CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c7cd
authors Foley, James D. and Van Dam, Andrias
year 1982
title Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics
source xx, 664 p. [12] plates : ill. (some col.) Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Pub. Co., 1982. includes bibliography: p.625-653 and index. -- (System Programming Series)
summary Presents different aspects of interactive computer graphics programming: hardware, software, data structures, mathematical manipulation of graphical objects, the development of a 3D geometrical transformations, and an implementation strategy for a subroutine package based on the core system
keywords computer graphics, software, programming, theory, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8a88
authors Anderson, David P.
year 1982
title Hidden Line Elimination in Projected Grid Surfaces
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1982. vol. 1: pp. 274-288 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary The hidden line and hidden surface problems are simpler when restricted to special classes of objects. An example is the class of grid surfaces, that is, graphs of bivariate functions represented by their values on a set of grid points. Projected grid surfaces have geometric properties which permit hidden line or hidden surface elimination to be done more easily than in the general case. These properties are discussed in this paper, and an algorithm is given which exploits them
keywords algorithms, hidden lines, hidden surfaces, grids, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a426
authors Barsky, Brian A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1982
title Interactive Surface Representation System Using a B-spline Formulation with Interpolation Capability
source computer Aided Design. July, 1982. vol. 14: pp. 187-194 : col.ill. includes bibliography
summary An interactive surface representation system is described which uses a parametric uniform bicubic B-spline formulation which can describe a surface initially defined to interpolate a specified network of points
keywords CAD, curved surfaces, computational geometry, interpolation, B-splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 48a2
authors Bergstrom, Axel Lennart
year 1982
title Computer Graphics in Community Planning
source June, 1982. 3 p
summary The digitized map of Sweden uses a technique for graphical presentation in color based on an automatic drawing machine called the 'color ink jet plotter.' A short description of this project is given
keywords mapping, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id cc3e
authors Bloom, Gregory L.
year 1982
title Solving Architectural and Engineering Problems with CADD: Some Guidelines in Choosing the Right System
source computer Graphics News. September/October 1982. [3] p
summary To be useful, a CAD system intended for architectural engineering work must have a number of characteristics in addition to appropriate hardware or software. The article discusses some of these guidelines
keywords CAD, engineering, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0dfa
authors Giuse, Dario
year 1982
title DP - Command Set
source 24, [22] p. : ill. July, 1982. includes bibliography
summary This is a short description of the command set of the Drawing Program (DP), a general-purpose graphics editor that runs on a personal computer. This paper contains general notions about the program, the complete description of the commands and a set of advanced techniques for DP users
keywords software, programming, drafting, systems
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 8c27
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1982
title Determining the Spatial Containment of a Point in General Polyhedra
source Computer graphics and Image Processing. 1982. vol. 19: pp. 303-334 : ill. includes bibliography. See also criticism and improvements in Orlowski, Marian
summary Determining the inclusion of a point in volume-enclosing polyhedra (shapes) in 3D space is, in principle, the extension of the well-known problem of determining the inclusion of a point in a polygon in 2D space. However, the extra degree of freedom makes 3D point-polyhedron containment analysis much more difficult to solve than the 2D point polygon problem, mainly because of the nonsequential ordering of the shape elements, which requires global shape data to be applied for resolving special cases. Two general O(n) algorithms for solving the problem by reducing the 3D case into the solvable 2D case are presented. The first algorithm, denoted 'the projection method,' is applicable to any planar- faced polyhedron, reducing the dimensionality by employing parallel projection to generate planar images of the shape faces, together with an image of the point being tested for inclusion. The containment relationship of these images is used to increment a global parity-counter when appropriate, representing an abstraction for counting the intersections between the surface of the shape and a halfline extending from the point to infinity. An 'inside' relationship is established when the parity-count is odd. Special cases (coincidence of the halfline with edges or vertices of the shape) are resolved by eliminating the coincidental elements and re-projecting the merged faces. The second algorithm, denoted 'the intersection method,' is applicable to any well- formed shape, including curved-surfaced ones. It reduces the dimensionality by intersecting the polygonal trace of the shape surface at the plane of intersection, which is tested for containing the trace of the point in the plane, directly establishing the overall 3D containment relationship. A particular O(n) implementation of the 2D point-in-polygon inclusion algorithm, which is used for solving the problem once reduced in dimensionality, is also presented. The presentation is complemented by discussions of the problems associated with point-polyhedron relationship determination in general, and comparative analysis of the two particular algorithms presented
keywords geometric modeling, point inclusion, polygons, polyhedra, computational geometry, algorithms, search, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 2c13
authors Knuth, Donald E.
