo.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id acadia09_26
id acadia09_26
authors Strehlke, Kai
year 2009
title Digital Technologies, Methods, and Tools in Support of the Architectural Development at Herzog & de Meuron
source ACADIA 09: reForm( ) - Building a Better Tomorrow [Proceedings of the 29th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA) ISBN 978-0-9842705-0-7] Chicago (Illinois) 22-25 October, 2009), pp. 26-29
summary The architectural office of Herzog & de Meuron (HdM) started in 1978 and has grown to a company of about 330 employees. Besides the two founding partners who participate in every project there are nine additional partners who take responsibility for individual projects. Furthermore, the office collaborates with artists and outside experts of various fields to support and enhance the available knowledge and skills. The partners ensure that each project has a distinct and unique identity and is well adapted to its environment. This emphasis on the uniqueness of a project characterizes the design philosophy of HdM.The growth of the office and the size and complexity of the projects has demanded continuous adaptation of the office structure. The amount of required data is increasing exponentially, while the design cycles are, generally, becoming shorter. The challenge is to find the right tools and media. HdM does not restrict itself to the realm of digital tools but, rather, uses all possible media: hand sketches in pencil, together with diagrams, drawings, and images, as well as physical and digital models.
keywords Parametric design, fabrication, prototype, collaboration
series ACADIA
type Keynote paper
email k.strehlke@herzogdemeuron.com
last changed 2009/11/26 16:44

_id 6387
authors Akin, Omer
year 1978
title How do Architects Design?
source Artificial Intelligence and Pattern Recognition in Computer Aided Design. North-Holland Publishing Company, 1978. pp. 65-98. includes bibliography
summary This study is proposes a descriptive model of the design behavior of architects. In the first section a framework for the model is proposed. In the second section the framework is tested against empirical data. 11 information processing mechanisms are observed in the data. Eight of these: information acquisition, problem interpretation, problem representation, solution generation, solution integration, solution evaluation, perception and sketching, are used in developing design solutions. The three remaining mechanisms: design 'plans,' transformation rules and design-symbols, represent the categories of the priori knowledge used in design. In the third section these three knowledge mechanisms are explored in detail using the results of two additional experiments with designers
keywords design methods, architecture, design process
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 629c
authors Ball, A. A.
year 1978
title A Simple Specification of the Parametric Cubic Segment
source computer Aided Design. Business Press, May, 1978. vol. 10: pp. 181-182
summary A parametric cubic segment may be specified in many ways but most specifications require quantities peculiar to the parametric representation rather than the geometric properties of the curve segment. This paper shows that a three- dimensional cubic segment is specified completely by its end points, end slopes and one intermediate point
keywords parametrization, curves, curved surfaces, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
email akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e671
authors Bentley, Jon L., Haken, Dorothea and Saxe, James B.
year 1978
title A General Method for Solving Divide-and-Conquer Recurrences
source 10 p Carnegie Mellon University: December, 1978. includes bibliography.
summary The complexity of divide-and-conquer algorithms is often described by recurrence relations of the form T(n) = kT(n/c) + f(n). The only method currently available for solving such recurrences consists of solution tables for fixed functions f and varying k and c. In this note the authors describe a unifying method for solving these recurrences that is both general in applicability and easy to apply without the use of large tables
keywords recursion, algorithms, divide-and-conquer
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e1e8
authors Bezier, Pierre E.
year 1978
title General Distortion of an Ensemble of Biparametric Surfaces
source computer Aided Design. March, 1978. vol. 10: pp. 116-120 : ill. includes bibliography
summary When the shape of an object has been numerically defined, it is sometimes necessary to distort it to improve either its technical performance or its aesthetic appearance. After briefly recalling the major properties of space curves and surfaces defined by Bernstein polynomials, it is shown how the result can be automatically obtained by distorting an auxiliary triparametric set of references. The principle of an approximate method for high-order curves and surfaces is explained
keywords curves, curved surfaces, Bernstein, representation, Bezier, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6509
authors Blinn, J.F.
year 1978
title Simulation of Wrinkled Surfaces
source Computer Graphics 12 3. 286-292
summary Computer generated shaded images have reached an impressive degree of realism with the current state of the art. They are not so realistic, however, that they would fool many people into believing they are real. One problem is that the surfaces tend to look artificial due to their extreme smoothness. What is needed is a means of simulating the surface irregularities that are on real surfaces. In 1973 Ed Catmull introduced the idea of using the parameter values of parametrically defined surfaces to index into a texture definition function which scales the intensity of the reflected light. By tying the texture pattern to the parameter values, the texture is guaranteed to rotate and move with the object. This is good for showing patterns painted on the surface, but attempts to simulate rough surfaces in this way are unconvincing. This paper presents a method of using a texturing function to perform a small perturbation on the direction of the surface normal before using it in the intensity calculations. This process yields images with realistic looking surface wrinkles without the need to model each wrinkle as a separate surface element. Several samples of images made with this technique are included.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 0fd5
authors Borkin, Harold J., McIntosh, John F. and Turner, James A.
