CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c584
authors Gerzso, Miguel J.
year 1979
title Spacemaker : A Computer Language for Modelling Architectural Physical Form
source Application of Computers in Architecture, Building Design and Urban Planning, International Conference Proceedings. 1979. pp. 573-582 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes a modeling technique of architectural form. The technique is divided into two parts. A diagrammatic production system and a computer language. The production notation serves as a representation of underlying organization of building groups. The computer language -- SPACEMAKER -- facilitates the coding of such rules for computer programming. The particular version of the diagrammatic production system as presented first began by attempting to apply two picture grammars to architectural problems. The first effort was based on PDL developed by Allen Shaw and was called SNARQ I and the second one grew out of work done by Yun-chung Cho and was called SNARQ II. A few years later, these notations evolved into the notation presented after adapting ideas from A. Lindenmeyer. Numerous models of architectural systems were then constructed
keywords architecture, languages, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 9d45
authors Ching, F.D.K.
year 1979
title Architecture: Form, Space and Order
source Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York
summary The Second Edition of this classic introduction to the principles of architecture is everything you would expect from the celebrated architect, author, and illustrator, Francis D. K. Ching. Each page has been meticulously revised to incorporate contemporary examples of the principles of form, space, and order-the fundamental vocabulary of every designer. The result is a beautifully illustrated volume that embraces today's forms and looks at conventional models with a fresh perspective. Here, Ching examines every principal of architecture, juxtaposing images that span centuries and cross cultural boundaries to create a design vocabulary that is both elemental and timeless. Among the topics covered are point, line, plane, volume, proportion, scale, circulation, and the interdependence of form and space. While this revision continues to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, it has been refined to amplify and clarify concepts. In addition, the Second Edition contains: * Numerous new hand-rendered drawings * Expanded sections on openings and scale * Expanded chapter on design principles * New glossary and index categorized by the author * New 8 1/2 ? 11 upright trim In the Second Edition of Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, the author has opted for a larger format and crisper images. Mr. Ching has retained the style of his hand-lettered text, a hallmark of each of his books. This rich source of architectural prototypes, each rendered in Mr. Ching's signature style, also serves as a guide to architectural drawing. Doubtless, many will want this handsome volume for the sheer beauty of it. Architects and students alike will treasure this book for its wealth of practical information and its precise illustrations. Mr. Ching has once again created a visual reference that illuminates the world of architectural form.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id ga0015
id ga0015
authors Daru, R., Vreedenburgh, E. and Scha, R.
year 2000
title Architectural Innovation as an evolutionary process
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary Traditionally in art and architectural history, innovation is treated as a history of ideas of individuals (pioneers), movements and schools. The monograph is in that context one of the most used forms of scientific exercise. History of architecture is then mostly seen as a succession of dominant architectural paradigms imposed by great architectural creators fighting at the beginning against mainstream establishment until they themselves come to be recognised. However, there have been attempts to place architectural innovation and creativity in an evolutionary perspective. Charles Jencks for example, has described the evolution of architectural and art movements according to a diagram inspired by ecological models. Philip Steadman, in his book "The Evolution of Designs. Biological analogy in architecture and the applied arts" (1979), sketches the history of various biological analogies and their impact on architectural theory: the organic, classificatory, anatomical, ecological and Darwinian or evolutionary analogies. This last analogy "explains the design of useful objects and buildings, particularly in primitive society and in the craft tradition, in terms of a sequence of repeated copyings (corresponding to inheritance), with small changes made at each stage ('variations'), which are then subjected to a testing process when the object is put into use ('selection')." However, Steadman has confined his study to a literature survey as the basis of a history of ideas. Since this pioneering work, new developments like Dawkins' concept of memes allow further steps in the field of cultural evolution of architectural innovation. The application of the concept of memes to architectural design has been put forward in a preceding "Generative Art" conference (Daru, 1999), showing its application in a pilot study on the analysis of projects of and by architectural students. This first empirical study is now followed by a study of 'real life' architectural practice. The case taken has a double implication for the evolutionary analogy. It takes a specific architectural innovative concept as a 'meme' and develops the analysis of the trajectory of this meme in the individual context of the designer and at large. At the same time, the architect involved (Eric Vreedenburgh, Archipel Ontwerpers) is knowledgeable about the theory of memetic evolution and is applying a computer tool (called 'Artificial') together with Remko Scha, the authoring computer scientist of the program who collaborates frequently with artists and architects. This case study (the penthouse in Dutch town planning and the application of 'Artificial') shall be discussed in the paper as presented. The theoretical and methodological problems of various models of diffusion of memes shall be discussed and a preliminary model shall be presented as a framework to account for not only Darwinian but also Lamarckian processes, and for individual as well as collective transmission, consumption and creative transformation of memes.