year 1982
title The Concept of a Meta-Font
source Visible Language. Winter, 1982. vol. XVI: pp. 3-27 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A single drawing of a single letter reveals only a small part of what was in the designer's mind when that letter was drawn. But when precise instructions are given about how to make such a drawing, the intelligence of that letter can be captured in a way that permits us to obtain an infinite variety of related letters from the same specification. Instead of merely describing a single letter, such instructions explain how that letter would change its shape if other parameters of the design were changed. Thus an entire font of letters and other symbols can be specified so that each character adapts itself to varying conditions in an appropriate way. Initial experiments with a precise language for pen motions suggest strongly that the font designer of the future should not simply design isolated alphabets; the challenge will be to explain exactly how each design should adapt itself gracefully to a wide range of changes in the specification. This paper gives examples of a meta-font and explains the changeable parameters in its design
keywords programming, computer graphics, parametrization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 2243
authors O'Rourke, J., Chien, C.-B. and Olson, Th. (et al)
year 1982
title A New Linear Algorithm for Intersecting Convex Polygons
source Computer Graphics and Image Processing. 1982. vol. 19: pp. 384-391 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary An algorithm is presented that computes the intersection of two convex polygons in linear time. The algorithm is fundamentally different from the only known linear algorithms for this problem, due to Shamos and to Hoey. These algorithms depend on a division of the plane into either angular sectors (Shamos) or parallel slabs (Hoey), and are mildly complex. The authors' algorithm searches for the intersection points of the polygons by advancing a single pointer around each polygon, and is very easy to program
keywords algorithms, boolean operations, polygons, intersection, search
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 0e95
authors Wake, Warren K.
year 1982
title Digital Anaglyph Stereoscopic Color Image Production
source March, 1982. [5] p. includes bibliography
summary Digital synthesis of color three-dimensional images is demonstrated to be fully feasible using conventional color raster technology. Demonstrated is the ability to present full-color information in synthesized three dimensional views, when viewed through red-cyan filtering glasses, using a single standard color monitor, and a 512 x 512 x 8 frame buffer. Imbedded into a special version of the Lab's CMU-PAINT system, the system provides, through a graphic menu driven user-interface, the ability to interactively compose a palette of colors, and subsequently draw and fill using these colors. Additionally, the user may interactively set display parameters calling for the left, right, or NORMAL modes, which will cause the display to draw in the red or cyan components of the selected color, respectively, for the left and right modes, or in the selected color for the NORMAL mode. When the red or cyan components are written over each other, the overlapping area appears in the sum of the two components, that being the color from which the components are derived. When line files describing a left and right eye view of a given object are displayed in the appropriate modes, and the resultant image is viewed using red-cyan glasses, a fully three-dimensional image is perceived in normal full color
keywords computer graphics, color, stereoscopic
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0107
authors Akin, Omer and Weinel, Eleanor F. (editors)
year 1982
title Representation and Architecture
source v, 285 p. : ill. Silver Spring, Maryland: Information Dynamics, Inc., 1982
summary A collection of papers developed from the proceeding of the Northeastern Regional meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), held at the Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University. The introduction includes articles about representation, representation and architecture. Part 1, Who/To Whom speaks about representation and participatory design process, and of a system for recording behavior and occupying of design. Part 2, How: includes Figure, System and Memory, the Process of Design ; Representation and Creativity in Architecture and Miniature Substitutes. Part 3, With What :Information and Data Base in Design : the Computer as a Design Medium, Slides Talk and Translation
keywords design process, representation, architecture, creativity
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2003_m_040
id cf2003_m_040
authors BAY, Joo-Hwa
year 2003
title Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 147-156
summary The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
keywords analogy, bias, design thinking, environmental design, heuristics
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 06:26

_id 6094
authors Blinn, J.I.
