CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 13 of 13

_id 00f3
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1979
title Generating the Underlying Graphs for Architectural Arrangements
source 10 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: School of Urban and Public Affairs, Carnegie Mellon University, April, 1979. Research report No.79. Includes bibliography
summary The mathematical correspondence to a floorplan is a Metric Planar Graph. Several methods for systematic direct generation of metric planar graphs have been developed including polyominoes, March and Matela and shape grammars. Another approach has been to develop a spatial composition in two separate steps. The first step involves discrete variables, and consists of enumerating a defined set of non-metric planar graphs. The second step involves spatial dimensions, e.g. continuous variables, and maps the graphs onto the Euclidean plane, from which a satisfactory or optimal one is selected. This paper focusses on the latter 2-step process. It presents a general method of solving the first step, that is the exhaustive enumeration of a set of planar graphs. The paper consists of three sections: The first section is an introduction to graph theory. The second section presents the generation of maximal planar graphs. The last section summarizes the presentation and comments on the appropriateness of the method
keywords graphs, floor plans, architecture, design, automation, space allocation
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c584
authors Gerzso, Miguel J.
year 1979
title Spacemaker : A Computer Language for Modelling Architectural Physical Form
source Application of Computers in Architecture, Building Design and Urban Planning, International Conference Proceedings. 1979. pp. 573-582 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper describes a modeling technique of architectural form. The technique is divided into two parts. A diagrammatic production system and a computer language. The production notation serves as a representation of underlying organization of building groups. The computer language -- SPACEMAKER -- facilitates the coding of such rules for computer programming. The particular version of the diagrammatic production system as presented first began by attempting to apply two picture grammars to architectural problems. The first effort was based on PDL developed by Allen Shaw and was called SNARQ I and the second one grew out of work done by Yun-chung Cho and was called SNARQ II. A few years later, these notations evolved into the notation presented after adapting ideas from A. Lindenmeyer. Numerous models of architectural systems were then constructed
keywords architecture, languages, modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss2006-hb-187
id DDSS2006-HB-187
authors Lidia Diappi and Paola Bolchi
year 2006
title Gentrification Waves in the Inner-City of Milan - A multi agent / cellular automata model based on Smith's Rent Gap theory
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) 2006, Innovations in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Springer, ISBN-10: 1-4020-5059-3, ISBN-13: 978-1-4020-5059-6, p. 187-201
summary The aim of this paper is to investigate the gentrification process by applying an urban spatial model of gentrification, based on Smith's (1979; 1987; 1996) Rent Gap theory. The rich sociological literature on the topic mainly assumes gentrification to be a cultural phenomenon, namely the result of a demand pressure of the suburban middle and upper class, willing to return to the city (Ley, 1980; Lipton, 1977, May, 1996). Little attempt has been made to investigate and build a sound economic explanation on the causes of the process. The Rent Gap theory (RGT) of Neil Smith still represents an important contribution in this direction. At the heart of Smith's argument there is the assumption that gentrification takes place because capitals return to the inner city, creating opportunities for residential relocation and profit. This paper illustrates a dynamic model of Smith's theory through a multi-agent/ cellular automata system approach (Batty, 2005) developed on a Netlogo platform. A set of behavioural rules for each agent involved (homeowner, landlord, tenant and developer, and the passive 'dwelling' agent with their rent and level of decay) are formalised. The simulations show the surge of neighbouring degradation or renovation and population turn over, starting with different initial states of decay and estate rent values. Consistent with a Self Organized Criticality approach, the model shows that non linear interactions at local level may produce different configurations of the system at macro level. This paper represents a further development of a previous version of the model (Diappi, Bolchi, 2005). The model proposed here includes some more realistic factors inspired by the features of housing market dynamics in the city of Milan. It includes the shape of the potential rent according to city form and functions, the subdivision in areal submarkets according to the current rents, and their maintenance levels. The model has a more realistic visualisation of the city and its form, and is able to show the different dynamics of the emergent neighbourhoods in the last ten years in Milan.
keywords Multi agent systems, Housing market, Gentrification, Emergent systems
series DDSS
last changed 2006/08/29 10:55

