CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id af53
authors Boyer, E. and Mitgang, L.
year 1996
title Building community: a new future for architecture education and practice
source Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching
summary Internships, before and after graduation, are the most essential link connecting students to the world of practice. Yet, by all accounts, internship is perhaps the most troubled phase of the continuing education of architects. During this century, as architectural knowledge grew more complex, the apprenticeship system withered away and schools assumed much of the responsibility for preparing architects for practice. However, schools cannot do the whole job. It is widely acknowledged that certain kinds of technical and practical knowledge are best learned in the workplace itself, under the guidance of experienced professionals. All state accrediting boards require a minimum period of internship-usually about three years-before a person is eligible to take the licensing exam. The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB) allows students to earn up to two years of work credit prior to acquisition of an accredited degree. The Intern Development Program (IDP), launched by NCARB and the American Institute of Architects in 1979, provides the framework for internship in some forty states. The program was designed to assure that interns receive adequate mentoring, that experiences are well-documented, and that employers and interns allocate enough time to a range of educational and vocational experiences to prepare students for eventual licensure. As the IDP Guidelines state, "The shift from school to office is not a transition from theory to pragmatism. It is a period when theory merges with pragmatism.... It's a time when you: apply your formal education to the daily realities of architectural practice; acquire comprehensive experience in basic practice areas; explore specialized areas of practice; develop professional judgment; continue your formal education in architecture; and refine your career goals." Whatever its accomplishments, however, we found broad consensus that the Intern Development Program has not, by itself, solved the problems of internship. Though we found mutually satisfying internship programs at several of the firms we visited or heard about around the country, at many others interns told us they were not receiving the continuing education and experience they needed. The truth is that architecture has serious, unsolved problems compared with other fields when it comes to supplying on-the-job learning experiences to induct students into the profession on a massive scale. Medicine has teaching hospitals. Beginning teachers work in actual classrooms, supported by school taxes. Law offices are, for the most part, in a better financial position to support young lawyers and pay them living wages. The architecture profession, by contrast, must support a required system of internship prior to licensure in an industry that has neither the financial resources of law or medicine, the stability and public support of teaching, nor a network of locations like hospitals or schools where education and practice can be seamlessly connected. And many employers acknowledged those problems. "The profession has all but undermined the traditional relationship between the profession and the academy," said Neil Frankel, FAIA, executive vice president of Perkins & Will, a multinational firm with offices in New York, Chicago, Washington, and London. "Historically, until the advent of the computer, the profession said, 'Okay, go to school, then we in the profession will teach you what the real world is like.' With the coming of the computer, the profession needed a skill that students had, and has left behind the other responsibilities." One intern told us she had been stuck for months doing relatively menial tasks such as toilet elevations. Another intern at a medium-sized firm told us he had been working sixty to seventy hours per week for a year and a half. "Then my wife had a baby and I 'slacked off' to fifty hours. The partner called me in and I got called on the carpet for not working hard enough." "The whole process of internship is being outmoded by economics," one frustrated intern told us. "There's not the time or the money. There's no conception of people being groomed for careers. The younger staff are chosen for their value as productive workers." "We just don't have the best structure here to use an intern's abilities to their best," said a Mississippi architect. "The people who come out of school are really problems. I lost patience with one intern who was demanding that I switch him to another section so that he could learn what he needed for his IDP. I told him, 'It's not my job to teach you. You are here to produce.'" What steps might help students gain more satisfying work opportunities, both during and after graduation?
