CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0830
authors Ball, A. A.
year 1980
title How to Make the Bicubic Patch Work Using Reparametrisation
source 1980 ? 11 p. includes bibliography
summary This paper comprises a series of examples in numerical surface definition, loosely strung together, to show the practical limitations of the bicubic patch and how they can be overcome by reparametrisation. The concept of reparametrisation is more general than that used in computer- aided geometric design insofar as the reparametrisation is modeled in addition to the basic parametric equation
keywords CAD, computational geometry, curved surfaces, parametrization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p170
id cf2011_p170
authors Barros, Mário; Duarte José, Chaparro Bruno
year 2011
title Thonet Chairs Design Grammar: a Step Towards the Mass Customization of Furniture
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 181-200.
summary The paper presents the first phase of research currently under development that is focused on encoding Thonet design style into a generative design system using a shape grammar. The ultimate goal of the work is the design and production of customizable chairs using computer assisted tools, establishing a feasible practical model of the paradigm of mass customization (Davis, 1987). The current research step encompasses the following three steps: (1) codification of the rules describing Thonet design style into a shape grammar; (2) implementing the grammar into a computer tool as parametric design; and (3) rapid prototyping of customized chair designs within the style. Future phases will address the transformation of the Thonet’s grammar to create a new style and the production of real chair designs in this style using computer aided manufacturing. Beginning in the 1830’s, Austrian furniture designer Michael Thonet began experimenting with forming steam beech, in order to produce lighter furniture using fewer components, when compared with the standards of the time. Using the same construction principles and standardized elements, Thonet produced different chairs designs with a strong formal resemblance, creating his own design language. The kit assembly principle, the reduced number of elements, industrial efficiency, and the modular approach to furniture design as a system of interchangeable elements that may be used to assemble different objects enable him to become a pioneer of mass production (Noblet, 1993). The most paradigmatic example of the described vision of furniture design is the chair No. 14 produced in 1858, composed of six structural elements. Due to its simplicity, lightness, ability to be stored in flat and cubic packaging for individual of collective transportation, respectively, No. 14 became one of the most sold chairs worldwide, and it is still in production nowadays. Iconic examples of mass production are formally studied to provide insights to mass customization studies. The study of the shape grammar for the generation of Thonet chairs aimed to ensure rules that would make possible the reproduction of the selected corpus, as well as allow for the generation of new chairs within the developed grammar. Due to the wide variety of Thonet chairs, six chairs were randomly chosen to infer the grammar and then this was fine tuned by checking whether it could account for the generation of other designs not in the original corpus. Shape grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1972) have been used with sucesss both in the analysis as in the synthesis of designs at different scales, from product design to building and urban design. In particular, the use of shape grammars has been efficient in the characterization of objects’ styles and in the generation of new designs within the analyzed style, and it makes design rules amenable to computers implementation (Duarte, 2005). The literature includes one other example of a grammar for chair design by Knight (1980). In the second step of the current research phase, the outlined shape grammar was implemented into a computer program, to assist the designer in conceiving and producing customized chairs using a digital design process. This implementation was developed in Catia by converting the grammar into an equivalent parametric design model. In the third phase, physical models of existing and new chair designs were produced using rapid prototyping. The paper describes the grammar, its computer implementation as a parametric model, and the rapid prototyping of physical models. The generative potential of the proposed digital process is discussed in the context of enabling the mass customization of furniture. The role of the furniture designer in the new paradigm and ideas for further work also are discussed.
keywords Thonet; furniture design; chair; digital design process; parametric design; shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 2fdd
authors Barsky, Brian A. and Thomas, Spencer W.
year 1980
title Transpline Curve Representation System
source April, 1980. 19 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An interactive curve representation system has been developed based on the concept of transforming among several parametric spline curve formulations. The available formulations are the interpolatory spline, uniform B-spline, spline under tension, and NU-spline. The system implementation is described in the context of a sample design session
keywords computational geometry, curves, representation, splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a24e
authors Barstow, David R.
year 1980
title Knowledge Based Program Construction
source The Computer Science Library, 34 p.
summary Some aspects of the implementation of the reachability algorithm are presented.
keywords Knowledge Base, Programming, Graphs, LISP
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 13:58

_id 8629
authors Barzilay, Amos
year 1980
title Human Problem Solving on Master Mind
source Carnegie Mellon University
summary The purpose of this work is to analyze the task of playing Master Mind and to examine subjects behaviors on solving that task. The methods and the ideas that are used in the work are the same found in the references for other tasks. The author wants to show that those ideas and methods can be used for that specific task as well. In other words, subjects behave in such a domain as an information processing system. [includes bibliography]
keywords Psychology, Problem Solving
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:10

_id e825
authors Baybars, Ilker and Eastman, Charles M.
