CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id c7e9
authors Maver, T.W.
year 2002
title Predicting the Past, Remembering the Future
source SIGraDi 2002 - [Proceedings of the 6th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Caracas (Venezuela) 27-29 november 2002, pp. 2-3
summary Charlas Magistrales 2There never has been such an exciting moment in time in the extraordinary 30 year history of our subject area, as NOW,when the philosophical theoretical and practical issues of virtuality are taking centre stage.The PastThere have, of course, been other defining moments during these exciting 30 years:• the first algorithms for generating building layouts (circa 1965).• the first use of Computer graphics for building appraisal (circa 1966).• the first integrated package for building performance appraisal (circa 1972).• the first computer generated perspective drawings (circa 1973).• the first robust drafting systems (circa 1975).• the first dynamic energy models (circa 1982).• the first photorealistic colour imaging (circa 1986).• the first animations (circa 1988)• the first multimedia systems (circa 1995), and• the first convincing demonstrations of virtual reality (circa 1996).Whereas the CAAD community has been hugely inventive in the development of ICT applications to building design, it hasbeen woefully remiss in its attempts to evaluate the contribution of those developments to the quality of the built environmentor to the efficiency of the design process. In the absence of any real evidence, one can only conjecture regarding the realbenefits which fall, it is suggested, under the following headings:• Verisimilitude: The extraordinary quality of still and animated images of the formal qualities of the interiors and exteriorsof individual buildings and of whole neighborhoods must surely give great comfort to practitioners and their clients thatwhat is intended, formally, is what will be delivered, i.e. WYSIWYG - what you see is what you get.• Sustainability: The power of «first-principle» models of the dynamic energetic behaviour of buildings in response tochanging diurnal and seasonal conditions has the potential to save millions of dollars and dramatically to reduce thedamaging environmental pollution created by badly designed and managed buildings.• Productivity: CAD is now a multi-billion dollar business which offers design decision support systems which operate,effectively, across continents, time-zones, professions and companies.• Communication: Multi-media technology - cheap to deliver but high in value - is changing the way in which we canexplain and understand the past and, envisage and anticipate the future; virtual past and virtual future!MacromyopiaThe late John Lansdown offered the view, in his wonderfully prophetic way, that ...”the future will be just like the past, onlymore so...”So what can we expect the extraordinary trajectory of our subject area to be?To have any chance of being accurate we have to have an understanding of the phenomenon of macromyopia: thephenomenon exhibitted by society of greatly exaggerating the immediate short-term impact of new technologies (particularlythe information technologies) but, more importantly, seriously underestimating their sustained long-term impacts - socially,economically and intellectually . Examples of flawed predictions regarding the the future application of information technologiesinclude:• The British Government in 1880 declined to support the idea of a national telephonic system, backed by the argumentthat there were sufficient small boys in the countryside to run with messages.• Alexander Bell was modest enough to say that: «I am not boasting or exaggerating but I believe, one day, there will bea telephone in every American city».• Tom Watson, in 1943 said: «I think there is a world market for about 5 computers».• In 1977, Ken Olssop of Digital said: «There is no reason for any individuals to have a computer in their home».The FutureJust as the ascent of woman/man-kind can be attributed to her/his capacity to discover amplifiers of the modest humancapability, so we shall discover how best to exploit our most important amplifier - that of the intellect. The more we know themore we can figure; the more we can figure the more we understand; the more we understand the more we can appraise;the more we can appraise the more we can decide; the more we can decide the more we can act; the more we can act themore we can shape; and the more we can shape, the better the chance that we can leave for future generations a trulysustainable built environment which is fit-for-purpose, cost-beneficial, environmentally friendly and culturally significactCentral to this aspiration will be our understanding of the relationship between real and virtual worlds and how to moveeffortlessly between them. We need to be able to design, from within the virtual world, environments which may be real ormay remain virtual or, perhaps, be part real and part virtual.What is certain is that the next 30 years will be every bit as exciting and challenging as the first 30 years.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id e7b8
authors Dahl, Veronica
year 1983
title Logic Programming as a Representation of Knowledge