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2c14
authors Sharji, E.A., Hussain, H. and Ahmad, R.E.
year 2002
title Electronic Gallery : Case Study of A New Design Approach in Malaysia
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 370-373
summary A building comprises of more than the skin and the structural works. It is the soul that comes in the form of SPACE that is intriguing and provokes the mind. To be able to experience a building relies heavily on the spatial concept and internal lay out. How one is captured right from entering the entrance and through the layering of space, of horizontal and vertical planes and finally the euphoria, or depressed feeling that concludes the tour depending on the feeling intended (Miller, 1995). The common norm at present celebrates the outer skin and grandeur of facades. Not many include the hidden grids and fragmentation that can lead to a surprisingly good form AND space. Thus a number of them fail, in the sense of a sensuous building. ‘The circulation path can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a building or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together. Since we move in TIME, through SEQUENCE of SPACES, we experience a space in relation to where we’ve been, and where we anticipate going’ (Ching, 1979). This research intends to study and analyze the unconventional electronic gallery or ‘e-gallery’ as a versatile hybrid container. The focus of the research will be on documenting spaces in the e-gallery, bringing to light the unlimited possibilities that can take place in such a space.
series eCAADe
email elyna.amir@mmu.edu.my
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id sigradi2007_af93
id sigradi2007_af93
authors Sperling, David; Ruy Sardinha
year 2007
title Dislocations of the spatial experience: From earthwork to liquid architecture [Deslocamentos da experiência espacial: De earthwork a arquitetura líquida]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 423-427
summary This article reflects about the contemporary notion of “spatial experience” that can be drawn by means of the emergence of the “expanded field” in arts (Rosalind Krauss, 1979). For a perspective view of this notion and for its problematization in the current time we pretend to stablish a counterpoint between two historic moments related to the expansion of the spatial field and its experience: the 1960´s, with the focus on the immanent space by artistic propositions, and nowadays, with the ocurrence of “fusional fields” of art-architecture-landscape-digital media. We adopt as strategy to construct the question, the approximation of two paradigmatic works for their respective epochs: the “earthwork” Spiral Jetty of Robert Smithson, constructed in 1970 in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) and the ephemeral architecture of Blur Building of Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio, constructed in 2002 in the Lake Neuchatel, for the Suiss Expo (Yverdon-les-Bains – Suiss).
keywords Art; architecture; media; expanded field; spatial experience
series SIGRADI
email sperling@sc.usp.br
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 9d45
authors Ching, F.D.K.
year 1979
title Architecture: Form, Space and Order
source Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York
summary The Second Edition of this classic introduction to the principles of architecture is everything you would expect from the celebrated architect, author, and illustrator, Francis D. K. Ching. Each page has been meticulously revised to incorporate contemporary examples of the principles of form, space, and order-the fundamental vocabulary of every designer. The result is a beautifully illustrated volume that embraces today's forms and looks at conventional models with a fresh perspective. Here, Ching examines every principal of architecture, juxtaposing images that span centuries and cross cultural boundaries to create a design vocabulary that is both elemental and timeless. Among the topics covered are point, line, plane, volume, proportion, scale, circulation, and the interdependence of form and space. While this revision continues to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, it has been refined to amplify and clarify concepts. In addition, the Second Edition contains: * Numerous new hand-rendered drawings * Expanded sections on openings and scale * Expanded chapter on design principles * New glossary and index categorized by the author * New 8 1/2 ? 11 upright trim In the Second Edition of Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, the author has opted for a larger format and crisper images. Mr. Ching has retained the style of his hand-lettered text, a hallmark of each of his books. This rich source of architectural prototypes, each rendered in Mr. Ching's signature style, also serves as a guide to architectural drawing. Doubtless, many will want this handsome volume for the sheer beauty of it. Architects and students alike will treasure this book for its wealth of practical information and its precise illustrations. Mr. Ching has once again created a visual reference that illuminates the world of architectural form.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c9bf
authors Gross, Jonathan L. and Rosen, Ronald H.