year 1978
title The Development of Three-Dimensional Spatial Modeling Techniques for the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants
source SIGGRAPH-ACM Quarterly Report. August, 1978. pp. 26-30 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper presents the results of the first phase of a research project on the application of spatial modeling techniques to the process of planning and executing the construction of a nuclear power plant. A computer modeling technique, based on sets of polyhedra and spatial set operations, was developed and applied to modeling the components of a nuclear power plant. The objectives of the modeling are: To store and retrieve information about the various systems in the facility; to produce drawings of those systems from any angle in differing amounts of detail; to aid in the search for interference among the parts of the plant by identifying those elements that occupy the same space or are too close to each other; to calculate information such as surface area, length, and volume of selected elements of the plant; and to aid in finding the optimum construction sequence by simulating the construction of selected areas of the plant. Computer techniques are described for inputing information by digitizing directly from engineering drawings, for editing the spatial model, for management of the spatial and non-spatial data, and for graphic output from the model. The software is implemented on the University central time- sharing computer system and on a mini-computer system in the Architectural Research Laboratory
keywords geometric modeling, polyhedra, relational database, construction, synthesis, evaluation, design, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0189
authors Brodlie, K.W. (editor)
year 1980
title Mathematical Methods in Computer Graphics and Design
source xi, 147 p. : ill. New York: Academic Press, 1980. includes subject index
summary Based on the proceeding of the conference on mathematical methods in computer graphics and design, organized by the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications and held at the university of Leicester on september 28th, 1978
keywords algorithms, geometric modeling, techniques, computer graphics, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 471f
authors Brooks, Frederick P. Jr.
year 1987
title Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering
source IEEE Computer. April, 1987. vol. 20: pp. 10-19 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also Information Processing '86 edited by H.J. Kugler; and Brooks, F.P. 'The Mythical Man-Month,' Addison-Wesley, 1978
summary The author analyzed the nature and the problems of software engineering and assessed the technical developments that are most often advanced as potential solutions for the problems
keywords software, programming, languages, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 35a7
authors Brown, André G.P.
year 2001
title Architectural critique through digital scenariobuilding. Augmenting Architectural Criticism and Narrative
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 697-709
summary As an idea scenario-building has parallels the use of creative faking in related disciplines, most particularly, in contemporary art. The techniques involved in scenario-building and faking offer us enhanced ways of undertaking creative thinking and critical review of architecture and architectural projects. Critical review and theoretical analysis of architecture can be undertaken via a range of methods that Attoe (1978) classifies as Normative, Interpretive and Descriptive. Digital representation now offers us new ways of augmenting these critical styles in ways that have yet to be fully exploited, and possible means of exploitation are illustrated in this paper. In short the work described here shows how digital techniques can be used to enrich architectural investigation, critical reporting and debate.
keywords Digital Recreation, Scenario-Building, Narrative, Fake, Architectural Critique
series CAAD Futures
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id 4df6
authors Cohen, Elaine and Riesenfeld, Richard F.
year 1978
title An Incompatibility Projector Based on an Interpolant of Gregory
source computer Graphics and Image Processing. 1978. vol. 8: pp. 294-298. includes bibliography
summary This paper develops an 'incompatibility Projector' Qm, which is an intrinsically bivariate projector that is not the composition of two univariate projectors. Then it employs Qm to manifest a recent rational interpolant due to Gregory in projector form as a triple Boolean sum. This creates a mold for additional compatibility projectors which yield interpolants to functions that do not meet the ordinary compatibility constraints required for Boolean sum interpolation
keywords algorithms, computational geometry, curves, curved surfaces, mathematics, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id cf2011_p051
id cf2011_p051
authors Cote, Pierre; Mohamed-Ahmed Ashraf, Tremblay Sebastien
year 2011
title A Quantitative Method to Compare the Impact of Design Mediums on the Architectural Ideation Process.
