CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6758
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1981
title The Secret of the Casa Giuliani Frigerio
source Environment and Planning B. 1981. vol. 8: pp. 87-96 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Basic formal characteristics of Terragni's Casa Giuliani Frigerio are explained by means of a parametric shape grammar
keywords applications, shape grammars, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id c0ee
authors Bentley, Jon L. and Ottmann, Thomas
year 1981
title The Complexity of Manipulating Hierarchically Defined Sets of Rectangles
source 40 p. : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Department of Computer Science, CMU., April, 1981. CMU-CS-81-109. includes bibliography
summary Algorithms that manipulate sets of rectangles are of great practical importance in VLSI design systems and other applications. Although much theoretical work has appeared recently on the complexity of rectangle problems, it has assumed that the inputs are given as a list of rectangles. In this paper the authors study the complexity of rectangle problems when the inputs are given in a hierarchical language that allows the designer to build large designs by replicating small designs. They show that while most of the problems are NP-hard in the general case, there are O(N log N) algorithms that process inputs obeying certain restrictions
keywords rectangles, algorithms, computational geometry, data structures
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id eb23
authors Akin, Omer
year 1981
title Efficient Computer-User Interface in Electronic Mail Systems
source Department of Computer Science, April, 1981. ii, 24 p. includes bibliography
summary This research explores the question of improving user- computer interface. The approach is one of observing and codifying various parameters that influence the efficiency of interface in the context of electronic mail tasks. In the paper the authors observe 'expert' and 'regular' users of a mail system and analyze the sources of efficiency. It is clear that experts use a different, more specialized, set of commands in performing standard mail tasks. While experts perform these tasks with fewer errors and more 'completely,' it is not clear that they achieve this any faster than regular users. Recommendations for design are made
keywords user interface, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id c9dc
authors Avron, Barr and Feigenbaum, Edward A. (editors)
year 1981
title The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence
source xiv, 409 p. Stanford, California: HeurisTech Press., 1981. vol. 1 of 3: includes bibliography p.[365]-388 and indexes
summary Part 1 of a three volume set that contains some 200 articles on AI. Volume 1 discusses the goals of AI research, the history of the field and the current active areas of research. It explains how the book is organized, and the literature of the field. How to access journal articles and technical reports for further reading
keywords AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id barakat_theses_eaea2007
id barakat_theses_eaea2007
authors Barakat, Husam
year 2008
title Analytical Study of the Projects of Students in the Architectural Design - Comparision Between Physical and Digital Models
source Proceedings of the 8th European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference
summary Since its foundation in 1981, Architectural faculty has adopted traditional teaching methods for practical subjects such as architectural design and Urban planning. In these subjects, students submitted their projects and exams on (chanson) and (calk) sheets using various drawing tools. Such tools are still in use by students up to date in manually architectural concept presentation. This comes after the students pass a number of subjects related to art and engineering drawing that help the students in gaining drawing representation and rendering skills.
keywords architectural concept, traditional teaching, computer technology
series EAEA
last changed 2008/04/29 18:46

_id 4555
authors Bergland, Glenn D. and Gordon, Ronald D.
year 1981
title Tutorial : Software Design Strategies.--2nd. ed
source vi, 479 p. Los Angeles: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1981. includes bibliography and permuted title index p.449-477
summary A tutorial text attempting to clarify and focus on aspects of software design that have direct effect on the structure of the final program. Several major design strategies are developed and compared, including: traditional forms of functional decomposition, the data structure design method of Michael Jeckson, the data-flow design method of Larry Constantine, and the programming calculus of Edsger Dijkstra. The process of organizing and coordinating the efforts of the design team is also studied especially practices of top-down development, code walkthroughs, and design reviews are presented and evaluated
keywords software, design, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 91c4
authors Checkland, P.