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 106-110 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic has traditionally provided a firm conceptual framework for representing knowledge. As it can formally deal with the notion of logical consequence, the introduction of Prolog has made it possible to represent knowledge in terms of logic and also to expect appropriate inferences to be drawn from it automatically. This article illustrates and explores these ideas with respect to two central representational issues: problem solving knowledge and database knowledge. The technical aspects of both subjects have been covered elsewhere (Kowalski, R. Logic for problem solving, North- Holland pub. 1979 ; Dahl, V. on database system development through logic ACM Trans.vol.7/no.3/Mar.1982 pp.102). This explanation uses simple, nontechnical terms
keywords PROLOG, knowledge, representation, logic, programming, problem solving, database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id avocaad_2001_16
id avocaad_2001_16
authors Yu-Ying Chang, Yu-Tung Liu, Chien-Hui Wong
year 2001
title Some Phenomena of Spatial Characteristics of Cyberspace
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary "Space," which has long been an important concept in architecture (Bloomer & Moore, 1977; Mitchell, 1995, 1999), has attracted interest of researchers from various academic disciplines in recent years (Agnew, 1993; Benko & Strohmayer, 1996; Chang, 1999; Foucault, 1982; Gould, 1998). Researchers from disciplines such as anthropology, geography, sociology, philosophy, and linguistics regard it as the basis of the discussion of various theories in social sciences and humanities (Chen, 1999). On the other hand, since the invention of Internet, Internet users have been experiencing a new and magic "world." According to the definitions in traditional architecture theories, "space" is generated whenever people define a finite void by some physical elements (Zevi, 1985). However, although Internet is a virtual, immense, invisible and intangible world, navigating in it, we can still sense the very presence of ourselves and others in a wonderland. This sense could be testified by our naming of Internet as Cyberspace -- an exotic kind of space. Therefore, as people nowadays rely more and more on the Internet in their daily life, and as more and more architectural scholars and designers begin to invest their efforts in the design of virtual places online (e.g., Maher, 1999; Li & Maher, 2000), we cannot help but ask whether there are indeed sensible spaces in Internet. And if yes, these spaces exist in terms of what forms and created by what ways?To join the current interdisciplinary discussion on the issue of space, and to obtain new definition as well as insightful understanding of "space", this study explores the spatial phenomena in Internet. We hope that our findings would ultimately be also useful for contemporary architectural designers and scholars in their designs in the real world.As a preliminary exploration, the main objective of this study is to discover the elements involved in the creation/construction of Internet spaces and to examine the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces. In addition, this study also attempts to investigate whether participants from different academic disciplines define or experience Internet spaces in different ways, and to find what spatial elements of Internet they emphasize the most.In order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the spatial phenomena in Internet and to overcome the subjectivity of the members of the research team, the research design of this study was divided into two stages. At the first stage, we conducted literature review to study existing theories of space (which are based on observations and investigations of the physical world). At the second stage of this study, we recruited 8 Internet regular users to approach this topic from different point of views, and to see whether people with different academic training would define and experience Internet spaces differently.The results of this study reveal that the relationship between human participants and Internet spaces is different from that between human participants and physical spaces. In the physical world, physical elements of space must be established first; it then begins to be regarded as a place after interaction between/among human participants or interaction between human participants and the physical environment. In contrast, in Internet, a sense of place is first created through human interactions (or activities), Internet participants then begin to sense the existence of a space. Therefore, it seems that, among the many spatial elements of Internet we found, "interaction/reciprocity" Ñ either between/among human participants or between human participants and the computer interface Ð seems to be the most crucial element.In addition, another interesting result of this study is that verbal (linguistic) elements could provoke a sense of space in a degree higher than 2D visual representation and no less than 3D visual simulations. Nevertheless, verbal and 3D visual elements seem to work in different ways in terms of cognitive behaviors: Verbal elements provoke visual imagery and other sensory perceptions by "imagining" and then excite personal experiences of space; visual elements, on the other hand, provoke and excite visual experiences of space directly by "mapping".Finally, it was found that participants with different academic training