CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 66df
authors Cendes, Z.J., Minhas, F.U. and Silvester, P.P.
year 1982
title Universal Finite Element Matrices for Tetrahedra
source 45, [22] p Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982. DRC- 18-58-82. includes bibliography.
summary Methods are described for forming finite element matrices for a wide variety of operators on tetrahedral finite elements, in a manner similar to that previously employed for line segments and triangles. This technique models the differentiation and product-embedding operators as rectangular matrices, and produces finite element matrices by replacing all required analytic operations by their finite matrix analogues. The method is illustrated by deriving the conventional matrix representation for Laplace's equation. Brief computer programs are given, which generate universal finite element matrices for use in various applications
keywords mathematics, computational geometry, finite elements, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 89e4
authors Cendes, Z.J., Shenton, D. and H. Shahnasser
year 1982
title Adaptive Finite Element Mesh Generation Using the Delaunay Algorithm
source 3 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982
summary Includes bibliography. A two-dimensional generator is described which automatically creates optimal finite element meshes using the Delaunay triangulation algorithm. The mesh generator is adaptive in the sense that elements containing the largest normalized errors are automatically refined, providing meshes with a uniform error density. The system runs on a PERQ computer made by Three Rivers Computer Company. It is menu oriented and utilizes multiple command and display windows to create and edit the object description interactively. Mesh generation from the object data base is automatic, although it may be modified interactively by the user if desired. Application of the mesh generator to electric machine design and to magnetic bubble simulation shows it to be one of the most powerful and easy to use systems yet devised
keywords electrical engineering, triangulation, algorithms, OOPS, finite elements, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 482a
authors Cole, Sam
year 1982
title A Microprocessor Revolution and the World Distribution of Income: A General Equilibrium Approach
source International Political Science Review. 1982. vol.3: pp. 434- 454 ; ill. includes bibliography
summary This article shows that even if the world economy is able to withstand and surmount the present world crisis, the combination of market forces and rapid technical change that would be the result of a microprocessor revolution will give rise to large shifts in the distribution of income within and between both rich and poor countries. Some developed and developing economies may be unable to join the move to new technologies. In a world governed by only economic forces, all countries, whether they choose to adopt new systems of production or not, will be affected. Indeed, whatever their degree of involvement, all countries are beginning to feel in varying degrees the chain reaction that reverberates through and between all sectors of their domestic and the world economies. To gain insights into interrelations between technological change and global markets, this article uses a special type of model -- a general equilibrium model -- that enables the study to focus on exactly these variables
keywords technology, economics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id sigradi2006_e183a
id sigradi2006_e183a
authors Costa Couceiro, Mauro
year 2006
title La Arquitectura como Extensiˇn FenotÝpica Humana - Un Acercamiento Basado en Anßlisis Computacionales [Architecture as human phenotypic extension ľ An approach based on computational explorations]
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 56-60
summary The study describes some of the aspects tackled within a current Ph.D. research where architectural applications of constructive, structural and organization processes existing in biological systems are considered. The present information processing capacity of computers and the specific software development have allowed creating a bridge between two holistic nature disciplines: architecture and biology. The crossover between those disciplines entails a methodological paradigm change towards a new one based on the dynamical aspects of forms and compositions. Recent studies about artificial-natural intelligence (Hawkins, 2004) and developmental-evolutionary biology (Maturana, 2004) have added fundamental knowledge about the role of the analogy in the creative process and the relationship between forms and functions. The dimensions and restrictions of the Evo-Devo concepts are analyzed, developed and tested by software that combines parametric geometries, L-systems (Lindenmayer, 1990), shape-grammars (Stiny and Gips, 1971) and evolutionary algorithms (Holland, 1975) as a way of testing new architectural solutions within computable environments. It is pondered Lamarck┤s (1744-1829) and Weismann (1834-1914) theoretical approaches to evolution where can be found significant opposing views. Lamarck┤s theory assumes that an individual effort towards a specific evolutionary goal can cause change to descendents. On the other hand, Weismann defended that the germ cells are not affected by anything the body learns or any ability it acquires during its life, and cannot pass this information on to the next generation; this is called the Weismann barrier. Lamarckĺs widely rejected theory has recently found a new place in artificial and natural intelligence researches as a valid explanation to some aspects of the human knowledge evolution phenomena, that is, the deliberate change of paradigms in the intentional research of solutions. As well as the analogy between genetics and architecture (EstÚvez and Shu, 2000) is useful in order to understand and program emergent complexity phenomena (Hopfield, 1982) for architectural solutions, also the consideration of architecture as a product of a human extended phenotype can help us to understand better its cultural dimension.
keywords evolutionary computation; genetic architectures; artificial/natural intelligence
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:49