keywords evolutionary design, architectural innovation, memetic diffusion, CAAD, penthouses, Dutch design, creativity, Darwinian and Lamarckian processes
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ecaade2016_113
id ecaade2016_113
authors Poinet, Paul, Baharlou, Ehsan, Schwinn, Tobias and Menges, Achim
year 2016
title Adaptive Pneumatic Shell Structures - Feedback-driven robotic stiffening of inflated extensible membranes and further rigidification for architectural applications
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 549-558
summary The paper presents the development of a design framework that aims to reduce the complexity of designing and fabricating free-form inflatables structures, which often results in the generation of very complex geometries. In previous research the form-finding potential of actuated and constrained inflatable membranes has already been investigated however without a focus on fabrication (Otto 1979). Consequently, in established design-to-fabrication approaches, complex geometry is typically post-rationalized into smaller parts and are finally fabricated through methods, which need to take into account cutting pattern strategies and material constraints. The design framework developed and presented in this paper aims to transform a complex design process (that always requires further post-rationalization) into a more integrated one that simultaneously unfolds in a physical and digital environment - hence the term cyber-physical (Menges 2015). At a full scale, a flexible material (extensible membrane, e.g. latex) is actuated through inflation and modulated through additive stiffening processes, before being completely rigidified with glass fibers and working as a thin-shell under compression.
wos WOS:000402063700060
keywords pneumatic systems; robotic fabrication; feedback strategy; cyber-physical; scanning processes
series eCAADe
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 7e54
authors Ömer, Akin
year 1979
title Models of Architectural Knowledge - An Information Processing Model of Design
source Carnegie Mellon University, College of Fine Arts, Pittsburgh
summary Throughout the history of art the position of the artist towards his goals and his product has been constantly redefined. The two opposing views in the above quotation, those of . German Romanticism and Classicism, are typical of the temperamental nature of the state of the art. Today's artist uses intuition as well as reason in his creative work. Similarly, whether we consider the architect an artist or a scientist, he is constantly required to use his intellectal as well as emotional resources while designing. I do not intend to endorse an attitude for the architect which condones only one of those sources at the expense of the other. Today there i s a real opportunity for understanding the reasoning used in problem-solving and applying these to the area of architectural design, the opportunity arises due to a large amount of knowledge accumulated in the area of ' human problem-solving, methods of anlayzing and developing models for human problem solving behavior. The most frequently refered points of departure in this area are Simon's pioneering work in the area of decision-making (1944) and Newell, Shaw and Simon's work on "heuristics" (1957).
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:39

_id f42f
authors Baer, A., Eastman, C. and Henrion, M.
year 1979
title Geometric modeling: a survey
source Computer Aided Design; 11: 253
summary Computer programs are being developed to aid the design of physical systems ranging from individual mechanical parts to entire buildings or ships. These efforts highlight the importance of computer models of three dimensional objects. Issues and alternatives in geometric modelling are discussed and illustrated with comparisons of 11 existing modelling systems, in particular coherently-structured models of polyhedral solids where the faces may be either planar or curved. Four categories of representation are distinguished: data representations that store full, explicit shape information; definition languages with which the user can enter descriptions of shapes into the system, and which can constitute procedural representations; special subsets of the information produced by application programs; and conceptual models that define the logical structure of the data representation and/or definition language.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 60d4
authors Baer, A., Eastman, C.M. and Henrion, M.