did experience and define space differently. For example, when experiencing and analyzing Internet spaces, architecture designers, the creators of the physical world, emphasize the design of circulation and orientation, while participants with linguistics training focus more on subtle language usage. Visual designers tend to analyze the graphical elements of virtual spaces based on traditional painting theories; industrial designers, on the other hand, tend to treat these spaces as industrial products, emphasizing concept of user-center and the control of the computer interface.The findings of this study seem to add new information to our understanding of virtual space. It would be interesting for future studies to investigate how this information influences architectural designers in their real-world practices in this digital age. In addition, to obtain a fuller picture of Internet space, further research is needed to study the same issue by examining more Internet participants who have no formal linguistics and graphical training.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0107
authors Akin, Omer and Weinel, Eleanor F. (editors)
year 1982
title Representation and Architecture
source v, 285 p. : ill. Silver Spring, Maryland: Information Dynamics, Inc., 1982
summary A collection of papers developed from the proceeding of the Northeastern Regional meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA), held at the Department of Architecture, Carnegie Mellon University. The introduction includes articles about representation, representation and architecture. Part 1, Who/To Whom speaks about representation and participatory design process, and of a system for recording behavior and occupying of design. Part 2, How: includes Figure, System and Memory, the Process of Design ; Representation and Creativity in Architecture and Miniature Substitutes. Part 3, With What :Information and Data Base in Design : the Computer as a Design Medium, Slides Talk and Translation
keywords design process, representation, architecture, creativity
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:09

_id 1b10
id 1b10
authors Bay, Joo-Hwa
year 2001
title Cognitive Biases - The case of tropical architecture
source Delft University of Technology
summary This dissertation investigates, i) How cognitive biases (or illusions) may lead to errors in design thinking, ii) Why architects use architectural precedents as heuristics despite such possible errors, and iii) Develops a design tool that can overcome this type of errors through the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism. The mechanism controls biases and improves accuracy in architectural thinking. // The research method applied is interdisciplinary. It employs knowledge from cognitive science, environmental engineering, and architectural theory. The case study approach is also used. The investigation is made in the case of tropical architecture. The investigation of architectural biases draws from work by A. Tversky and D. Kahneman in 1982 on “Heuristics and biases”. According to Tversky and Kahneman, the use of heuristics of representativeness (based on similarity) and availability (based on ease of recall and imaginability) for judgement of probability can result in cognitive biases of illusions of validity and biases due to imaginability respectively. This theory can be used analogically to understand how errors arise in the judgement of environmental behaviour anticipated from various spatial configurations, leading to designs with dysfunctional performances when built. Incomplete information, limited time, and human mental resources make design thinking in practice difficult and impossible to solve. It is not possible to analyse all possible alternative solutions, multiple contingencies, and multiple conflicting demands, as doing so will lead to combinatorial explosion. One of the ways to cope with the difficult design problem is to use precedents as heuristic devices, as shortcuts in design thinking, and at the risk of errors. This is done with analogical, pre-parametric, and qualitative means of thinking, without quantitative calculations. Heuristics can be efficient and reasonably effective, but may not always be good enough or even correct, because they can have associated cognitive biases that lead to errors. Several debiasing strategies are discussed, and one possibility is to introduce a rebuttal mechanism to refocus the designer’s thinking on the negative and opposite outcomes in his judgements, in order to debias these illusions. The research is carried out within the framework of design theory developed by the Design Knowledge System Research Centre, TUDelft. This strategy is tested with an experiment. The results show that the introduction of a rebuttal mechanism can debias and improve design judgements substantially in environmental control. The tool developed has possible applications in design practice and education, and in particular, in the designing of sustainable environments.
keywords Design bias; Design knowledge; Design rebuttal; Design Precedent; Pre-parametric design; Tropical architecture; Sustainability
series thesis:PhD
type normal paper
last changed 2006/05/28 05:42

_id b47b
authors Callender, John Hancock (Ed.)
year 1982
title Time Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data
source McGraw Hill Book. Co., Sixth Ed.