_id 4b04
authors De Wilde, W.P., Mollaert, M. and Buelinckx, H. (Ed.)
year 1983
title Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe 1983
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983
summary In the beginning of the eighties, a few enthusiastic researchers, under the impulsion of Tom MAVER (director of the ABACUS group) and Rik SCHIJF (TH Delft) initiated a regular, if not formal, convention of people involved in the teaching of computer aided architectural design ECAADE in Europe. In 1982 a first meeting took place in Delft and, taking into consideration the member of attendants and the enthusiasm during this convention, it was decided that CAAD was definitely an important topic and that a more formal symposium was to be organised in the fall of 1983, in the University of Brussels.

The positive evolution of CAAD, not only in educational institutions, but also in professional practice is not surprising: it is to be considered in the global frame of technological and organisational revolution actually taking place. As will be read in the outstanding contribution of the participants it is not a mere choice of increased productivity which attracts the architects; the CAAD techniques also release then from a serious burden : the production of technical drawings and administrative paperwork!

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 14:38

_id ad2e
authors Fix, George J. and Gunzburger, Max D.
year 1982
title On Numerical Methods for Acoustic Problems
source 14 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU, April, 1982. include bibliography: p. 12
summary Finite element methods are introduced for the approximate solution of periodic acoustic problems. A least squares technique is used for those problems which are governed by a first order system of partial differential equations while for second order equations, a Galerkin/multigrid technique is employed. In both cases, the solution process for the algebraic system resulting from discretization is iterative in character
keywords acoustics, finite elements, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c7cd
authors Foley, James D. and Van Dam, Andrias
year 1982
title Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics
source xx, 664 p. [12] plates : ill. (some col.) Reading, Mass.: Addison Wesley Pub. Co., 1982. includes bibliography: p.625-653 and index. -- (System Programming Series)
summary Presents different aspects of interactive computer graphics programming: hardware, software, data structures, mathematical manipulation of graphical objects, the development of a 3D geometrical transformations, and an implementation strategy for a subroutine package based on the core system
keywords computer graphics, software, programming, theory, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2011_p027
id cf2011_p027
authors Herssens, Jasmien; Heylighen Ann
year 2011
title A Framework of Haptic Design Parameters for Architects: Sensory Paradox Between Content and Representation
source Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures 2011 [Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures / ISBN 9782874561429] Liege (Belgium) 4-8 July 2011, pp. 685-700.
summary Architectsé─ţlike other designersé─ţtend to think, know and work in a visual way. In design research, this way of knowing and working is highly valued as paramount to design expertise (Cross 1982, 2006). In case of architecture, however, it is not only a particular strength, but may as well be regarded as a serious weakness. The absence of non-visual features in traditional architectural spatial representations indicates how these are disregarded as important elements in conceiving space (Dischinger 2006). This bias towards vision, and the suppression of other sensesé─ţin the way architecture is conceived, taught and critiquedé─ţresults in a disappearance of sensory qualities (Pallasmaa 2005). Nevertheless, if architects design with more attention to non visual senses, they are able to contribute to more inclusive environments. Indeed if an environment offers a range of sensory triggers, people with different sensory capacities are able to navigate and enjoy it. Rather than implementing as many sensory triggers as possible, the intention is to make buildings and spaces accessible and enjoyable for more people, in line with the objective of inclusive design (Clarkson et al. 2007), also called Design for All or Universal Design (Ostroff 2001). Within this overall objective, the aim of our study is to develop haptic design parameters that support architects during design in paying more attention to the role of haptics, i.e. the sense of touch, in the built environment by informing them about the haptic implications of their design decisions. In the context of our study, haptic design parameters are defined as variables that can be decided upon by designers throughout the design process, and the value of which determines the haptic characteristics of the resulting design. These characteristics are based on the expertise of people who are congenitally blind, as they are more attentive to non visual information, and of professional caregivers working with them. The parameters do not intend to be prescriptive, nor to impose a particular method. Instead they seek to facilitate a more inclusive design attitude by informing designers and helping them to think differently. As the insights from the empirical studies with people born blind and caregivers have been reported elsewhere (Authors 2010), this paper starts by outlining the haptic design parameters resulting from them. Following the classification of haptics into active, dynamic and passive touch, the built environment unfolds into surfaces that can act as é─˙movementé─¨, é─˙guidingé─¨ and/or é─˙resté─¨ plane. Furthermore design techniques are suggested to check the haptic qualities during the design process. Subsequently, the paper reports on a focus group interview/workshop with professional architects to assess the usability of the haptic design parameters for design practice. The architects were then asked to try out the parameters in the context of a concrete design project. The reactions suggest that the participating architects immediately picked up the underlying idea of the parameters, and recognized their relevance in relation to the design project at stake, but that their representation confronts us with a sensory paradox: although the parameters question the impact of the visual in architectural design, they are meant to be used by designers, who are used to think, know and work in a visual way.
keywords blindness, design parameters, haptics, inclusive design, vision
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2012/02/11 18:21