year 1979
title Geometric Modeling : a Survey
source business Press. September, 1979. vol. 11: pp. 253-271 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Computer programs are being developed to aid the design of physical systems ranging from individual mechanical parts to entire buildings or ships. These efforts highlight the importance of computer models of three dimensional objects. Issues and alternatives in geometric modeling are discussed and illustrated with comparisons of 11 existing modelling systems, in particular coherently-structured models of polyhedral solids where the faces may be either planar or curved. Four categories of representation are distinguished: data representations that store full, explicit shape information; definition languages with which the user can enter description of shapes into the system, and which can constitute procedural representations; special subsets of the information produced by application programs; and conceptual models that define the logical structure of the dada representation and/or definition language
keywords solid modeling, B-rep, CSG, languages, CAD, programming, data structures, boolean operations, polyhedra
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id fcd6
authors Berger, S.R.
year 1979
title Artificial Intelligence and its impact on Coimputer-Aided Design
source Design Studies, vol 1, no. 3
summary This paper provides, for readers unfamiliar with the field, an introductory account of research which has been carried out in artificial intelligence. It attempts to distingussh between an artificial intelligence and a conventional computing approach and to assess the future influence of the former on computer-aided design.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id af53
authors Boyer, E. and Mitgang, L.
year 1996
title Building community: a new future for architecture education and practice
source Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
summary Internships, before and after graduation, are the most essential link connecting students to the world of practice. Yet, by all accounts, internship is perhaps the most troubled phase of the continuing education of architects. During this century, as architectural knowledge grew more complex, the apprenticeship system withered away and schools assumed much of the responsibility for preparing architects for practice. However, schools cannot do the whole job. It is widely acknowledged that certain kinds of technical and practical knowledge are best learned in the workplace itself, under the guidance of experienced professionals. All state accrediting boards require a minimum period of internship-usually about three years-before a person is eligible to take the licensing exam. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) allows students to earn up to two years of work credit prior to acquisition of an accredited degree. The Intern Development Program (IDP), launched by NCARB and the American Institute of Architects in 1979, provides the framework for internship in some forty states. The program was designed to assure that interns receive adequate mentoring, that experiences are well-documented, and that employers and interns allocate enough time to a range of educational and vocational experiences to prepare students for eventual licensure. As the IDP Guidelines state, "The shift from school to office is not a transition from theory to pragmatism. It is a period when theory merges with pragmatism.... It's a time when you: apply your formal education to the daily realities of architectural practice; acquire comprehensive experience in basic practice areas; explore specialized areas of practice; develop professional judgment; continue your formal education in architecture; and refine your career goals." Whatever its accomplishments, however, we found broad consensus that the Intern Development Program has not, by itself, solved the problems of internship. Though we found mutually satisfying internship programs at several of the firms we visited or heard about around the country, at many others interns told us they were not receiving the continuing education and experience they needed. The truth is that architecture has serious, unsolved problems compared with other fields when it comes to supplying on-the-job learning experiences to induct students into the profession on a massive scale. Medicine has teaching hospitals. Beginning teachers work in actual classrooms, supported by school taxes. Law offices are, for the most part, in a better financial position to support young lawyers and pay them living wages. The architecture profession, by contrast, must support a required system of internship prior to licensure in an industry that has neither the financial resources of law or medicine, the stability and public support of teaching, nor a network of locations like hospitals or schools where education and practice can be seamlessly connected. And many employers acknowledged those problems. "The profession has all but undermined the traditional relationship between the profession and the academy," said Neil Frankel, FAIA, executive vice president of Perkins & Will, a multinational firm with offices in New York, Chicago, Washington, and London. "Historically, until the advent of the computer, the profession said, 'Okay, go to school, then we in the profession will teach you what the real world is like.' With the coming of the computer, the profession needed a skill that students had, and has left behind the other responsibilities." One intern told us she had been stuck for months doing relatively menial tasks such as toilet elevations. Another intern at a medium-sized firm told us he had been working sixty to seventy hours per week for a year and a half. "Then my wife had a baby and I 'slacked off' to fifty hours. The partner called me in and I got called on the carpet for not working hard enough." "The whole process of internship is being outmoded by economics," one frustrated intern told us. "There's not the time or the money. There's no conception of people being groomed for careers. The younger staff are chosen for their value as productive workers." "We just don't have the best structure here to use an intern's abilities to their best," said a Mississippi architect. "The people who come out of school are really problems. I lost patience with one intern who was demanding that I switch him to another section so that he could learn what he needed for his IDP. I told him, 'It's not my job to teach you. You are here to produce.'" What steps might help students gain more satisfying work opportunities, both during and after graduation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e7b8
authors Dahl, Veronica
year 1983
title Logic Programming as a Representation of Knowledge
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 106-110 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic has traditionally provided a firm conceptual framework for representing knowledge. As it can formally deal with the notion of logical consequence, the introduction of Prolog has made it possible to represent knowledge in terms of logic and also to expect appropriate inferences to be drawn from it automatically. This article illustrates and explores these ideas with respect to two central representational issues: problem solving knowledge and database knowledge. The technical aspects of both subjects have been covered elsewhere (Kowalski, R. Logic for problem solving, North- Holland pub. 1979 ; Dahl, V. on database system development through logic ACM Trans.vol.7/no.3/Mar.1982 pp.102). This explanation uses simple, nontechnical terms
keywords PROLOG, knowledge, representation, logic, programming, problem solving, database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 6b93
authors Faux, I. D. and Pratt, M.J.