year 1981
title Systems Thinking, Systems Practice
source John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
summary Whether by design, accident or merely synchronicity, Checkland appears to have developed a habit of writing seminal publications near the start of each decade which establish the basis and framework for systems methodology research for that decade."" Hamish Rennie, Journal of the Operational Research Society, 1992 Thirty years ago Peter Checkland set out to test whether the Systems Engineering (SE) approach, highly successful in technical problems, could be used by managers coping with the unfolding complexities of organizational life. The straightforward transfer of SE to the broader situations of management was not possible, but by insisting on a combination of systems thinking strongly linked to real-world practice Checkland and his collaborators developed an alternative approach - Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) - which enables managers of all kinds and at any level to deal with the subtleties and confusions of the situations they face. This work established the now accepted distinction between hard systems thinking, in which parts of the world are taken to be systems which can be engineered, and soft systems thinking in which the focus is on making sure the process of inquiry into real-world complexity is itself a system for learning. Systems Thinking, Systems Practice (1981) and Soft Systems Methodology in Action (1990) together with an earlier paper Towards a Systems-based Methodology for Real-World Problem Solving (1972) have long been recognized as classics in the field. Now Peter Checkland has looked back over the three decades of SSM development, brought the account of it up to date, and reflected on the whole evolutionary process which has produced a mature SSM. SSM: A 30-Year Retrospective, here included with Systems Thinking, Systems Practice closes a chapter on what is undoubtedly the most significant single research programme on the use of systems ideas in problem solving. Now retired from full-time university work, Peter Checkland continues his research as a Leverhulme Emeritus Fellow. "
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id a8ca
authors Courtieux, Gerard
year 1981
title Man Machine Interface Problems in Computer Aided Architectural Design
source 1981. pp. 231-250 : ill. includes bibliography. -- discussion (pp. 247-250)
summary The author and two other researchers conducted a world-wide survey of existing computer aided architectural design programs in 1978. The purpose of the survey was to validate an earlier study of the architectural design process and to investigate problem areas in Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). The survey indicated that two problems of man machine interaction in CAAD, though partly solved, remain a challenge for computer scientists: the description and graphical representation of three-dimensional objects. The formalization of the information collected in the survey, together with the experience of the author in teaching computer graphics to architecture students for the past ten years, is used to give some insight in these two problems and to make some recommendations for the improvement of the man machine interface in CAAD
keywords architecture, CAD, user interface
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id sigradi2009_1044
id sigradi2009_1044
authors Cruz, Débora Melo; Gabriela Celani
year 2009
title A influência de Frank Lloyd Wright sobre João Batista Vilanova Artigas – uma análise formal [The Influence of Frank Lloyd Wright on João Batista Vilanova Artigas - A Formal Analysis]
source SIGraDi 2009 - Proceedings of the 13th Congress of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics, Sao Paulo, Brazil, November 16-18, 2009
summary This study intends to propose a new use of the shape grammar: verify the influence of a certain architect’s language over another architect’s language. Some Brazilian modern architecture critics suggest the existence of an influence of Wright’s prairie houses over Artigas’ early work, but the methods used to reach to this conclusion are always empirical and not very objective. The present work aims to confirm this influence in a more rational manner, comparing Wright’s prairie houses grammar developed by Koning and Eizenberg (1981) to Artigas’ first phase grammar that will developed in this work.
keywords Gramática da forma; F. L. Wright; J. V. Artigas
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 2f1a
authors Dabney, M.K., Wright, J.C. and Sanders, D.H.
year 1999
title Virtual Reality and the Future of Publishing Archaeological Excavations: the multimedia publication of the prehistoric settlement on Tsoungiza at Ancient Nemea
source New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art
summary The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is a study of settlement and land use in a regional valley system in Greece extending from the Upper Paleolithic until the present. Active field research was conducted by four teams between 1981 and 1990. The first component was a regional archaeological survey. Second, and closely related to the first, was a social anthropological study of modern settlement and land use. Next was a team assigned to excavate the succession of prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza. Last, historical ecologists, a palynologist, and a geologist formed the environmental component of the research. As a result of advances in electronic publishing, plans for the final publication of the Nemea Valley Archaeological Project have evolved. Complete publication of the excavation of the prehistoric settlements of Ancient Nemea on Tsoungiza will appear in an interactive multimedia format on CD/DVD in Fall 2000. This project is planned to be the first electronic publication of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. We have chosen to publish in electronic format because it will meet the needs and interests of a wider audience, including avocational archaeologists, advanced high school and college students, graduate students, and professional archaeologists. The multimedia format on CD/DVD will permit the inclusion of text, databases, color and black-and-white images, two and three-dimensional graphics, and videos. This publication is being developed in cooperation with Learning Sites, Inc., which specializes in interactive three-dimensional reconstructions of ancient worlds The Nemea Valley Archaeological Project is particularly well prepared for the shift towards electronic publishing because the project's field records were designed for and entered in computer databases from the inception of the project. Attention to recording precise locational information for all excavated objects enables us to place reconstructions of objects in their reconstructed architectural settings. Three-dimensional images of architectural remains and associated features will appear both as excavated and as reconstructed. Viewers will be able to navigate these images through the use of virtual reality. Viewers will also be able to reference all original drawings, photographs, and descriptions of the reconstructed architecture and objects. In this way a large audience will be able to view architectural remains, artifacts, and information that are otherwise inaccessible.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 882d
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Liu, Clive K.