_id ddssar9616
id ddssar9616
authors Hunt, John
year 1996
title Establishing design directions for complex architectural projects: a decision support strategy
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Third Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Spa, Belgium), August 18-21, 1996
summary The paper seeks to identify characteristics of the design decision-making strategy implicit in the first placed design submissions for three significant architectural competitions: the Sydney Opera House competition, and two recent design competitions for university buildings in New Zealand. Cohn Rowe's (1982) characterisation of the design process is adopted as a basis for the analysis of these case studies. Rowe's fertile analogy between design and (criminal) detection is first outlined, then brought to bear on the case studies. By means of a comparison between the successful and selected unsuccessful design submissions in each case, aspects of Rowe's characterisation of the design process are confirmed. On the basis of this analysis several common features of the competition-winning submissions, and their implicit decision-making processes, are identified. The first of these features relates to establishing project or programmatic requirements and the prioritizing of these. The second concerns the role of design parameters or requirements that appear as conflicting or contradictory, in the development of a design direction and in innovative design outcomes. The third concerns the process of simultaneous consideration given by the designer to both project parameters or requirements, and to design solution possibilities - a process described by Rowe as "dialectical interanimation".
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id e5c4
authors Johnson-Laird
year 1983
title Mental Models
source Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
summary As psychological representations of real, hypothetical, or imaginary situations, mental models were first postulated by the Scottish psychologist Kenneth Craik (1943), who wrote that the mind constructs "small-scale models" of reality to anticipate events, to reason, and to underlie . The models are constructed in working memory as a result of perception, the comprehension of discourse, or imagination (see 1982; Johnson-Laird 1983). A crucial feature is that their structure corresponds to the structure of what they represent. Mental models are accordingly akin to architects' models of buildings and to chemists' models of complex molecules.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ab39
authors Kutay, Ali R.
year 1982
title Abstractions and Transactions : A Solution for Structuring Complex Applications
source March, 1982. [1] l, 14 p. includes bibliography
summary In database systems when large applications are supported, their representation becomes a problem. A proposed model is to use the transaction concept and structure a large application as a nested transaction. This paper proposes to take advantage of abstraction techniques to avoid problems related to nested transactions. It first reviews the transition concept and restates the shortcomings. It then briefly states the available abstraction techniques in databases. It proposes to integrate transactions with abstraction levels and provide communication between the transactions instead of nesting them. It is argued that such a solution presents a better structure for applications and possible integration with abstract data types
keywords abstraction, relational database, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c361
authors Logan, Brian S.
year 1986
title Representing the Structure of Design Problems
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 158-170
summary In recent years several experimental CAD systems have emerged which, focus specifically on the structure of design problems rather than on solution generation or appraisal (Sussman and Steele, 1980; McCallum, 1982). However, the development of these systems has been hampered by the lack of an adequate theoretical basis. There is little or no argument as to what the statements comprising these models actually mean, or on the types of operations that should be provided. This chapter describes an attempt to develop a semantically adequate basis for a model of the structure of design problems and presents a representation of this model in formal logic.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e5d0
authors Lowe, John P.
year 1994
title Computer-Aided-Design in the Studio Setting: A Paradigm Shift in Architectural Education
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 230
summary The introduction of the personal computer in 1982 set forth a revolution that will continue to transform the profession of Architecture. Most architectural practices in America have embraced this revolution realizing the potentials of the computer. However, education seems to have been slower accepting the potentials and challenges of computers. Computer technology will change the design studio setting and therefore the fundamental way architects are educated. The Department of Architecture at Kansas State University has made a commitment to move toward a computer based design studio. In the fall of 1990, discussions began among the faculty to search for the placement of a computer studio within the five year program. Curriculum, staffing, and funding were issues that had to be overcome to make this commitment work. The strategy that was adopted involved placing the computer studio at the fourth year level in phase one. Phase two will progress as more staff are trained on the computer and course work was adapted to accommodate other year levels for a computer based design studios. Funding was a major obstacle. The decision was made to move from a position of being the primary suppliers of computing technology to one of support for student purchased computers. This strategy alleviated the department from maintaining and upgrading the technology. There was great enthusiasm and support from the faculty as a whole for the use of computers in the studio setting. However, the pedagogical impacts of such a change are just beginning to be realized.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:18

