CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id bacd
authors Abadí Abbo, Isaac
year 1999
source Full-scale Modeling and the Simulation of Light [Proceedings of the 7th European Full-scale Modeling Association Conference / ISBN 3-85437-167-5] Florence (Italy) 18-20 February 1999, pp. 75-82
summary Spatial Design Ability (SDA) has been defined by the author (1983) as the capacity to anticipate the effects (psychological impressions) that architectural spaces or its components produce in observers or users. This concept, which requires the evaluation of spaces by the people that uses it, was proposed as a guideline to a Masters Degree Course in Architectural Design at the Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes in Mexico. The theory and the exercises required for the experience needed a model that could simulate spaces in terms of all the variables involved. Full-scale modeling as has been tested in previous research, offered the most effective mean to experiment with space. A simple, primitive model was designed and built: an articulated ceiling that allows variation in height and shape, and a series of wooden panels for the walls and structure. Several exercises were carried out, mainly to experience cause -effect relationships between space and the psychological impressions they produce. Students researched into spatial taxonomy, intentional sequences of space and spatial character. Results showed that students achieved the expected anticipation of space and that full-scale modeling, even with a simple model, proved to be an effective tool for this purpose. The low cost of the model and the short time it took to be built, opens an important possibility for Institutions involved in architectural studies, both as a research and as a learning tool.
keywords Spatial Design Ability, Architectural Space, User Evaluation, Learning, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 09:27

_id ecaade2009_123
id ecaade2009_123
authors Achten, Henri; Beetz, Jakob
year 2009
title What Happened to Collaborative Design?
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 357-366
summary In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive literature survey on the development of collaborative design. We reviewed 324 papers on collaborative design, taken from various sources (conferences, journals, and PhD-theses). We grouped the papers based on common themes, and in that way derived a classification of themes through the last 25 years (1983-2008). Each category is described, its development, and key publications are identified.
wos WOS:000334282200043
keywords Collaborative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2387
authors Akin, Omer, Baykan, Can D. and Rao, Radha D.
year 1983
title Searching in the UNIX Directory
source December, 1983. 19 p. : ill., tables. includes bibliography
summary The structure of the directory space and subjects search behaviors in the UNIX operating system environment are examined. Protocol analysis with two subjects and survey of the contents of the directory space of all users of E-VAX and X-VAX systems in the Architecture and Computer Science Systems at Carnegie Mellon University were conducted. Depth first search characterized both the organization of the directories and the behavior of the subjects. Single step as opposed to multiple step traversal of the directory tree was also prevalent in the subject`s behaviors. Recommendations for system friendliness, in term of reusability, orientation, robustness, and consistency are developed
keywords UNIX, user interface, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8d59
authors Andersen, J.M.
year 1983
title CAD in Architectural Practice
source Mechanical Engineering. July, 1983. pp. 48-54 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary A leading architecture/engineering firm has made use of in- house computer system since 1963. This paper discusses some special topics in using computers for the design of HVAC systems, and the process of implementing CAD in the HVAC engineering practice
keywords computer graphics, HVAC, applications, practice, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 21d8
authors Balas, Egon and Toth, Paolo
year 1983
title Branch and Bound Methods for the Traveling Salesman Problem
source December, 1983, 65 p. : ill., tables. Includes bibliography
summary This paper reviews the state of the art in enumerative solution methods for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The introduction (Section 1) discusses the main ingredients of branch and bound methods for the TSP. Sections 2,3 and 4 discuss classes of methods based on three different relaxation of the TSP: the assignment problem with the TSP cost function, the 1-tree problem with a Lagrangean objective function, and the assignment problem with a lagrangean objective function. Section 5 briefly reviews some other relaxations of the TSP, while section 6 discusses the performance of some state of the art computer codes. Besides material from the literature, the paper also includes the results and statistical analysis of some computational experiments designed for the purposes of this review