year 1979
title A Linear Time Planarity Algorithm for 2-Complexes
source Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. October, 1979. vol. 26: pp. 611-617 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A linear time algorithm to decide whether a given finite 2- complex is planar is described. Topological results of Gross, Harary and Rosen are the mathematical basis for the algorithm. Optimal running time is achieved by constructing various lists simultaneously and keeping their orderings compatible. If the complex is simplical with p vertices, then the algorithm has O(p) time and space bounds. The algorithm uses depth-first search both in application of the graph planarity algorithm of Hopcroft and Tarjan and elsewhere
keywords algorithms, complexity, depth-first, search, topology, graphs, computational geometry,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a4cc
authors Hunter, Gregory M. and Steiglitz, Kenneth
year 1979
title Operations on Images Using Quad Trees
source IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. April, 1979. vol. PAMI-1: pp. 145-153 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A quad tree for representing a picture is a tree in which successively deeper levels represent successively finer subdivisions of picture area. An algorithm is given for superposing N quad trees in time proportional to the total number of nodes in the trees. Warnock-type algorithms are then presented for building the quad tree for the picture of the boundary of a polygon, and for coloring the interior of such a polygon. These algorithms take O(v + p + q) time, where v is the number of polygon vertices, p is the polygon perimeter, and q is a resolution parameter. When the resolution q is fixed, these algorithms are asymptotically optimal
keywords GIS, mapping, CAD, layout, pattern recognition, polyhedra, quadtree, planning, image processing, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
email lnk@email.psu.edu
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id 8023
authors Lang, M.S., Cohen, R.L. and Eschenberg, K.E. (et al)
year 1979
title Implementation of An Interactive Computer Graphics Environment at NASA/JSC
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 246-252 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The implementation of visually-oriented software for graphics support on the high-performance computer graphics hardware at NASA's Johnson Space Center is the latest step in the evolution of an interactive computer applications technology being developed by the Computer Graphics Group at The Applied Research Laboratory of Penn State University. This technology is designed to aid the typical scientist or engineer in learning and using computer graphics productively, including writing his own programs and interfacing to software specialists who will write and maintain his programs. Key aspects of the current development include the creation and incorporation of a visually-oriented learning package for graphics geometric perception and graphics programming, as well as a sophisticated control environment which aides the user in obtaining a quick understanding of and access to the system. Preliminary results indicate that this software support can substantially reduce the start-up time for a novice graphics user with some background in Fortran
keywords computer graphics, user interface, software, learning, programming, control, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2016_113
id ecaade2016_113
authors Poinet, Paul, Baharlou, Ehsan, Schwinn, Tobias and Menges, Achim
year 2016
title Adaptive Pneumatic Shell Structures - Feedback-driven robotic stiffening of inflated extensible membranes and further rigidification for architectural applications
source Herneoja, Aulikki; Toni Österlund and Piia Markkanen (eds.), Complexity & Simplicity - Proceedings of the 34th eCAADe Conference - Volume 1, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 22-26 August 2016, pp. 549-558
summary The paper presents the development of a design framework that aims to reduce the complexity of designing and fabricating free-form inflatables structures, which often results in the generation of very complex geometries. In previous research the form-finding potential of actuated and constrained inflatable membranes has already been investigated however without a focus on fabrication (Otto 1979). Consequently, in established design-to-fabrication approaches, complex geometry is typically post-rationalized into smaller parts and are finally fabricated through methods, which need to take into account cutting pattern strategies and material constraints. The design framework developed and presented in this paper aims to transform a complex design process (that always requires further post-rationalization) into a more integrated one that simultaneously unfolds in a physical and digital environment - hence the term cyber-physical (Menges 2015). At a full scale, a flexible material (extensible membrane, e.g. latex) is actuated through inflation and modulated through additive stiffening processes, before being completely rigidified with glass fibers and working as a thin-shell under compression.