_id ceb1
authors Maver, T.
year 1984
title What is eCAADe?
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary The main interest of the organisation is to improve the design, teaching. The design remains the core of the professional education, while computer science can support a better understanding of the design methods. Computers should amplify the human capabilities like engines allowed to carry higher forces, radio and television enabled communication over larger distances and computers today should aid the human intellectual activities, to gain a better insight in design methodology, to investigate the design process.Design research should study more extensively how buildings behave, the integration and interaction of different disciplines which contribute to the optimization of a design and the design criteria. Computers could increase the possibility to satisfy building regulations, to access and update information, to model the design process and to understand how decisions affect the building quality (functional and economical as well as formal aspects). More effort and money should be spent on this research. The organisation has been sponsored by the EEC for bringing CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) educational material at the disposal of the design teachers. The Helsinki conference is the third European meeting (after Delft 1982 and Brussels 1983) which concentrates on information and experience exchange in CAAD-education and looks for common interests and collaboration. A specific joint study program works on typical audiovisual material and lecture notes, which will be updated according to teacher's needs. A demand has been done to implement an integrated CAAD package. eCAADe focuses to integrate computer approaches across country boundaries as well as across disciplinary boundaries, as to reach a higher quality of the design education.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:07

_id 941c
id 941c
authors Maver, T.W. and Ellis, J.
year 1982
title Implementation of an Energy Model within a Multi-Disciplinary Practice
source Proceedings of CAD82, Brighton (Ed: A Pipes), Butterworth, 562-570
summary Implementation of computer software is concerned with trials of its robustness, relevance, and efficacy in the real-world, real-time context of design practice. This paper summarises the trials carried out within the Building Design Partnership of a dynamic energy model, ESP, developed by ABACUS at the University of Strathclyde. Over an 18 month period the program was used on 6 projects to address a variety of design problems over a variety of building types. The paper reports in outline on each of the six: four concerned with the need for a definite answer to a specific question, eg. ''will it overheat in summer"; two concerned to provide, on the one hand for the client, on the other hand for the design practice, paradigms for energy conscious design of hospitals and offices. The conclusions drawn have relevance to the takeup of CAD generally.
series other
last changed 2003/09/03 11:15

_id maver_102
id maver_102
authors Maver, Thomas W.
year 1982
title Computer Aided Architectural Design. Implication for Practice + Education
source Proceedings of Aicographics 82 Conference, Milano (Italy), 26/29 October, pp. 21-39
summary Design, the highest endeavour to which man can aspire, may be defined as the activity of making explicit proposals for a change from some existing state to some future state which more closely approximates to mankind's concept of the ideal. As such, it embraces a wide spectrum of human endeavour; the outcomes of the design activity are part and parcel of our everyday life and are determinants, for better or worse, of our man-made future. In common with all complex human functions the activity of design still understood; it involves the most rational and systematic proceses of human thought and also the most intuitive conjectural leaps within the mind.
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2015/02/20 10:28