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 9d45
authors Ching, F.D.K.
year 1979
title Architecture: Form, Space and Order
source Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York
summary The Second Edition of this classic introduction to the principles of architecture is everything you would expect from the celebrated architect, author, and illustrator, Francis D. K. Ching. Each page has been meticulously revised to incorporate contemporary examples of the principles of form, space, and order-the fundamental vocabulary of every designer. The result is a beautifully illustrated volume that embraces today's forms and looks at conventional models with a fresh perspective. Here, Ching examines every principal of architecture, juxtaposing images that span centuries and cross cultural boundaries to create a design vocabulary that is both elemental and timeless. Among the topics covered are point, line, plane, volume, proportion, scale, circulation, and the interdependence of form and space. While this revision continues to be a comprehensive primer on the ways form and space are interrelated and organized in the shaping of our environment, it has been refined to amplify and clarify concepts. In addition, the Second Edition contains: * Numerous new hand-rendered drawings * Expanded sections on openings and scale * Expanded chapter on design principles * New glossary and index categorized by the author * New 8 1/2 ? 11 upright trim In the Second Edition of Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, the author has opted for a larger format and crisper images. Mr. Ching has retained the style of his hand-lettered text, a hallmark of each of his books. This rich source of architectural prototypes, each rendered in Mr. Ching's signature style, also serves as a guide to architectural drawing. Doubtless, many will want this handsome volume for the sheer beauty of it. Architects and students alike will treasure this book for its wealth of practical information and its precise illustrations. Mr. Ching has once again created a visual reference that illuminates the world of architectural form.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id c9bf
authors Gross, Jonathan L. and Rosen, Ronald H.
year 1979
title A Linear Time Planarity Algorithm for 2-Complexes
source Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. October, 1979. vol. 26: pp. 611-617 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A linear time algorithm to decide whether a given finite 2- complex is planar is described. Topological results of Gross, Harary and Rosen are the mathematical basis for the algorithm. Optimal running time is achieved by constructing various lists simultaneously and keeping their orderings compatible. If the complex is simplical with p vertices, then the algorithm has O(p) time and space bounds. The algorithm uses depth-first search both in application of the graph planarity algorithm of Hopcroft and Tarjan and elsewhere
keywords algorithms, complexity, depth-first, search, topology, graphs, computational geometry,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2ccd
authors Kalisperis, Loukas N.
year 1994
title 3D Visualization in Design Education
source Reconnecting [ACADIA Conference Proceedings / ISBN 1-880250-03-9] Washington University (Saint Louis / USA) 1994, pp. 177-184
summary It has been said that "The beginning of architecture is empty space." (Mitchell 1990) This statement typifies a design education philosophy in which the concepts of space and form are separated and defined respectively as the negative and positive of the physical world, a world where solid objects exist and void-the mere absence of substance-is a surrounding atmospheric emptiness. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, there has been an alternative concept of space as a continuum: that there is a continuously modified surface between the pressures of form and space in which the shape of the space in our lungs is directly connected to the shape of the space within which we exist. (Porter 1979). The nature of the task of representing architecture alters to reflect the state of architectural understanding at each period of time. The construction of architectural space and form represents a fundamental achievement of humans in their environment and has always involved effort and materials requiring careful planning, preparation, and forethought. In architecture there is a necessary conversion to that which is habitable, experiential, and functional from an abstraction in an entirely different medium. It is often an imperfect procedure that centers on the translation rather than the actual design. Design of the built environment is an art of distinctions within the continuum of space, for example: between solid and void, interior and exterior, light and dark, or warm and cold. It is concerned with the physical organization and articulation of space. The amount and shape of the void contained and generated by the building create the fabric and substance of the built environment. Architecture as a design discipline, therefore, can be considered as a creative expression of the coexistence of form and space on a human scale. As Frank Ching writes in Architecture: Form, Space, and Order, "These elements of form and space are the critical means of architecture. While the utilitarian concerns of function and use can be relatively short lived, and symbolic interpretations can vary from age to age, these primary elements of form and space comprise timeless and fundamental vocabulary of the architectural designer." (1979)