wos WOS:000402063700060
keywords pneumatic systems; robotic fabrication; feedback strategy; cyber-physical; scanning processes
series eCAADe
email paul.poinet@kadk.dk
last changed 2017/06/28 08:46

_id ea14
authors Anson, Ed
year 1979
title The Semantics of Graphical Input
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 113- 120. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes the semantics of action, an approach to describing input devices which allow the full utilization of all useful device characteristics and provides a high degree of hardware device independence. Part one discusses the semantics of graphical input device. The second shows how to create hierarchies of devices which provide a large measure of hardware independence. The third part applies these concepts to some typical problems, to demonstrate their completeness
keywords computer graphics, user interface, semantics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id f42f
authors Baer, A., Eastman, C. and Henrion, M.
year 1979
title Geometric modeling: a survey
source Computer Aided Design; 11: 253
summary Computer programs are being developed to aid the design of physical systems ranging from individual mechanical parts to entire buildings or ships. These efforts highlight the importance of computer models of three dimensional objects. Issues and alternatives in geometric modelling are discussed and illustrated with comparisons of 11 existing modelling systems, in particular coherently-structured models of polyhedral solids where the faces may be either planar or curved. Four categories of representation are distinguished: data representations that store full, explicit shape information; definition languages with which the user can enter descriptions of shapes into the system, and which can constitute procedural representations; special subsets of the information produced by application programs; and conceptual models that define the logical structure of the data representation and/or definition language.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 60d4
authors Baer, A., Eastman, C.M. and Henrion, M.
year 1979
title Geometric Modeling : a Survey
source business Press. September, 1979. vol. 11: pp. 253-271 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Computer programs are being developed to aid the design of physical systems ranging from individual mechanical parts to entire buildings or ships. These efforts highlight the importance of computer models of three dimensional objects. Issues and alternatives in geometric modeling are discussed and illustrated with comparisons of 11 existing modelling systems, in particular coherently-structured models of polyhedral solids where the faces may be either planar or curved. Four categories of representation are distinguished: data representations that store full, explicit shape information; definition languages with which the user can enter description of shapes into the system, and which can constitute procedural representations; special subsets of the information produced by application programs; and conceptual models that define the logical structure of the dada representation and/or definition language
keywords solid modeling, B-rep, CSG, languages, CAD, programming, data structures, boolean operations, polyhedra
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id caadria2018_033
id caadria2018_033
authors Bai, Nan and Huang, Weixin
year 2018
title Quantitative Analysis on Architects Using Culturomics - Pattern Study of Prizker Winners Based on Google N-gram Data
source T. Fukuda, W. Huang, P. Janssen, K. Crolla, S. Alhadidi (eds.), Learning, Adapting and Prototyping - Proceedings of the 23rd CAADRIA Conference - Volume 2, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 17-19 May 2018, pp. 257-266
summary Quantitative studies using the corpus Google Ngram, namely Culturomics, have been analyzing the implicit patterns of culture changes. Being the top-standard prize in the field of Architecture since 1979, the Pritzker Prize has been increasingly diversified in the recent years. This study intends to reveal the implicit pattern of Pritzker Winners using the method of Culturomics, based on the corpus of Google Ngram to reveal the relationship of the sign of their fame and the fact of prize-winning. 48 architects including 32 awarded and 16 promising are analyzed in the printed corpus of English language between 1900 and 2008. Multiple regression models and multiple imputation methods are used during the data processing. Self-Organizing Map is used to define clusters among the awarded and promising architects. Six main clusters are detected, forming a 3×2 network of fame patterns. Most promising architects can be told from the clustering, according to their similarity to the more typical prize winners. The method of Culturomics could expand the sight of architecture study, giving more possibilities to reveal the implicit patterns of the existing empirical world.
keywords Culturomics; Google Ngram; Pritzker Prize; Fame Pattern; Self-Organizing Map
series CAADRIA
email bn16@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn
last changed 2018/05/17 07:08

_id fcd6
authors Berger, S.R.
year 1979
title Artificial Intelligence and its impact on Coimputer-Aided Design
source Design Studies, vol 1, no. 3
summary This paper provides, for readers unfamiliar with the field, an introductory account of research which has been carried out in artificial intelligence. It attempts to distingussh between an artificial intelligence and a conventional computing approach and to assess the future influence of the former on computer-aided design.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6733
authors Bettels, Juergen and Myers, David R.