year 1982
title A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing
source ACM Transaction on Graphics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 235-256, 1982
summary The technology of creating realistic and visually interesting images of three- dimensional shapes is advancing on many fronts. One such front is the develop- ment of algorithms for drawing curved surfaces directly from their mathematical definitions rather than by dividing them into large numbers of polygons. Two classes of surfaces which have received attention are the quadric and the bivariate parametric surfaces. Bivariate parametric surfaces are generated by three func- tions of two variables (most popularly polynomials), as the variables take on different values. Algorithms dealing with such surfaces are due to Catmull; Lane, Carpenter, Whitted and Blinn; and Clark.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8239
authors Campello, Ruy Eduardo and Maculan, Nelson
year 1982
title On Deep Disjunctive Cutting Planes for Set Partitioning : A Computationally Oriented Research.
source Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU [DRC-70-11-82], 10 p.
summary Several mathematical programming problems can be formulated as Disjunctive Programming Problems. This approach offers a powerful procedure for the generation of new and strong cutting planes with desirable properties. For general integer programs, the traditional cutting plane methodologies proved less efficient than enumerative techniques. However, for certain classes of problems, such as set partitioning, cutting planes are known to be efficient. Since the disjunctive cuts are strong, they can be expected to perform better. This paper reports on computational results with disjunctive B(.) cuts for the set partitioning problem, evaluated in terms of computer resources and other independent measures in solving specific randomly generated test problems under controlled conditions. [includes bibliography].
keywords Mathematics, Operations Research, Integer Programming, Optimization
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:17

_id 66df
authors Cendes, Z.J., Minhas, F.U. and Silvester, P.P.
year 1982
title Universal Finite Element Matrices for Tetrahedra
source 45, [22] p Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982. DRC- 18-58-82. includes bibliography.
summary Methods are described for forming finite element matrices for a wide variety of operators on tetrahedral finite elements, in a manner similar to that previously employed for line segments and triangles. This technique models the differentiation and product-embedding operators as rectangular matrices, and produces finite element matrices by replacing all required analytic operations by their finite matrix analogues. The method is illustrated by deriving the conventional matrix representation for Laplace's equation. Brief computer programs are given, which generate universal finite element matrices for use in various applications
keywords mathematics, computational geometry, finite elements, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 89e4
authors Cendes, Z.J., Shenton, D. and H. Shahnasser
year 1982
title Adaptive Finite Element Mesh Generation Using the Delaunay Algorithm
source 3 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982
summary Includes bibliography. A two-dimensional generator is described which automatically creates optimal finite element meshes using the Delaunay triangulation algorithm. The mesh generator is adaptive in the sense that elements containing the largest normalized errors are automatically refined, providing meshes with a uniform error density. The system runs on a PERQ computer made by Three Rivers Computer Company. It is menu oriented and utilizes multiple command and display windows to create and edit the object description interactively. Mesh generation from the object data base is automatic, although it may be modified interactively by the user if desired. Application of the mesh generator to electric machine design and to magnetic bubble simulation shows it to be one of the most powerful and easy to use systems yet devised
keywords electrical engineering, triangulation, algorithms, OOPS, finite elements, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensión Fenotípica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Análisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension – An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck´s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck´s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarck’s widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (Estévez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id e7b8
authors Dahl, Veronica
year 1983
title Logic Programming as a Representation of Knowledge
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 106-110 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic has traditionally provided a firm conceptual framework for representing knowledge. As it can formally deal with the notion of logical consequence, the introduction of Prolog has made it possible to represent knowledge in terms of logic and also to expect appropriate inferences to be drawn from it automatically. This article illustrates and explores these ideas with respect to two central representational issues: problem solving knowledge and database knowledge. The technical aspects of both subjects have been covered elsewhere (Kowalski, R. Logic for problem solving, North- Holland pub. 1979 ; Dahl, V. on database system development through logic ACM Trans.vol.7/no.3/Mar.1982 pp.102). This explanation uses simple, nontechnical terms
keywords PROLOG, knowledge, representation, logic, programming, problem solving, database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

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