CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0095
authors Kowalski, T.J. and Thomas, Donald E.
year 1982
title The VLSI Design Automation Assistant : First Step
source 5 p. Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982. DRC-18-57-82. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an approach to VLSI design synthesis using both knowledge-based expert systems and data and control flow analysis. The authors are concerned with design synthesis as it proceeds from an algorithmic description of a VLSI system to a list of technology-independent registers, operators, data paths, and control signals. This paper discusses the development of the Design Automation Assistant from its first interviews with expert VLSI designers to its current prototype state. Four designs of a microcomputer are presented along with the changes in the knowledge base that created those designs
keywords design, automation, integrated circuits, synthesis, expert systems, systems, knowledge base
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
email philipjhbay@gmail.com
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architects‚Äīlike other designers‚Äītend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other senses‚Äīin the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiqued‚Äīresults in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as ‚Äśmovement‚Äł, ‚Äśguiding‚Äł and/or ‚Äśrest‚Äł plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
email jherssens@gmail.com
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id 8c27
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1982
title Determining the Spatial Containment of a Point in General Polyhedra
source Computer graphics and Image Processing. 1982. vol. 19: pp. 303-334 : ill. includes bibliography. See also criticism and improvements in Orlowski, Marian
summary Determining the inclusion of a point in volume-enclosing polyhedra (shapes) in 3D space is, in principle, the extension of the well-known problem of determining the inclusion of a point in a polygon in 2D space. However, the extra degree of freedom makes 3D point-polyhedron containment analysis much more difficult to solve than the 2D point polygon problem, mainly because of the nonsequential ordering of the shape elements, which requires global shape data to be applied for resolving special cases. Two general O(n) algorithms for solving the problem by reducing the 3D case into the solvable 2D case are presented. The first algorithm, denoted 'the projection method,' is applicable to any planar- faced polyhedron, reducing the dimensionality by employing parallel projection to generate planar images of the shape faces, together with an image of the point being tested for inclusion. The containment relationship of these images is used to increment a global parity-counter when appropriate, representing an abstraction for counting the intersections between the surface of the shape and a halfline extending from the point to infinity. An 'inside' relationship is established when the parity-count is odd. Special cases (coincidence of the halfline with edges or vertices of the shape) are resolved by eliminating the coincidental elements and re-projecting the merged faces. The second algorithm, denoted 'the intersection method,' is applicable to any well- formed shape, including curved-surfaced ones. It reduces the dimensionality by intersecting the polygonal trace of the shape surface at the plane of intersection, which is tested for containing the trace of the point in the plane, directly establishing the overall 3D containment relationship. A particular O(n) implementation of the 2D point-in-polygon inclusion algorithm, which is used for solving the problem once reduced in dimensionality, is also presented. The presentation is complemented by discussions of the problems associated with point-polyhedron relationship determination in general, and comparative analysis of the two particular algorithms presented
keywords geometric modeling, point inclusion, polygons, polyhedra, computational geometry, algorithms, search, B-rep
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email a.koutamanis@bk.tudelft.nl
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id fafa
authors Marr, David
year 1982
title Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information
source New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company
summary Marr's demonstrations that retinal receptive field geometry could be derived by Fourier transformation of spatial frequency sensitivity data, that edges and contours could be detected by finding zero crossings in the light gradient by taking the Laplacian or second directional derivative, that excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields could be constructed from "DOG" functions (the difference of two Gaussians), and that the visual system used a two-dimensional convolution integral with a Gaussian prefilter as an operator for bandwidth optimation on the retinal light distribution, were more powerful than anything that had been seen up to that time. It was as if vision research suddenly acquired its own Principia Mathematica, or perhaps General Relativity Theory, in terms of the new explanatory power Marr's theories provided. Truly an extraordinary book from an extraordinary thinker in the area of perception, vision, and the brain.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id e55f
authors Newell, Allen and Rosenbloom, Paul S.
year 1982
title Mechanisms of Skill Acquisition and the Law of Practice
source [2], III, 52 p. : ill Design Research Center, CMU, April, 1982. DRC-15-16-82. includes bibliography.
summary Practice, and the performance improvement that it engenders, has long been a major topic in psychology. In this paper, both experimental and theoretical approaches are employed in an investigation of the mechanisms underlying this improvement. On the experimental side, it is argued that a single law, the power of law of practice, adequately describes all of the practice data. On the theoretical side, a model of practice rooted in modern cognitive psychology, the chunking theory of learning, is formulated. The paper consists of (1) the presentation of a set of empirical practice curves; (2) mathematical investigations into the nature of power law functions; (3) evaluations of the ability of three different classes of functions to adequately model the empirical curves; (4) a discussion of the existing models of practice; (5) a presentation of the chunking theory of learning
keywords problem solving, learning, psychology, knowledge acquisition, practice, expert, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
email Dana.Vanier@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ń either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Š seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0107
authors Akin, Omer and Weinel, Eleanor F. (editors)
year 1982
title Representation and Architecture
source v, 285 p. : ill. Silver Spring, Maryland: Information Dynamics, Inc., 1982
summary A collection of papers developed from the proceeding of the Northeastern Regional meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), held at the Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University. The introduction includes articles about representation, representation and architecture. Part 1, Who/To Whom speaks about representation and participatory design process, and of a system for recording behavior and occupying of design. Part 2, How: includes Figure, System and Memory, the Process of Design ; Representation and Creativity in Architecture and Miniature Substitutes. Part 3, With What :Information and Data Base in Design : the Computer as a Design Medium, Slides Talk and Translation
keywords design process, representation, architecture, creativity
series CADline
email oa04@andrew.cmu.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 8a88
authors Anderson, David P.
