CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 74

_id 0be9
authors Oksala, Tarkko
year 1982
title Computer Assisted Generation of Houses
source 1982? pp. 111-120 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The logical basis in a generative approach to housing planning is characterized in connection with historical and actual examples. A row-house grammar is presented and its extensions to other types of houses are critically considered. Finally complete computer generation of small apartments covering the municipal housing production of the town of Helsinki is discussed
keywords CAD, architecture, automation, design, floor plans, shape grammars, synthesis, layout
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id 66df
authors Cendes, Z.J., Minhas, F.U. and Silvester, P.P.
year 1982
title Universal Finite Element Matrices for Tetrahedra
source 45, [22] p Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982. DRC- 18-58-82. includes bibliography.
summary Methods are described for forming finite element matrices for a wide variety of operators on tetrahedral finite elements, in a manner similar to that previously employed for line segments and triangles. This technique models the differentiation and product-embedding operators as rectangular matrices, and produces finite element matrices by replacing all required analytic operations by their finite matrix analogues. The method is illustrated by deriving the conventional matrix representation for Laplace's equation. Brief computer programs are given, which generate universal finite element matrices for use in various applications
keywords mathematics, computational geometry, finite elements, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 56de
authors Handa, M., Hasegawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Tamaki, K., Kojima, S., Matsueda, K., Takakuwa, T. and Onoda, T.
year 1996
title Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot: WASCOR IV research project report
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 31-38
summary The WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project was organized in 1982 by Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, aiming at automatizing building construction with a robot. This project is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. The WASCOR research project has been divided into four phases with the development of the study and called WASCOR I, II, III, and IV respectively. WASCOR I, II, and III finished during the time from 1982 to 1992 in a row with having 3-4 years for each phase, and WASCOR IV has been continued since 1993. WASCOR IV has been working on a automatized building interior finishing system. This system consists of following three parts. (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system. (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system. (3) Design of information management system in automated construction. As the research project has been developing, this paper describes the interim report of (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system, and (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects—like other designers—tend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses—in the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued—results in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as “movement”, “guiding” and/or “rest” plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8c27
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1982
title Determining the Spatial Containment of a Point in General Polyhedra
source Computer graphics and Image Processing. 1982. vol. 19: pp. 303-334 : ill. includes bibliography. See also criticism and improvements in Orlowski, Marian
summary Determining the inclusion of a point in volume-enclosing polyhedra (shapes) in 3D space is, in principle, the extension of the well-known problem of determining the inclusion of a point in a polygon in 2D space. However, the extra degree of freedom makes 3D point-polyhedron containment analysis much more difficult to solve than the 2D point polygon problem, mainly because of the nonsequential ordering of the shape elements, which requires global shape data to be applied for resolving special cases. Two general O(n) algorithms for solving the problem by reducing the 3D case into the solvable 2D case are presented. The first algorithm, denoted 'the projection method,' is applicable to any planar- faced polyhedron, reducing the dimensionality by employing parallel projection to generate planar images of the shape faces, together with an image of the point being tested for inclusion. The containment relationship of these images is used to increment a global parity-counter when appropriate, representing an abstraction for counting the intersections between the surface of the shape and a halfline extending from the point to infinity. An 'inside' relationship is established when the parity-count is odd. Special cases (coincidence of the halfline with edges or vertices of the shape) are resolved by eliminating the coincidental elements and re-projecting the merged faces. The second algorithm, denoted 'the intersection method,' is applicable to any well- formed shape, including curved-surfaced ones. It reduces the dimensionality by intersecting the polygonal trace of the shape surface at the plane of intersection, which is tested for containing the trace of the point in the plane, directly establishing the overall 3D containment relationship. A particular O(n) implementation of the 2D point-in-polygon inclusion algorithm, which is used for solving the problem once reduced in dimensionality, is also presented. The presentation is complemented by discussions of the problems associated with point-polyhedron relationship determination in general, and comparative analysis of the two particular algorithms presented
keywords geometric modeling, point inclusion, polygons, polyhedra, computational geometry, algorithms, search, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e1d1
authors Shafer, Steven A. and Kanade, Takeo
year 1982
title Using Shadows in Finding Surface Orientations
source 61 p. : ill.` Pittsburgh, PA: Department of Computer Science, CMU, January, 1982. CMU-CS- 82-100
summary Given a line drawing from an image with shadow regions identified, the shapes of the shadows can be used to generate constraints on the orientations of the surfaces involved. This paper describes the theory which governs those constraints under orthography. A 'Basic Shadow Problem' is first posed, in which there is a single light source, and a single surface casts a shadow on another (background) surface. There are six parameters to determine: the orientation (2 parameters) for each surface, and the direction of the vector (2 parameters) pointing at the light source. If some set of 3 of these are given in advance, the remaining 3 can then be determined geometrically
keywords The solution method consists of identifying 'illumination surfaces' consisting of illumination vectors, assigning Huffman-Clowes line labels to
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0107
authors Akin, Omer and Weinel, Eleanor F. (editors)
year 1982
title Representation and Architecture
source v, 285 p. : ill. Silver Spring, Maryland: Information Dynamics, Inc., 1982
summary A collection of papers developed from the proceeding of the Northeastern Regional meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), held at the Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University. The introduction includes articles about representation, representation and architecture. Part 1, Who/To Whom speaks about representation and participatory design process, and of a system for recording behavior and occupying of design. Part 2, How: includes Figure, System and Memory, the Process of Design ; Representation and Creativity in Architecture and Miniature Substitutes. Part 3, With What :Information and Data Base in Design : the Computer as a Design Medium, Slides Talk and Translation
keywords design process, representation, architecture, creativity
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 8a88
authors Anderson, David P.