year 1980
title Enumerating Architectural Arrangements by Generating Their Underlying Graphs
source Environment and Planning B. 1980. vol. 7: pp. 289- 310 : ill. includes bibliography. -- See also 'Enumerating Architectural Arrangements: Comment on a Recent Paper by Baybars and Eastman' by C.F. Earl
summary One mathematical correspondence to the partitioning of the plane is a Weighted Plane Graph (WPG). This paper first focuses on the systematic generation of WPGs, in a fashion similar to crystal growth. During this process, the WPGs are represented by adjacency matrices. The authors, thus, present a method for embedding the WPG in the plane, given its adjacency matrix. These graphs can, then, be mapped into floor plans. The common practice here is the use of the `geometric dual' of a WPG. The authors propose, instead, the use of the `Pseudogeometric dual' of a WPG directly to translate (part of) a design brief into alternative spatial layouts. Also discussed is the ability to create courtyards and/or circulation spaces given a specific WPG, without increasing the size of the problem
keywords enumeration, architecture, floor plans, graphs, design process, automation, algorithms, space allocation, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id cf2011_p127
id cf2011_p127
authors Benros, Deborah; Granadeiro Vasco, Duarte Jose, Knight Terry
year 2011
title Integrated Design and Building System for the Provision of Customized Housing: the Case of Post-Earthquake Haiti
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 247-264.
summary The paper proposes integrated design and building systems for the provision of sustainable customized housing. It advances previous work by applying a methodology to generate these systems from vernacular precedents. The methodology is based on the use of shape grammars to derive and encode a contemporary system from the precedents. The combined set of rules can be applied to generate housing solutions tailored to specific user and site contexts. The provision of housing to shelter the population affected by the 2010 Haiti earthquake illustrates the application of the methodology. A computer implementation is currently under development in C# using the BIM platform provided by Revit. The world experiences a sharp increase in population and a strong urbanization process. These phenomena call for the development of effective means to solve the resulting housing deficit. The response of the informal sector to the problem, which relies mainly on handcrafted processes, has resulted in an increase of urban slums in many of the big cities, which lack sanitary and spatial conditions. The formal sector has produced monotonous environments based on the idea of mass production that one size fits all, which fails to meet individual and cultural needs. We propose an alternative approach in which mass customization is used to produce planed environments that possess qualities found in historical settlements. Mass customization, a new paradigm emerging due to the technological developments of the last decades, combines the economy of scale of mass production and the aesthetics and functional qualities of customization. Mass customization of housing is defined as the provision of houses that respond to the context in which they are built. The conceptual model for the mass customization of housing used departs from the idea of a housing type, which is the combined result of three systems (Habraken, 1988) -- spatial, building system, and stylistic -- and it includes a design system, a production system, and a computer system (Duarte, 2001). In previous work, this conceptual model was tested by developing a computer system for existing design and building systems (Benr__s and Duarte, 2009). The current work advances it by developing new and original design, building, and computer systems for a particular context. The urgent need to build fast in the aftermath of catastrophes quite often overrides any cultural concerns. As a result, the shelters provided in such circumstances are indistinct and impersonal. However, taking individual and cultural aspects into account might lead to a better identification of the population with their new environment, thereby minimizing the rupture caused in their lives. As the methodology to develop new housing systems is based on the idea of architectural precedents, choosing existing vernacular housing as a precedent permits the incorporation of cultural aspects and facilitates an identification of people with the new housing. In the Haiti case study, we chose as a precedent a housetype called “gingerbread houses”, which includes a wide range of houses from wealthy to very humble ones. Although the proposed design system was inspired by these houses, it was decided to adopt a contemporary take. The methodology to devise the new type was based on two ideas: precedents and transformations in design. In architecture, the use of precedents provides designers with typical solutions for particular problems and it constitutes a departing point for a new design. In our case, the precedent is an existing housetype. It has been shown (Duarte, 2001) that a particular housetype can be encoded by a shape grammar (Stiny, 1980) forming a design system. Studies in shape grammars have shown that the evolution of one style into another can be described as the transformation of one shape grammar into another (Knight, 1994). The used methodology departs takes off from these ideas and it comprises the following steps (Duarte, 2008): (1) Selection of precedents, (2) Derivation of an archetype; (3) Listing of rules; (4) Derivation of designs; (5) Cataloguing of solutions; (6) Derivation of tailored solution.