summary From Book News, Inc. The latest version of the venerable reference first published in 1946 and most recently in 1982. Considers such aspects as bioclimate design, life-cycle costing, the building shell, architectural ethics, superstructure, acoustics, construction materials technology, daylighting, environmentally responsible design, and evaluating building performance. A special section features design data formatted according to the Uniformat II classification system, offering easy access to preliminary design and specification by building component, assemble, and place in the system of construction. Useful for any professional in the architecture, design, or construction fields. Book News, Inc.(r), Portland. Book Description Our biggest database of ready-to-use architectural design details ever. A classic reference for over 50 years. Time-Saver Standards for Architectural Design Data, edited by Donald Watson, Michael J. Crosbie, and John Hancock Callender, is the all-in-one desktop database that helps you work faster and smarter with instant design details-ready to incorporate into your architectural drawings the moment you need them. Now in a completely revised and updated seventh edition, this time-saving resource...
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 56de
authors Handa, M., Hasegawa, Y., Matsuda, H., Tamaki, K., Kojima, S., Matsueda, K., Takakuwa, T. and Onoda, T.
year 1996
title Development of interior finishing unit assembly system with robot: WASCOR IV research project report
source Automation in Construction 5 (1) (1996) pp. 31-38
summary The WASCOR (WASeda Construction Robot) research project was organized in 1982 by Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, aiming at automatizing building construction with a robot. This project is collaborated by nine general contractors and a construction machinery manufacturer. The WASCOR research project has been divided into four phases with the development of the study and called WASCOR I, II, III, and IV respectively. WASCOR I, II, and III finished during the time from 1982 to 1992 in a row with having 3-4 years for each phase, and WASCOR IV has been continued since 1993. WASCOR IV has been working on a automatized building interior finishing system. This system consists of following three parts. (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system. (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system. (3) Design of information management system in automated construction. As the research project has been developing, this paper describes the interim report of (1) Development of building system and construction method for automated interior finishing system, and (2) Design of hardware system applied to automated interior finishing system.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 46ba
authors Hille, R.F. and Higginbotham, T.F.
year 1982
title A Pascal Implementation of a Display System for Pascal Programs
source 10 p. Wollongong: Department of Computing Science, University of Wollongong, February, 1982. includes bibliography --- Cover title: A display system for Pascal programs written in Pascal
summary A description is given of the design and implementation of a Pascal program for the stepwise visible execution of other Pascal programs. This system operates at the source code level by inserting additional statements into the user program. This additional code causes the stepwise execution of the user program, as well as the display of the statement currently executed together with variables whose values have just changed. This system is intended as both a teaching aid and a debugging aid. It enables the user to investigate the dynamic properties of his program
keywords programming, PASCAL, display, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e234
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1985
title An Integrative Approach to Computer-Aided Design Education in Architecture
source February, 1985. [17] p. : [8] p. of ill
summary With the advent of CAD, schools of architecture are now obliged to prepare their graduates for using the emerging new design tools and methods in architectural practices of the future. In addition to this educational obligation, schools of architecture (possibly in partnership with practicing firms) are also the most appropriate agents for pursuing research in CAD that will lead to the development of better CAD software for use by the profession as a whole. To meet these two rather different obligations, two kinds of CAD education curricula are required: one which prepares tool- users, and another that prepares tool-builders. The first educates students about the use of CAD tools for the design of buildings, whereas the second educates them about the design of CAD tools themselves. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has recognized these two obligations, and in Fall 1982 began to meet them by planning and implementing an integrated CAD environment. This environment now consists of 3 components: a tool-building sequence of courses, an advanced research program, and a general tool-users architectural curriculum. Students in the tool-building course sequence learn the principles of CAD and may, upon graduation, become researchers and the managers of CAD systems in practicing offices. While in school they form a pool of research assistants who may be employed in the research component of the CAD environment, thereby facilitating the design and development of advanced CAD tools. The research component, through its various projects, develops and provides state of the art tools to be used by practitioners as well as by students in the school, in such courses as architectural studio, environmental controls, performance programming, and basic design courses. Students in these courses who use the tools developed by the research group constitute the tool-users component of the CAD environment. While they are being educated in the methods they will be using throughout their professional careers, they also act as a 'real-world' laboratory for testing the software and thereby provide feedback to the research component. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has been the first school to incorporate such a comprehensive CAD environment in its curriculum, thereby successfully fulfilling its obligation to train students in the innovative methods of design that will be used in architectural practices of the future, and at the same time making a significant contribution to the profession of architecture as a whole. This paper describes the methodology and illustrates the history of the CAD environment's implementation in the School
keywords CAD, architecture, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0095
authors Kowalski, T.J. and Thomas, Donald E.