year 1979
title Computational Geometry for Design and Manufacture
source 331 p. : ill Chichester, England: Ellis Horwood Limited., 1979. includes bibliography: p. 315-326 and index -- (Mathematics & and its Applications series)
summary Focusing on the mathematical techniques for the representation, analysis and synthesis of 'shape information' by computers. There is a discussion of splines and related means for defining composite curves and 'patched' surfaces, and coverage of both parametric and non-parametric techniques. The book is primarily concerned with the mathematics of the various methods. A good introductory text to surface modeling
keywords computational geometry, curves, curved surfaces, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8e4d
authors Hartley, P.J. and Judd, C.J.
year 1979
title Curve and Surface Representations for Bezier B-spline Systems
source 1979? pp. 226- 236 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The Bezier approach to the computer-aided design of surfaces, using interactive design of curves to construct surface sections, can be implemented using spline curves just as well as the original polynomial curves, and with some advantages. In the paper, some problems are considered that arise when a Bezier system is formulated and describe possible solutions for a spline-based system
keywords curves, representation, CAD, curved surfaces, B-splines, Bezier,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4966
authors Kaplan, Michael and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1979
title Parallel Processing Techniques for Hidden Surface Removal
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 300-307 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Previous work in the hidden-surface problem has revealed two key concepts. First, the removal of non-visible surfaces is essentially a sorting problem. Second, some form of coherence is essential for the efficient solution of this problem. In order to provide real-time simulations, it is not only the amount of sorting which must be reduced, but the total time required for computation. One potentially economic strategy to attain this goal is the use of parallel processor systems. This approach implies that the computational time will no longer be dependent on the total amount of sorting, but more on the appropriate division of responsibility. This paper investigates two existing algorithmic approaches to the hidden-surface problem with a view towards their applicability to implementation on a parallel machine organization. In particular, the statistical results of a parallel processor implementation indicate the difficulties stemming from a loss of coherence and imply potentially important design criteria for a parallel configuration
keywords computer graphics, rendering, display, hidden surfaces, parallel processing, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 81bd
authors Lafue, G.M.E.
year 1979
title Integrating Language and Database for CAD Applications
source Computer Aided Design. IPC Business Press, May, 1979. vol. 11: pp.127-130. includes bibliography
summary This paper focuses on some issues related to the integration of database and programming language concepts and the usefulness of this integration for integrity maintenance. The first section explains why compilation should be independent of the database and presents some consequences of this independence. The second section shows how procedures become integrated parts of the database and serve to implement automatic maintenance of designer-defined integrity by being automatically invoked upon database operations. The third section develops a particular scheme for integrity maintenance with these procedures. Finally, in the fourth section, semantic-integrity is extended to system integrity and it is suggested that the scheme developed in the third section can apply to system integrity
keywords programming, languages, CAD, database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4a66
authors Lane, Jeffrey M. and Carpenter, Edward
year 1979
title A Generalized Scan Line Algorithm for the Computer Display of Parametrically Defined Surfaces
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing Academic Press Inc., 1979. vol. 11: pp. 290-297 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A scan line method is presented for creating shaded pictures of parametrically defined curved surfaces of piecewise continuity class C2. The algorithm uses a new subdivision technique to produce appropriate polygons for smooth shaded pictures. The approach results in smoothly curved silhouettes
keywords curved surfaces, CAD, CAM, computer graphics, display, rendering, visualization, shading, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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