keywords Mass customization, Housing, Building system, Sustainable construction, Life cycle energy consumption, Shape grammar
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8a27
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Carruthers, Wendy
year 1980
title Algorithms for Testing the Inclusion of Points in Polygons
source Allertorn Conference on Communication, Control and Computing (18th : 1980). (10) p. includes bibliography
summary Determining whether a given point lies inside or outside a simple polygon is an important problem in many applications, including computer vision systems and computer-assisted political redistricting systems. In this paper the authors give algorithms for inclusion problems that are efficient for polygons that are 'close to convex' in a certain precise sense. An empirical study of polygons that arise in several applications shows that typical polygons are indeed 'close to convex,' and a program implementing the algorithm shows that is extremely efficient on point sets of practical sizes
keywords point inclusion, polygons, algorithms, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 241c
authors Boehm, Wolfgang
year 1980
title Inserting New Knots into B-spline Curves
source IPC Business Press. July, 1980. vol. 12: pp. 199-201 : ill. includes bibliography
summary For some applications, further subdivision of a segment of a B-spline curve or B-spline surface is desirable. This paper provides an algorithm for this. The structure is similar to de Boor's algorithm for the calculation of a point on a curve. An application of the subdivision is illustrated
keywords algorithms, B-splines, curves, curved surfaces
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4580
authors Borgerson, B. R. and Johnson, Robert H.
year 1980
title Beyond CAD to Computer Aided Engineering
source (8) p. : ill. Manufacturing Data Systems Incorporated, 1980? includes bibliography
summary Current CAD systems significantly aid the drafting function and many provide some aid to selected design activities. For the development of mechanical systems, much more can be done. Future systems will aid the interactive engineering process of design, analysis, control, documentation, and manufacturing engineering. Computer based systems which address this broader spectrum of engineering activities are referred to as `Computer Aided Engineering,' or `CAE,' systems. CAE systems will use volumetric techniques to create and evaluate the individual components of a machine design in conjunction with data base management schemas to support the interrelationships of the components of machines. This paper focuses on computer assistance to the engineering of mechanical systems
keywords mechanical engineering, CAE, solid modeling, objects
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0105
authors Bossan, Mario and Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1989
title Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.8.1-9.8.19
summary Didactic and research experience developed at the "Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milano" in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8593
authors Braid, I.C.
year 1980
title Superficial Blends in Geometric Modelling
source 12 p. : ill. February, 1980. Document No. 105. includes bibliography
summary In engineering practice, many blended surfaces are both indicated and manufactured by rounding off a sharp edge. The authors term them `superficial' blends in contrast to `designed' blends for which existing surface techniques are appropriate. The provision of superficial blends in a geometric modeling system is explained, and a method is given for drawing objects containing blended edges
keywords geometric modeling, CAD, representation, solids
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0189
authors Brodlie, K.W. (editor)
year 1980
title Mathematical Methods in Computer Graphics and Design
source xi, 147 p. : ill. New York: Academic Press, 1980. includes subject index
summary Based on the proceeding of the conference on mathematical methods in computer graphics and design, organized by the Institute of Mathematics and Its Applications and held at the university of Leicester on september 28th, 1978
keywords algorithms, geometric modeling, techniques, computer graphics, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cff2
authors Callen, John N.
year 1980
title Man-Machine Interfaces and their Constraints within Interactive CAD
source June, 1980. 18, [16] p. includes bibliography
summary As CAD systems becomes more widely accepted in the design environment, the interaction between the designer and the system as supported by interfaces should be analyzed to insure the most natural means of communication. The purpose of this paper is to present various inherent constraints in users, CAD software/hardware and in the design process so that designers of CAD systems could more clearly recognize these constraints and produce a more suitable interface design
keywords CAD, user interface, design, constraints
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e2a9
authors Carpenter, Loren
year 1980
title Computer Rendering of Fractal Curves and Surfaces
source Computer Graphics: SIGGRAPH Proceedings, Vol 14, no 3 (supplement), July 1980, pp 9-
summary Fractals are a class of highly irregular shapes that have myriad counterparts in the real world, such as islands, river networks, turbulence, and snowflakes. Classic fractals include Brownian paths, Cantor sets, and plane-filling curves. Nearly all fractal sets are of fractional dimension and all are nowhere differentiable. Previously published procedures for calculating fractal curves employ shear displacement processes, modified Markov processes, and inverse Fourier transforms. They are either very expensive or very complex and do not easily generalize to surfaces. This paper presents a family of simple methods for generating and displaying a wide class of fractal curves and surfaces. In so doing, it introduces the concept of statistical subdivision in which a geometric entity is split into smaller entities while preserving certain statistical properties.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e952
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Paoluzzi, Alberto
year 1980
title A Systems Approach to Building Program Planning
source computer Aided Building Design Laboratory Research Report. 80 p. : ill. Rome, Italy: December, 1980. CABD LAB RR. 80-02. includes bibliography
summary In this paper problems of design performance and of building program planning are considered from the view point of the general system theory. After having formalized the concept of requirement, performance and performance specification, it is shown that a set of building objects (spaces and constructive elements) foreseeable within a program is a semilattice, and that therefore the ordering of constructive elements and spaces corresponds to an ordering of relations among feasible 'behaviors.' A set of feasible behaviors is then presented as an abstract system, eventually discussing some assumptions on which to base an input-state-output representation of it
keywords theory, methods, problem solving, architecture, design, knowledge
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a587
authors Cohen, Elaine, Lyche, Tom and Riesenfeld, Richard F.