year 1982
title Hidden Line Elimination in Projected Grid Surfaces
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1982. vol. 1: pp. 274-288 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary The hidden line and hidden surface problems are simpler when restricted to special classes of objects. An example is the class of grid surfaces, that is, graphs of bivariate functions represented by their values on a set of grid points. Projected grid surfaces have geometric properties which permit hidden line or hidden surface elimination to be done more easily than in the general case. These properties are discussed in this paper, and an algorithm is given which exploits them
keywords algorithms, hidden lines, hidden surfaces, grids, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 843d
authors Avron, Barr and Feigenbaum, Edward A. (editors)
year 1982
title The Handbook of Artificial Intelligence
source xiii, 428 p. Stanford, California: Heuristech Press, 1982. vol. 2 of 3: Includes bibliography p.383-402 and indexes
summary Part 2 of a three vol. work. This vol covers: AI programming languages, the kinds of programming languages suitable for AI, features and environments developed that were developed for its purpose. Expert systems in science, medicine and education. The last chapters reviews automatic programming
keywords AI, programming, languages, expert systems, automation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4763
authors Balas, Egon
year 1982
title Integer Programming
source December, 1982. 32 p
summary Includes bibliography. This is an introductory survey of integer programming, its theory, methodology and applications, for the Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences
keywords integer programming, operations research
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2045
authors Balas, Egon
year 1982
title A Class of Location, Distribution and Scheduling Problems : Modeling and Solution Methods
source 21 p., 8 + 4 p. of appendix : ill. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, December, 1982. includes bibliography
summary Discusses the potential of set covering techniques. Illustrates problem formulation techniques on several important classes of real-world problems. Also describes a class of algorithms for solving set covering problems, based on cutting planes, heuristics and subgradient optimization
keywords problem solving, methods, algorithms, problem definition, modeling, optimization, operations research
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a426
authors Barsky, Brian A. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1982
title Interactive Surface Representation System Using a B-spline Formulation with Interpolation Capability
source computer Aided Design. July, 1982. vol. 14: pp. 187-194 : col.ill. includes bibliography
summary An interactive surface representation system is described which uses a parametric uniform bicubic B-spline formulation which can describe a surface initially defined to interpolate a specified network of points
keywords CAD, curved surfaces, computational geometry, interpolation, B-splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
email akibayp@nus.edu.sg
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cf2003_m_040
id cf2003_m_040
authors BAY, Joo-Hwa
year 2003
title Making Rebuttals Available Digitally for Minimising Biases in Mental Judgements
source Digital Design - Research and Practice [Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 1-4020-1210-1] Tainan (Taiwan) 13–15 October 2003, pp. 147-156
summary The problem of heuristic biases (illusions) discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) that can lead to errors in judgement by human designers, when they use precedent knowledge presented graphically (Bay 2001). A Cognitive framework of belief, goal, and decision, and a framework of representation of architectural knowledge by Tzonis are used to map out the problem of heuristic biases in the human mind. These are used to discuss what aspects of knowledge can be presented explicitly and digitally to users to make rebuttal more available for human thinking at the cognitive level. The discussion is applicable to both inductive and analytic digital knowledge systems that use precedent knowledge. This discussion is targeted directly at means of addressing bias in the human mind using digital means. The problem of human bias in machine learning and generalisation are discussed in a different paper, and the problems of international or non-intentional machine bias are not part of discussion in this paper.
keywords analogy, bias, design thinking, environmental design, heuristics
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/22 06:26

_id 6094
authors Blinn, J.I.
year 1982
title A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing
source ACM Transaction on Graphics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 235-256, 1982
summary The technology of creating realistic and visually interesting images of three- dimensional shapes is advancing on many fronts. One such front is the develop- ment of algorithms for drawing curved surfaces directly from their mathematical definitions rather than by dividing them into large numbers of polygons. Two classes of surfaces which have received attention are the quadric and the bivariate parametric surfaces. Bivariate parametric surfaces are generated by three func- tions of two variables (most popularly polynomials), as the variables take on different values. Algorithms dealing with such surfaces are due to Catmull; Lane, Carpenter, Whitted and Blinn; and Clark.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cc3e
authors Bloom, Gregory L.
year 1982
title Solving Architectural and Engineering Problems with CADD: Some Guidelines in Choosing the Right System
source computer Graphics News. September/October 1982. [3] p
summary To be useful, a CAD system intended for architectural engineering work must have a number of characteristics in addition to appropriate hardware or software. The article discusses some of these guidelines
keywords CAD, engineering, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id eabb
authors Boeykens, St. Geebelen, B. and Neuckermans, H.
year 2002
title Design phase transitions in object-oriented modeling of architecture
source Connecting the Real and the Virtual - design e-ducation [20th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9541183-0-8] Warsaw (Poland) 18-20 September 2002, pp. 310-313
summary The project IDEA+ aims to develop an “Integrated Design Environment for Architecture”. Its goal is providing a tool for the designer-architect that can be of assistance in the early-design phases. It should provide the possibility to perform tests (like heat or cost calculations) and simple simulations in the different (early) design phases, without the need for a fully detailed design or remodeling in a different application. The test for daylighting is already in development (Geebelen, to be published). The conceptual foundation for this design environment has been laid out in a scheme in which different design phases and scales are defined, together with appropriate tests at the different levels (Neuckermans, 1992). It is a translation of the “designerly” way of thinking of the architect (Cross, 1982). This conceptual model has been translated into a “Core Object Model” (Hendricx, 2000), which defines a structured object model to describe the necessary building model. These developments form the theoretical basis for the implementation of IDEA+ (both the data structure & prototype software), which is currently in progress. The research project addresses some issues, which are at the forefront of the architect’s interest while designing with CAAD. These are treated from the point of view of a practicing architect.
series eCAADe
email stefan.boeykens@asro.kuleuven.ac.be
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

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