keywords relaxation, branch-and-bound, algorithms, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e118
authors Balas, Egon
year 1983
title Disjunctive Programming and a Hierarchy of Relaxations for Discrete Optimization Problems
source December, 1983. 38 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The author discuss a new conceptual framework for the convexification of discrete optimization problems, and a general technique for obtaining approximations to the convex hull of the feasible set. The concepts come from disjunctive programming and the key tool is a description of the convex hull of a union of polyhedra in terms of a higher dimensional polyhedron. Although this description was known for several years, only recently was it shown by Jeroslow and Lowe to yield improved representations of discrete optimization problems. The author expresses the feasible set of a discrete optimization problem as the intersection (conjunction) of unions of polyhedra, and define an operation that takes one such expression into another, equivalent one, with fewer conjuncts. He then introduces a class of relaxations based on replacing each conjunct (union of polyhedra) by its convex hull. The strength of the relaxations increases as the number of conjuncts decreases, and the class of relaxations forms a hierarchy that spans the spectrum between the common linear programming relaxation, and the convex hull of the feasible set itself. Instances where this approach presents advantages include critical path problems in disjunctive graphs, network synthesis problems, certain fixed charge network flow problems, etc. The approach on the first of these problems is illustrated, which is a model for machine sequencing
keywords polyhedra, computational geometry, optimization, programming, convex hull, graphs
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 41af
authors Barnhill, Robert E.
year 1983
title A Survey of the Representation and Design of Surfaces
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. October, 1983. vol. 3: pp. 9-16 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The approach of devising robust surface methods applicable to arbitrarily located data was taken by the CAGD Group at the University of Utah. Adopting two broad classes of methods suitable for solving the problems (i.e., problems for which simplifying geometric assumptions cannot be made): (1) surface interpolants defined over triangles or tetrahedra and (2) distance-weighted interpolants. Interactive computer graphics was used to display surfaces for adequate visualization. Although some figures were given, it must be kept in mind that some 3-D medium, or at least motion, is necessary to understand surfaces
keywords computational geometry, computer graphics, representation, curved surfaces, mathematics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 86cb
authors Bell, John
year 1983
title Designers Get the Picture
source New Scientist March, 1983. pp. 815-[822] : col. ill.
summary One firm that had installed a CAD system is the Somerset Shoemaker Clarks Ltd. It took four years to develop the software that was developed by CADCenter in Cambridge. The article describes the program and the process of shoemaking
keywords CAD, practice, engineering
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 213d
authors Bernard, Yves and Dupagne, Albert
year 1983
title Volume: a computer Program for building Modelisation and Manipulation
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.70-III.79
summary We describe a computer program VOLUME for interactive 3D modelling of building which can be used in many problems (heat losses calculations, architectural evaluation, ...) where a geometric representation is required. The program is more than a tool to input a geometry: it is also a tool for design; manipulations are very easy and many design solutions can be tried. We then discuss about developments for improving the quality of that tool in the design process.
keywords Computer Aided Design, 3D Modelling, Computer-user Interface, Evaluations
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2e0a
authors Besant, C.B.
year 1983
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacture. -- 2nd. ed
source 232 p. : ill. Chicester [West Sussex], New York: Halsted Press, 1983. includes bibliography and index -- (Ellis Horwood Series in Engineering Science)
summary An introduction to computing as an aid to design and manufacture. Provides description of hardware and software of CAD systems, discusses their use in engineering drafting
keywords drafting, hardware, software, CAD, CAM, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0000
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1983
title Know Your Technology - Or: Can Computers Understand Designers?