year 1982
title Hidden Line Elimination in Projected Grid Surfaces
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1982. vol. 1: pp. 274-288 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary The hidden line and hidden surface problems are simpler when restricted to special classes of objects. An example is the class of grid surfaces, that is, graphs of bivariate functions represented by their values on a set of grid points. Projected grid surfaces have geometric properties which permit hidden line or hidden surface elimination to be done more easily than in the general case. These properties are discussed in this paper, and an algorithm is given which exploits them
keywords algorithms, hidden lines, hidden surfaces, grids, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 843d
authors Avron, Barr and Feigenbaum, Edward A. (editors)
year 1982
title The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence
source xiii, 428 p. Stanford, California: Heuristech Press, 1982. vol. 2 of 3: Includes bibliography p.383-402 and indexes
summary Part 2 of a three vol. work. This vol covers: AI programming languages, the kinds of programming languages suitable for AI, features and environments developed that were developed for its purpose. Expert systems in science, medicine and education. The last chapters reviews automatic programming
keywords AI, programming, languages, expert systems, automation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2045
authors Balas, Egon
year 1982
title A Class of Location, Distribution and Scheduling Problems : Modeling and Solution Methods
source 21 p., 8 + 4 p. of appendix : ill. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, December, 1982. includes bibliography
summary Discusses the potential of set covering techniques. Illustrates problem formulation techniques on several important classes of real-world problems. Also describes a class of algorithms for solving set covering problems, based on cutting planes, heuristics and subgradient optimization
keywords problem solving, methods, algorithms, problem definition, modeling, optimization, operations research
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4763
authors Balas, Egon
year 1982
title Integer Programming
source December, 1982. 32 p
summary Includes bibliography. This is an introductory survey of integer programming, its theory, methodology and applications, for the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences
keywords integer programming, operations research
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a426
authors Barsky, Brian A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1982
title Interactive Surface Representation System Using a B-spline Formulation with Interpolation Capability
source computer Aided Design. July, 1982. vol. 14: pp. 187-194 : col.ill. includes bibliography
summary An interactive surface representation system is described which uses a parametric uniform bicubic B-spline formulation which can describe a surface initially defined to interpolate a specified network of points
keywords CAD, curved surfaces, computational geometry, interpolation, B-splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2003_m_040
id cf2003_m_040
authors BAY, Joo-Hwa
year 2003
title Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 147-156
summary The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
keywords analogy, bias, design thinking, environmental design, heuristics
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 06:26

_id 6094
authors Blinn, J.I.
year 1982
title A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing
source ACM Transaction on Graphics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 235-256, 1982
summary The technology of creating realistic and visually interesting images of three- dimensional shapes is advancing on many fronts. One such front is the develop- ment of algorithms for drawing curved surfaces directly from their mathematical definitions rather than by dividing them into large numbers of polygons. Two classes of surfaces which have received attention are the quadric and the bivariate parametric surfaces. Bivariate parametric surfaces are generated by three func- tions of two variables (most popularly polynomials), as the variables take on different values. Algorithms dealing with such surfaces are due to Catmull; Lane, Carpenter, Whitted and Blinn; and Clark.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cc3e
authors Bloom, Gregory L.
year 1982
title Solving Architectural and Engineering Problems with CADD: Some Guidelines in Choosing the Right System
source computer Graphics News. September/October 1982. [3] p
summary To be useful, a CAD system intended for architectural engineering work must have a number of characteristics in addition to appropriate hardware or software. The article discusses some of these guidelines
keywords CAD, engineering, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 09f3
authors Burt, Michael, Kent, Eli and Ne'eman, Eliyahu (et al)
year 1982
title Single- and Multilayer Large-Span Membrane Structures for Daylight, Energy Control, and Savings
source 1982? PP. 177-183 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper examines membrane-covered structures. Such structures offer many advantages and their cost of construction is lower than that of equivalent alternatives. However, these thin, single-layer membrane covers cannot provide the control of daylight and heat required to make them environmentally satisfactory and energy-efficient. To improve the performance of membrane covers, a new solution has been studied. Double-layer membranes can be built without severe technical difficulties and provide a much higher degree of static and dynamic control. Further work is being carried out to study the option of incorporating into the two layer membrane structures solar collectors between the layers, thus converting the large area of the membrane cover into an active solar system
keywords lighting, energy, analysis, topology, structures, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id b47b
authors Callender, John Hancock (Ed.)
year 1982
title Time Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data
source McGraw Hill Book. Co., Sixth Ed.
summary From Book News, Inc. The latest version of the venerable reference first published in 1946 and most recently in 1982. Considers such aspects as bioclimate design, life-cycle costing, the building shell, architectural ethics, superstructure, acoustics, construction materials technology, daylighting, environmentally responsible design, and evaluating building performance. A special section features design data formatted according to the Uniformat II classification system, offering easy access to preliminary design and specification by building component, assemble, and place in the system of construction. Useful for any professional in the architecture, design, or construction fields. Book News, Inc.(r), Portland. Book Description Our biggest database of ready-to-use architectural design details ever. A classic reference for over 50 years. Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, edited by Donald Watson, Michael J. Crosbie, and John Hancock Callender, is the all-in-one desktop database that helps you work faster and smarter with instant design details-ready to incorporate into your architectural drawings the moment you need them. Now in a completely revised and updated seventh edition, this time-saving resource...
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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