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 539-556.
summary If we compare the architectural design process to a black box system, we can assume that we now know quite well both inputs and outputs of the system. Indeed, everything about the early project either feasibility studies, programming, context integration, site analysis (urban, rural or natural), as well as the integration of participants in a collaborative process can all be considered to initiate and sustain the architectural design and ideation process. Similarly, outputs from that process are also, and to some extent, well known and identifiable. We are referring here, among others, to the project representations or even to the concrete building construction and its post-evaluation. But what about the black box itself that produces the ideation. This is the question that attempts to answer the research. Currently, very few research works linger to identify how the human brain accomplishes those tasks; how to identify the cognitive functions that are playing this role; to what extent they operate and complement each other, and among other things, whether there possibly a chain of causality between these functions. Therefore, this study proposes to define a model that reflects the activity of the black box based on the cognitive activity of the human brain. From an extensive literature review, two cognitive functions have been identified and are investigated to account for some of the complex cognitive activity that occurs during a design process, namely the mental workload and mental imagery. These two variables are measured quantitatively in the context of real design task. Essentially, the mental load is measured using a Bakan's test and the mental imagery with eyes tracking. The statistical software G-Power was used to identify the necessary subject number to obtain for significant variance and correlation result analysis. Thus, in the context of an exploratory research, to ensure effective sample of 0.25 and a statistical power of 0.80, 32 participants are needed. All these participants are students from 3rd, 4th or 5th grade in architecture. They are also very familiar with the architectural design process and the design mediums used, i.e., analog model, freehand drawing and CAD software, SketchUp. In three experimental sessions, participants were asked to design three different projects, namely, a bus shelter, a recycling station and a public toilet. These projects were selected and defined for their complexity similarity, taking into account the available time of 22 minutes, using all three mediums of design, and this in a randomly manner to avoid the order effect. To analyze the two cognitive functions (mental load and mental imagery), two instruments are used. Mental imagery is measured using eye movement tracking with monitoring and quantitative analysis of scan paths and the resulting number and duration of participant eye fixations (Johansson et al, 2005). The mental workload is measured using the performance of a modality hearing secondary task inspired by Bakan'sworks (Bakan et al.; 1963). Each of these three experimental sessions, lasting 90 minutes, was composed of two phases: 1. After calibrating the glasses for eye movement, the subject had to exercise freely for 3 minutes while wearing the glasses and headphones (Bakan task) to get use to the wearing hardware. Then, after reading the guidelines and criteria for the design project (± 5 minutes), he had 22 minutes to execute the design task on a drawing table allowing an upright posture. Once the task is completed, the subject had to take the NASA TLX Test, on the assessment of mental load (± 5 minutes) and a written post-experimental questionnaire on his impressions of the experiment (± 10 minutes). 2. After a break of 5-10 minutes, the participant answered a psychometric test, which is different for each session. These tests (± 20 minutes) are administered in the same order to each participant. Thus, in the first experimental session, the subject had to take the psychometric test from Ekstrom et al. (1978), on spatial performance (Factor-Referenced Cognitive Tests Kit). During the second session, the cognitive style is evaluated using Oltman's test (1971). Finally, in the third and final session, participant creativity is evaluated using Delis-Kaplan test (D-KEFS), Delis et al. (2001). Thus, this study will present the first results of quantitative measures to establish and validate the proposed model. Furthermore, the paper will also discuss the relevance of the proposed approach, considering that currently teaching of ideation in ours schools of architecture in North America is essentially done in a holistic manner through the architectural project.
keywords design, ideation process, mental workload, mental imagery, quantitative mesure
series CAAD Futures
email pierre.cote@arc.ulaval.ca
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id a8ca
authors Courtieux, Gerard
year 1981
title Man Machine Interface Problems in Computer Aided Architectural Design
source 1981. pp. 231-250 : ill. includes bibliography. -- discussion (pp. 247-250)
summary The author and two other researchers conducted a world-wide survey of existing computer aided architectural design programs in 1978. The purpose of the survey was to validate an earlier study of the architectural design process and to investigate problem areas in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). The survey indicated that two problems of man machine interaction in CAAD, though partly solved, remain a challenge for computer scientists: the description and graphical representation of three-dimensional objects. The formalization of the information collected in the survey, together with the experience of the author in teaching computer graphics to architecture students for the past ten years, is used to give some insight in these two problems and to make some recommendations for the improvement of the man machine interface in CAAD
keywords architecture, CAD, user interface
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 0bd5
authors Dube, R., Herron, G.J. and Little, F.F. (et al)
year 1978
title SURFED -- An Interactive Editor for Free-Form Surfaces
source Computer Aided Design. March, 1978. vol. 10: pp. 111-115 : ill. includes bibliography
summary An editor is described for creating and modifying free-form surfaces. A modular system was developed in order to provide the researchers with a facility for communicating design ideas and new mathematical forms through an interactive graphical interface to a computer based model. To achieve this it was necessary to invent a new graphical construct called a `spider' for inputing three-dimensional parameters. This experimental system has the essential features of a large- scale implementation, with the capability of utilizing many new surface forms that have not yet been tried in actual applications
keywords curved surfaces, computer graphics, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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