year 1982
title The VLSI Design Automation Assistant : First Step
source 5 p. Design Research Center, CMU, December, 1982. DRC-18-57-82. includes bibliography
summary This paper describes an approach to VLSI design synthesis using both knowledge-based expert systems and data and control flow analysis. The authors are concerned with design synthesis as it proceeds from an algorithmic description of a VLSI system to a list of technology-independent registers, operators, data paths, and control signals. This paper discusses the development of the Design Automation Assistant from its first interviews with expert VLSI designers to its current prototype state. Four designs of a microcomputer are presented along with the changes in the knowledge base that created those designs
keywords design, automation, integrated circuits, synthesis, expert systems, systems, knowledge base
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id fafa
authors Marr, David
year 1982
title Vision: A Computational Investigation into the Human Representation and Processing of Visual Information
source New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company
summary Marr's demonstrations that retinal receptive field geometry could be derived by Fourier transformation of spatial frequency sensitivity data, that edges and contours could be detected by finding zero crossings in the light gradient by taking the Laplacian or second directional derivative, that excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields could be constructed from "DOG" functions (the difference of two Gaussians), and that the visual system used a two-dimensional convolution integral with a Gaussian prefilter as an operator for bandwidth optimation on the retinal light distribution, were more powerful than anything that had been seen up to that time. It was as if vision research suddenly acquired its own Principia Mathematica, or perhaps General Relativity Theory, in terms of the new explanatory power Marr's theories provided. Truly an extraordinary book from an extraordinary thinker in the area of perception, vision, and the brain.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 807e
authors Maver, Thomas W. and Petric, Jelena (Eds.)
year 1994
title The Virtual Studio [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6 / Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, 262 p.
summary ECAADE was established in 1982 with the intention, across Europe, of facilitating the adoption of the Information Technologies - particularly Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) - within the system of architectural education. The Association, in the 12 years of its existence, has grown in its membership (now close to 350) and in its importance. The annual conferences (Delft 82, Brussels 83, Helsinki 84, Rotterdam 85, Rome 86, Zurich 87, Aarhus 89, Budapest 90, Munich 91, Barcelona 92 and Eindhoven 93) now number 12 and this volume records the 70 or so contributions to the Conference held in Glasgow over the period 7-10 September 1994.The proceedings are arranged according to a number of themes. Theories and Ideas, Teaching and Learning, Visualisation, Multi-Media, Virtual Reality, Virtual Design Studios, Functional Analysis, Design Support Systems and Surveys of Activity. The Conference featured 'long presentations'; and 'short presentations'; the length of these presentations is reflected in the two main sections of this text. To preserve the spirit of conference communication and ensure the rapid dissemination of ideas in a fast grown community of polyglot Europeans, no changes to the papers, which were submitted in Apple Mac and/or PC diskettes, have been imposed; you see them as they were submitted and as the authors intended.
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:19

_id 611a
authors Newell, Allen
year 1982
title The Knowledge Level
source [2]. 46 p. : ill. Design Research Center, CMU, April, 1982. DRC-15-15-82. includes bibliography
summary As the first AAAI Presidential Address, this paper focuses on a basic substantive problem: the nature of knowledge and representation. There are ample indications that artificial intelligence is in need of substantial work in this area, e.g., a recent SIGART special issue on Knowledge Representation edited by Ron Brachman and Brian Smith. The paper proposes a theory of the nature of knowledge, namely, that there is another computer system level immediately above the symbol (or program) level. The nature of computer system levels is reviewed, the new level proposed, and its definition is treated in detail. Knowledge itself is the processing medium at this level and the principle of rationality plays a central role. Some consequences of the existence of the knowledge level and some relations to other fields are discussed
keywords knowledge, representation, AI
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 2045
authors Balas, Egon
year 1982
title A Class of Location, Distribution and Scheduling Problems : Modeling and Solution Methods
source 21 p., 8 + 4 p. of appendix : ill. Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, December, 1982. includes bibliography
summary Discusses the potential of set covering techniques. Illustrates problem formulation techniques on several important classes of real-world problems. Also describes a class of algorithms for solving set covering problems, based on cutting planes, heuristics and subgradient optimization
keywords problem solving, methods, algorithms, problem definition, modeling, optimization, operations research
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 898a
authors Bay, J.H.