year 1981
title The C-MU Drafting System
source September, 1981
summary This document describes the objectives and design of a drafting system under development by the CAD-Graphics Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University
keywords CAD, drafting, software
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 85bb
authors Eastman, Charles M.
year 1981
title Computers in Architecture, Design, and Fine and Performing Arts Education
source 5, [6] p. May, 1981
summary In the next ten years it is expected that the processes and techniques for teaching design will greatly change. Feedback on design decisions - visually and analytically - will be fast and more powerful than is possible today. Much of the busy paper and pencil construction work will be eliminated or greatly reduced. The author anticipates students designing buildings and artifacts on the computer, quickly and with sophistication, achieving results beyond what can be expected through manually based education today. This proposal cannot realize this whole revolution. Rather, it attempts to only take a step outward from the neck of a funnel, showing people opportunities and providing a framework that allows easy extension. Some of these extensions, most of them trivial to develop, are presented in the scenario section of the proposal
keywords architecture, design, education, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 01bb
authors Er, M.C.
year 1981
title A Representation Approach to the Tower of Hanoi Problem
source 22 p. : ill. Wollongong: Department of Computing Science, University of Wollongong, August, 1981. includes bibliography
summary By making the moving direction of each disc explicit in the representation, a bit-string so constructed can be used to drive the Tower of Hanoi algorithm. The behavior of disc moves is further analyzed based on the bit-string representation. It has been shown that the bit-string for moving n discs can be used to generate successively the Gray codes of n bits
keywords representation, programming, combinatorics, algorithms, recursion
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0776
authors Er, M.C.
year 1981
title Matrices of Fibonacci Numbers
source 12 p. Wollongong: Department of Computing Science, University of Wollongong, October, 1981. includes bibliography
summary The matrices of Fibonacci numbers (called windows) possess some unusual properties which are not shared by normal matrices, such as commutativity under multiplication and +1 for all determinants. The beauty of multiplicative closure lends a hand to the fast computation of generalized order-k Fibonacci numbers in O(k2 log n) time
keywords Fibonacci, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a5c3
authors Er, M.C.
year 1981
title The Relations of the Computation of Fibonnaci Numbers with the Polyphase Sort
source 8 p. Wollongong: Department of Computing Science, University of Wollongong, September, 1981. includes bibliography
summary The theory of polyphase sort has simplified the mathematical derivations of Wilson and Shortt's (1980) algorithm, and offered an intuitive explanation of why Gries and Levin's (1980), and Urbanek's (1980) algorithms work. The computation of order-k Fibonacci numbers is equivalent to moving a window of matrix upwards in a series of ideal distributions
keywords Fibonacci, sorting, mathematics, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a8d1
authors Galle, Per
year 1981
title An Algorithm for Exhaustive Generation of Building Floor Plans
source Communications of the ACM December, 1981. vol. 2: pp.813-823, [3] : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The combinatorial complexity of most floor plan design problems makes it practically impossible to obtain a systematic knowledge of possible solutions using pencil and paper. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the development of computer methods providing such knowledge for the designer. The paper describes an algorithm which generates all possible rectangular plans on modular grids with congruent cells, subject to constraints on total area, room areas, wall lengths, room adjacencies, and room orientations. To make room sizes regular and limit the solution set only, such grids are used which minimize the number of cells in the smallest room. The description is sufficiently detailed to serve as a basis for programming. Test results for a Pascal implementation of the algorithm are reported. Realistic problems up to ten rooms have been solved in modest length of computer time. The results indicate that the approach of exhaustive generation may prove to be more fruitful than generally assumed
keywords architecture, floor plans, automation, design, planning, algorithms, combinatorics, grids, constraints, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id eced
authors Gries, David
year 1981
title The Science of programming
source xiii, 366 p. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981. include bibliography: p. [355]- 357 and index. -- (Texts and Monographs in Computer Science)
summary Part 1 is an introduction to the propositional and predicate calculi. Part 2 defines a small language in terms of weakest preconditions. Part 3 is the heart of the book, where the reader is asked questions and is expected to answer. Not all answers are given
keywords programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id c74f
authors Guedj, Richard A.
year 1981
title Towards Better Interactive Systems : Methodology and Problems in Human-Computer Interaction
source North-Holland Pub. Co., 1981. pp. 89-102. includes bibliography
summary Understanding human-computer interaction is an issue which is gaining more attention. Significant progress in the design of better interactive systems will come through a needed methodology. Facts and beliefs about interaction are recalled. Four approaches to a conceptual framework which have been advanced are sketched. Some problems are outlined. This paper draws attention on the results of a recent IFIP workshop on Methodology of Interaction, the Seillac-II workshop
keywords user interface, methodology, CAD, design, methods,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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