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. V.1-V.11
summary Any great expansion of the population of computer users, embracing architects and other ordinary people, will happen only if we change from current computing technology to radically new software technology. Criteria for new technology are discussed, with reference to inadequacies of current technology; we should strive for computers that can understand people. Logic programming is described as one development towards this goal, illustrated by the example of Prolog serving as interpreter of user demands and supporting partial and changing logical models of user activity. Architects can choose computing options now that will put them on a path leading to future new technology. Choice is explained, favouring a software environment that is used by researchers and also supports immediate and practical computer applications. Lessons are drawn for architectural education, to prepare for change that will take place during a student's 40-year working life.
keywords Software Technology, Logic Programming
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e10e
authors Billon, R. and Rocca, R.
year 1983
title Comprendre KEOPS: Logiciel de conception assistee par ordinateur en architecture
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.19-III.35
summary En informatique graphique, la méthode la plus courante pour saisir un bâtiment consiste à dêcrire et à stocker en base de données les "pleins": les murs, planchers, composants. Cette procédure est vite fastidieuse, et ne permet pas réellement une véritable conception assistée par ordinateur. KEOPS expérimente une autre méthode qui consiste à décrire l'esquisse par ses "vides", c'est-à-dire les volumes des locaux en trois dimensions. Le logiciel opère automatiquement la transformation "filaire" en composants et ouvrages du bâtiment en exploitant un savoir technologique. Le benéfice? La réduction spectaculaire du temps de saisie et un logiciel de C.A.O. enfin opérationnel en bâtiment.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 0105
authors Bossan, Mario and Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1989
title Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.8.1-9.8.19
summary Didactic and research experience developed at the "Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milano" in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4491
authors Bouyat, M., H. Botta and Vignat, J. C.
year 1983
title VERDI : A Computer Aided Design System for Development and City Planning
source ACM IEEE Design Automation Conference Proceedings (20th : 1983 : Miami Beach, Florida). pp. 382-385 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The system presented is a CAD system for use in planning road and other facility networks. Taking a draft master plan as its point of departure the system makes it possible: (1) To plan in a dynamic fashion since it permits the back-and-forth study of the interconnections between the design of the master plan and network design; (2) to preserve, from one work session to another, data that has already been acquired and calculated; (3) to make relevant technical evaluations in the following three fields: earthworks, roads, and sewage networks
keywords CAD, urban planning, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8c67
authors Brachman, Ronald J., Levesque, Hector J. and Fikes, Richard E.
year 1983
title Krypton : A Functional Approach to Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 67-73 : ill. includes bibliography
summary While the basic ideas of frame systems are straight forward, complication arise in their design. A design strategy was developed and have been implemented in a representation system called Krypton. Krypton distinguishes between definitional and factual information by using both frame- based and logic-based languages. The result is a system defined in functional not structural terms
keywords AI, frames, knowledge, representation, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6da7
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1983
title Course Description - University of Strathclyde - Msc In Building Science (Computer Aided Building Design)
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. I.40-I.51
summary This paper describes a one-year postgraduate course in computer-aided building design. The course structure is outlined, together with the resources required to run such a course. Details of the course modules are given in an appendix.

keywords Postgraduate Course, Computer-aided Building Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id 0f34
authors Brown, P.J.
year 1983
title Error Messages : The Neglected Area of the Man / Machine Interface?
source communications of the ACMò. April, 1983. vol. 26: pp. 246-249. includes bibliography
summary The quality of error messages produced by software used in the field was tested by a simple experiment; it was found to be far from adequate. The results of the experiment are analyzed, and some responses which tend to corroborate the original findings are discussed. Finally some suggestions are made for improving the quality of error messages
keywords reliability, user interface, software, management
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6647
authors Buxton, W., M.R. Lamb and Sherman, D. (et al)
year 1983
title Towards a Comprehensive User Interface Management System
source computer Graphics. July, 1983. vol. 17: pp. 35-42 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A UIMS developed at the University of Toronto is presented. The system has two main components. The first is a set of tools to support the design and implementation of interactive graphics programs. The second is a run-time support package which handles interactions between the system and the user (things such as hit detection, event detection, screen updates, and procedure invocation), and provides facilities for logging user interactions for later protocol analysis. The design / implementation tool is a preprocessor, called MENULAY, which permits the applications programmer to use interactive graphics techniques to design graphics menus and their functionality. The output of this preprocessor is high- level code which can be compiled with application-specific routines. User interactions with the resulting executable module are then handled by the run-time support package. The presentation works through an example from design to execution in a step-by-step manner
keywords software, user interface, management, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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