year 2002
title Cognitive Biases and Precedent Knowledge in Human and Computer-Aided Design Thinking
source CAADRIA 2002 [Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 983-2473-42-X] Cyberjaya (Malaysia) 18–20 April 2002, pp. 213-220
summary Cognitive biases (illusions) and potential errors can occur when using precedent knowledge for analogical, pre-parametric and qualitative design thinking. This paper refers largely to part of a completed research (Bay 2001) on how heuristic biases, discussed by Tversky and Kahneman (1982) in cognitive psychology, can affect judgement and learning of facts from precedents in architectural design, made explicit using a kernel of conceptual system (Tzonis et. al., 1978) and a framework of architectural representation (Tzonis 1992). These are used here to consider how such illusions and errors may be transferred to computer aided design thinking.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 6094
authors Blinn, J.I.
year 1982
title A Generalization of Algebraic Surface Drawing
source ACM Transaction on Graphics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 235-256, 1982
summary The technology of creating realistic and visually interesting images of three- dimensional shapes is advancing on many fronts. One such front is the develop- ment of algorithms for drawing curved surfaces directly from their mathematical definitions rather than by dividing them into large numbers of polygons. Two classes of surfaces which have received attention are the quadric and the bivariate parametric surfaces. Bivariate parametric surfaces are generated by three func- tions of two variables (most popularly polynomials), as the variables take on different values. Algorithms dealing with such surfaces are due to Catmull; Lane, Carpenter, Whitted and Blinn; and Clark.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cc3e
authors Bloom, Gregory L.
year 1982
title Solving Architectural and Engineering Problems with CADD: Some Guidelines in Choosing the Right System
source computer Graphics News. September/October 1982. [3] p
summary To be useful, a CAD system intended for architectural engineering work must have a number of characteristics in addition to appropriate hardware or software. The article discusses some of these guidelines
keywords CAD, engineering, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 09f3
authors Burt, Michael, Kent, Eli and Ne'eman, Eliyahu (et al)
year 1982
title Single- and Multilayer Large-Span Membrane Structures for Daylight, Energy Control, and Savings
source 1982? PP. 177-183 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper examines membrane-covered structures. Such structures offer many advantages and their cost of construction is lower than that of equivalent alternatives. However, these thin, single-layer membrane covers cannot provide the control of daylight and heat required to make them environmentally satisfactory and energy-efficient. To improve the performance of membrane covers, a new solution has been studied. Double-layer membranes can be built without severe technical difficulties and provide a much higher degree of static and dynamic control. Further work is being carried out to study the option of incorporating into the two layer membrane structures solar collectors between the layers, thus converting the large area of the membrane cover into an active solar system
keywords lighting, energy, analysis, topology, structures, building
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8239
authors Campello, Ruy Eduardo and Maculan, Nelson
year 1982
title On Deep Disjunctive Cutting Planes for Set Partitioning : A Computationally Oriented Research.
source Pittsburgh: Design Research Center, CMU [DRC-70-11-82], 10 p.
summary Several mathematical programming problems can be formulated as Disjunctive Programming Problems. This approach offers a powerful procedure for the generation of new and strong cutting planes with desirable properties. For general integer programs, the traditional cutting plane methodologies proved less efficient than enumerative techniques. However, for certain classes of problems, such as set partitioning, cutting planes are known to be efficient. Since the disjunctive cuts are strong, they can be expected to perform better. This paper reports on computational results with disjunctive B(.) cuts for the set partitioning problem, evaluated in terms of computer resources and other independent measures in solving specific randomly generated test problems under controlled conditions. [includes bibliography].
keywords Mathematics, Operations Research, Integer Programming, Optimization
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:17

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