_id 2415
authors Nievergelt, J. and Preparata, Franco P.
year 1982
title Plane-Sweep Algorithms for Intersecting Geometric Figures
source Communications of the ACM. October, 1982. vol. 25: pp. 739-747 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Algorithms in computational geometry are of increasing importance in computer-aided design, for example, in the layout of integrated circuits. The efficient computation of the intersection of several superimposed figures is a basic problem. Plane figures defined by points connected by straight line segments are considered, for example, polygons (not necessarily simple) and maps (embedded planar graphs). The regions into which the plane is partitioned by these intersecting figures are to be processed in various ways such as listing the boundary of each region in cyclic order or sweeping the interior of each region. Let m be the total number of points of all the figures involved and s be the total number of intersections of all line segments. A two plane-sweep algorithm that solves the problems above is presented; in the general case (non convexity) in time O((n+s)log-n) and space O(n+s); when the regions of each given figure are convex, the same can be achieved in time O(n log n +s) and space O(n)
keywords computational geometry, algorithms, intersection, mapping, polygons, data structures, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4bae
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Kutay, Ali R.
year 1982
title Maintenance of Integrity During Concurrent Access in a Building Design Database
source Computer Aided Design. Butterworth Scientific Ltd., July, 1982. vol. 14: pp. 201-207. includes bibliography
summary This paper proposes a building design database model that insures database integrity in a highly flexible relational structure while supporting disciplinary and interdisciplinary concurrent use. The model strongly supports designer-database interaction by providing extremely versatile data access mechanisms and an associated concurrency control mechanism. Building design components are represented in terms of their location, their attribute values, and combinations of the two. Both the logical and physical database models are illustrated. The relational model is vital for achieving the greatest flexibility in representing and accessing building design data. Its standard relations are ideal for information representation. In addition, the operators provided by the model enable the engineer to readily restructure the database to support building design needs. This paper introduces a database structuring mechanism referred to as catalogs. Catalogs provide a highly versatile mechanism for accessing database information by grouping building components into data units called modules. The modules provide convenient access to multiple design entities. Also included is a protection relation that provides a concurrency control environment for the catalog relations. The module concept is particularly important in design because it enables the ad hoc groupings of data which are so often necessary to support the design process. The module is recommended as the level to which a locking concurrency control mechanism be applied. It is a small enough data unit to support concurrency for interdisciplinary design activities, yet not so small as to require extensive overhead in the concurrency control implementation. Two different modes of locking are recommended for the catalog relations of a building design database to achieve maximum concurrency and efficiency of access by designers
keywords database, concurrency, access, constraints management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0e95
authors Wake, Warren K.
year 1982
title Digital Anaglyph Stereoscopic Color Image Production
source March, 1982. [5] p. includes bibliography
summary Digital synthesis of color three-dimensional images is demonstrated to be fully feasible using conventional color raster technology. Demonstrated is the ability to present full-color information in synthesized three dimensional views, when viewed through red-cyan filtering glasses, using a single standard color monitor, and a 512 x 512 x 8 frame buffer. Imbedded into a special version of the Lab's CMU-PAINT system, the system provides, through a graphic menu driven user-interface, the ability to interactively compose a palette of colors, and subsequently draw and fill using these colors. Additionally, the user may interactively set display parameters calling for the left, right, or NORMAL modes, which will cause the display to draw in the red or cyan components of the selected color, respectively, for the left and right modes, or in the selected color for the NORMAL mode. When the red or cyan components are written over each other, the overlapping area appears in the sum of the two components, that being the color from which the components are derived. When line files describing a left and right eye view of a given object are displayed in the appropriate modes, and the resultant image is viewed using red-cyan glasses, a fully three-dimensional image is perceived in normal full color
keywords computer graphics, color, stereoscopic
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4617
authors Wang, Ming-Hung and Habraken, John N.
year 1982
title Six Operations : Notations of Design Process
source Spring, 1982. pp. 1-18 : ill
summary This paper defines six design operations that are to be sufficient to explicate physical design processes. Some inherent relations among these six operations are explored to provide a technical base for notating design processes in a network format. An example of describing a real design process is given, and a demonstration of how the network representation system can facilitate planning a given design process more efficiently is given
keywords design process, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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