series ACADIA
last changed 2000/03/13 19:27

_id 8023
authors Lang, M.S., Cohen, R.L. and Eschenberg, K.E. (et al)
year 1979
title Implementation of An Interactive Computer Graphics Environment at NASA/JSC
source SIGGRAPH '79 Conference Proceedings. August, 1979. vol. 13 ; no. 2: pp. 246-252 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The implementation of visually-oriented software for graphics support on the high-performance computer graphics hardware at NASA's Johnson Space Center is the latest step in the evolution of an interactive computer applications technology being developed by the Computer Graphics Group at The Applied Research Laboratory of Penn State University. This technology is designed to aid the typical scientist or engineer in learning and using computer graphics productively, including writing his own programs and interfacing to software specialists who will write and maintain his programs. Key aspects of the current development include the creation and incorporation of a visually-oriented learning package for graphics geometric perception and graphics programming, as well as a sophisticated control environment which aides the user in obtaining a quick understanding of and access to the system. Preliminary results indicate that this software support can substantially reduce the start-up time for a novice graphics user with some background in Fortran
keywords computer graphics, user interface, software, learning, programming, control, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id dfb3
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1979
title A Time-Space Odyssey
source Chapter in Building Conversion and Rehabilitation, (Ed: T Markus) Newnes-Butterworth
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 2c14
authors Sharji, E.A., Hussain, H. and Ahmad, R.E.
year 2002
title Electronic Gallery : Case Study of A New Design Approach in Malaysia
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 370-373
summary A building comprises of more than the skin and the structural works. It is the soul that comes in the form of SPACE that is intriguing and provokes the mind. To be able to experience a building relies heavily on the spatial concept and internal lay out. How one is captured right from entering the entrance and through the layering of space, of horizontal and vertical planes and finally the euphoria, or depressed feeling that concludes the tour depending on the feeling intended (Miller, 1995). The common norm at present celebrates the outer skin and grandeur of facades. Not many include the hidden grids and fragmentation that can lead to a surprisingly good form AND space. Thus a number of them fail, in the sense of a sensuous building. ‘The circulation path can be conceived as the perceptual thread that links the spaces of a building or any series of interior or exterior spaces, together. Since we move in TIME, through SEQUENCE of SPACES, we experience a space in relation to where we’ve been, and where we anticipate going’ (Ching, 1979). This research intends to study and analyze the unconventional electronic gallery or ‘e-gallery’ as a versatile hybrid container. The focus of the research will be on documenting spaces in the e-gallery, bringing to light the unlimited possibilities that can take place in such a space.
series eCAADe
last changed 2002/09/09 17:19

_id sigradi2007_af93
id sigradi2007_af93
authors Sperling, David; Ruy Sardinha
year 2007
title Dislocations of the spatial experience: From earthwork to liquid architecture [Deslocamentos da experiência espacial: De earthwork a arquitetura líquida]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 423-427
summary This article reflects about the contemporary notion of “spatial experience” that can be drawn by means of the emergence of the “expanded field” in arts (Rosalind Krauss, 1979). For a perspective view of this notion and for its problematization in the current time we pretend to stablish a counterpoint between two historic moments related to the expansion of the spatial field and its experience: the 1960´s, with the focus on the immanent space by artistic propositions, and nowadays, with the ocurrence of “fusional fields” of art-architecture-landscape-digital media. We adopt as strategy to construct the question, the approximation of two paradigmatic works for their respective epochs: the “earthwork” Spiral Jetty of Robert Smithson, constructed in 1970 in the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA) and the ephemeral architecture of Blur Building of Elizabeth Diller and Ricardo Scofidio, constructed in 2002 in the Lake Neuchatel, for the Suiss Expo (Yverdon-les-Bains – Suiss).
keywords Art; architecture; media; expanded field; spatial experience
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 09:01

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