year 1980
title Discrete B-Splines and Subdivision Techniques in Computer-Aided Geometric Design and Computer Graphics
source computer Graphics and Image Processing. October, 1980. vol. 14: pp. 87- 111 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The relevant theory of discrete B-splines with associated new algorithms is extended to provide a framework for understanding and implementing general subdivision schemes for nonuniform B-splines. The new derived polygon corresponding to an arbitrary refinement of the knot vector for an existing B-spline curve, including multiplicities, is shown to be formed by successive evaluations of the discrete B-spline defined by the original vertices, the original knot vector, and the refined knot vector. Existing subdivision algorithms can be seen as proper special cases. General subdivision has widespread applications in computer-aided geometric design, computer graphics, and numerical analysis. The new algorithms resulting from the new theory lead to a unification of the display model, the analysis model, and other needed models into a single geometric model from which other necessary models are easily derived. New sample algorithms for interference calculation, contouring, surface rendering, and other important calculations are presented
keywords computational geometry, theory, algorithms, computer graphics, B-splines, curved surfaces
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2ddb
authors Davies, R.S.
year 1980
title A Review of Computer Techniques for Representation of Geometry
source 1980? pp. 213-225 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The primary role of the computer in the design process is to provide a means of recording the design, and subsequently of extracting information from the record. The choice of technique for recording geometry depends on the characteristics of the component and the nature of the information subsequently required about it. This paper reviews the principal techniques currently in use with particular emphasis on these two aspects
keywords CAD, curves, representation, geometric modeling, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 7f71
authors De Landa, Manuel
year 1998
title Meshworks, Hierarchies and Interfaces
source Virtual Dimension Ed. Beckmann, J., Princeton Architectural Press, NewYork
summary The world of interface design is today undergoing dramatic changes which in their impact promise to rival those brought about by the use of the point-and-click graphical interfaces popularized by the Macintosh in the early 1980's. The new concepts and metaphors which are aiming to replace the familiar desk-top metaphor all revolve around the notion of semi-autonomous, semi-intelligent software agents. To be sure, different researchers and commercial companies have divergent conceptions of what these agents should be capable of, and how they should interact with computer users. But whether one aims to give these software creatures the ability to learn about the users habits, as in the non-commercial research performed at MIT autonomous agents group, or to endow them with the ability to perform transactions in the users name, as in the commercial products pioneered by General Magic, the basic thrust seems to be in the direction of giving software programs more autonomy in their decision-making capabilities.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss2004_ra-33
id ddss2004_ra-33
authors Diappi, L., P. Bolchim, and M. Buscema
year 2004
title Improved Understanding of Urban Sprawl Using Neural Networks
source Van Leeuwen, J.P. and H.J.P. Timmermans (eds.) Recent Advances in Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN: 14020-2408-8, p. 33-49
summary It is widely accepted that the spatial pattern of settlements is a crucial factor affecting quality of life and environmental sustainability, but few recent studies have attempted to examine the phenomenon of sprawl by modelling the process rather than adopting a descriptive approach. The issue was partly addressed by models of land use and transportation which were mainly developed in the UK and US in the 1970s and 1980s, but the major advances were made in the area of modelling transportation, while very little was achieved in the area of spatial and temporal land use. Models of land use and transportation are well-established tools, based on explicit, exogenouslyformulated rules within a theoretical framework. The new approaches of artificial intelligence, and in particular, systems involving parallel processing, (Neural Networks, Cellular Automata and Multi-Agent Systems) defined by the expression “Neurocomputing”, allow problems to be approached in the reverse, bottom-up, direction by discovering rules, relationships and scenarios from a database. In this article we examine the hypothesis that territorial micro-transformations occur according to a local logic, i.e. according to use, accessibility, the presence of services and conditions of centrality, periphericity or isolation of each territorial “cell” relative to its surroundings. The prediction capabilities of different architectures of supervised Neural networks are implemented to the south Metropolitan area of Milan at two different temporal thresholds and discussed. Starting from data on land use in 1980 and 1994 and by subdividing the area into square cells on an orthogonal grid, the model produces a spatial and functional map of urbanisation in 2008. An implementation of the SOM (Self Organizing Map) processing to the Data Base allows the typologies of transformation to be identified, i.e. the classes of area which are transformed in the same way and which give rise to territorial morphologies; this is an interesting by-product of the approach.
keywords Neural Networks, Self-Organizing Maps, Land-Use Dynamics, Supervised Networks
series DDSS
last changed 2004/07/03 20:13

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