year 1986
title The PIONS Graphics System
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 30-38 : col. ill. includes a short bibliography
summary During 1979, CERN began to evaluate how interactive computer graphics displays could aid the analysis of high-energy physics experiments at the new Super Proton Synchrotron collider. This work led to PIONS, a 3D graphics system, which features the ability to store and view hierarchical graphics structures in a directed-acyclic-graph database. It is possible to change the attributes of these structures by making selections on nongraphical information also stored in the database. PIONS is implemented as an object-oriented message-passing system based on SmallTalk design principles. It supports multiple viewing transformations, logical input devices, and 2D and 3D primitives. The design allows full use to be made of display hardware that provides dynamic 3D picture transformation
keywords visualization, computer graphics, database, systems, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 819a
authors Brassel, Kurt E. and Fegeas, Robin
year 1979
title An Algorithm for Shading of Regions on Vector Display Devices
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 126- 133 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The display of shaded polygons by line, cross-hatch, and dot patterns on vector devices is a task frequently used in computer graphics and computer cartography. In applications such as the production of shaded maps polygon shading turns out to be critical with respect to time requirements, and the development of efficient algorithms is of importance. Given an arbitrary polygon in the plane without self-crossing edges (simply-connected polygon), the task at hand is to shade this polygon with one or two sets of parallel lines where for each set a shading angle and a line distance are given. The basic concept of this new algorithm is to decompose the polygon into a set of mutually exclusive trapezoids (in special cases triangles) where the parallel edges of the trioxides are parallel to the desired shading lines. These trapezoids and triangles are then shaded in a fast procedure. In its present form the algorithm handles regions with up to 300 islands. Possible extensions include the construction of dash and cross patterns
keywords algorithms, polygons, software, computer graphics, shading, GIS, mapping, drafting, information
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6d0b
authors Brown, Bruce Eric
year 1979
title Computer Graphics for Large Scale Two- and Three-Dimensional Analysis of Complex Geometries
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 33-40 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A comprehensive set of programs have been developed for analysis of complex two- and three- dimensional geometries. State of the art finite element and hydrodynamic codes are being used for the analytical portion of the work. Several additional codes depending heavily on graphics have been developed to assist the analytical effort. These are basically used for the pre- and post-processing of the data. Prior to running any analysis, the geometry of the body of interest must be represented in the form of small 'finite elements.' After the analysis is run, the data must be post-processed. Both spatial and temporal data exist in the database. It is the database between the analysis codes and the post- processors which allows a wide variety of analysis codes to use the same post-processors. The temporal plotting codes produce time histories for specified quantities (i.e. temperature, pressure, velocity, stress, etc.) at various locations within the body. They may also produce cross-plots of these variables (i.e. stress vs. strain at a particular position). One of the two codes used for plotting of the spatial data is for two-dimensional geometries and the other for three-dimensional models. For three dimensions, the Watkins' hidden surface / line processor is utilized for plots. The spatial plotters display contour lines on vector output devices and color fringes (or gray values) on raster output devices. They both may also display deformed geometries. Further the three-dimensional code has extensive animation capabilities for movie productions
keywords computer graphics, finite elements, modeling, engineering, database, animation, mechanical engineering
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4eb9
authors Brown, Kevin Q.
year 1979
title Dynamic Programming in Computer Science
source 44 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Department of Computer Science, CMU, February, 1979. CMU-CS-79-106. Includes bibliography
summary This paper is a survey of dynamic programming algorithms for problems in computer science. For each of the problems the author derives the functional equations and provides numerous references to related results. For many of the problems a dynamic programming algorithm is explicitly given. In addition, the author presents several new problems and results
keywords algorithms, problem solving, dynamic programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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