CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0105
authors Bossan, Mario and Ronchi, Alfredo M.
year 1989
title Presentazione Esperienza Didattica del Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali - Politecnico di Milano
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 9.8.1-9.8.19
summary Didactic and research experience developed at the "Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Sistemi Edilizi e Territoriali del Politecnico di Milano" in the environment of Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD). From the early part of the 1980's, using initially at an experimental level the resources available at the departmental centre of calculation various applications of CAD techniques in the building sector have been effected at DISET (Dipartimento di Ingegneria del Politecnico di Milano). During 1983, after a three year period of experimenting with these systems, it was decided to organise and activate a small computer aided design centre, within the department, the use of which was reserved for dissertation and research students.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 46b2
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Fenves, Stephen J.
year 1983
title Organization of a Structural Design Database
source Electronic Computation Conference Proceedings (8th : 1983 : Houston, TX). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 559-571. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper proposes a database schema that supports structural engineering design of buildings. An evaluation and comparison of hierarchical, network, and relational databases shows that relational databases are especially suited to a structural engineering design database. The proposed database schema represents the complex relationships between the components of a building-design database. The schema consists of a structural system hierarchy that relates abstract database components to basic building elements. In addition, it combines topology with attributes to achieve an integration that allows the representation of a broad range of common building configurations and structural systems. The user can combine a basic set of constructs to generate either a general or a very detailed description of a structure. The high degree of integration of topology and attributes yields a database that possesses desirable relational characteristics. The database provides efficient access to components based both on their location and on their attribute values. It also allows the user to add, delete, retrieve, and modify database components and values. The versatility and flexibility of the relational model make it a useful tool for managing building engineering data
keywords building, details, database, civil engineering, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 213d
authors Bernard, Yves and Dupagne, Albert
year 1983
title Volume: a computer Program for building Modelisation and Manipulation
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.70-III.79
summary We describe a computer program VOLUME for interactive 3D modelling of building which can be used in many problems (heat losses calculations, architectural evaluation, ...) where a geometric representation is required. The program is more than a tool to input a geometry: it is also a tool for design; manipulations are very easy and many design solutions can be tried. We then discuss about developments for improving the quality of that tool in the design process.
keywords Computer Aided Design, 3D Modelling, Computer-user Interface, Evaluations
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id 610b
authors Hall, R.N.
year 1983
title The Use of Gable OMS (Object Modelling System) in the Building Design ProcessThe Use of Gable OMS (Object Modelling System) in the Building Design Process
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.1-III.18
summary GABLE CAD SYSTEMS comprise a suite of integrated sub-systems, one of which is OMS. The use of OMS in the development of a building design enables three dimensional graphical modelling of objects associated with buildings. Thus furniture, fittings and fixtures may be located within any room in a building or outside a building or in relation to other groups of objects unrelated to a building. Once located, objects and building may be seen in 2D plan and elevation/section projection or 3D projection (perspectives, axonometrics, isometrics, etc.). In this way furniture, people, cars, trees,landscape objects may all be modelled and graphically represented in addition to the modelling capabilities enabled using GABLE BMS (Building Modelling System). These graphically represented 2D and 3D views of objects can then be passed into GABLE IDS for further embellishment, annotation or dimensioning to produce detailed working drawings.
keywords Three Dimensional Graphical Modelling
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:52

_id c87f
authors Laing, L.
year 1983
title Simulation of the Emergency Evacuation of Buildings in the Event of Fire
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. II.10-II.22
summary The paper describes an application of CAAD techniques by Final Year architecture students using the computer program AIR-Q to dynamically simulate the emergency evacuation of people from a multi-storey department store. This is presented in the context of a fire emergency and reference made to the local Building Regulations which govern the size and location of fire exits. It is suggested that the technique not only provides students and designers with an easily assimilated understanding of the consequences of design decisions but also allows alternative design solutions to be quickly compared in a search for the optional design strategy. The exercise also demonstrates, to the students, the logic behind the rules contained in the Fire Regulations while demonstrating possible weaknesses and inadequacies of the empirical approach that these regulations are constrained to adopt.
keywords CAAD Techniques, Fire Regulations
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:49

_id ceb1
authors Maver, T.
year 1984
title What is eCAADe?
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary The main interest of the organisation is to improve the design, teaching. The design remains the core of the professional education, while computer science can support a better understanding of the design methods. Computers should amplify the human capabilities like engines allowed to carry higher forces, radio and television enabled communication over larger distances and computers today should aid the human intellectual activities, to gain a better insight in design methodology, to investigate the design process.Design research should study more extensively how buildings behave, the integration and interaction of different disciplines which contribute to the optimization of a design and the design criteria. Computers could increase the possibility to satisfy building regulations, to access and update information, to model the design process and to understand how decisions affect the building quality (functional and economical as well as formal aspects). More effort and money should be spent on this research. The organisation has been sponsored by the EEC for bringing CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) educational material at the disposal of the design teachers. The Helsinki conference is the third European meeting (after Delft 1982 and Brussels 1983) which concentrates on information and experience exchange in CAAD-education and looks for common interests and collaboration. A specific joint study program works on typical audiovisual material and lecture notes, which will be updated according to teacher's needs. A demand has been done to implement an integrated CAAD package. eCAADe focuses to integrate computer approaches across country boundaries as well as across disciplinary boundaries, as to reach a higher quality of the design education.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:07

_id 8892
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1983
title CAAD in Onderwijs en Onderzoek [CAAD in Teaching and Design]
source Proceedings of THE-CAAD3 Symposium, Eindhoven
summary Students currently in schools of architecture will be at the peak of their careers around the year 2000. The pressure on the schools to provide an education and training which will stand the student in good stead between now and then is considerable. In an increasing number of departments of architecture and building science, importance is being placed on the concept of modelling: i.e. the development and use of models of the operational behaviour and aesthetic character of design proposals which will allow appraisal of how real buildings will performing the real world.
series other
last changed 2003/06/08 21:01

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 08c4
authors Mylopoulos, John, Shibahara, Tetsutaro and Tsotsos, John K.
year 1983
title Building Knowledge-Based Systems : The PSN Experience
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 83-88. includes bibliography
summary Knowledge-representation languages have been classified traditionally as declarative or procedural, depending on whether their basic features come from mathematical logic or data structures on one hand, or from programming languages on the other hand. Procedural representation languages are particularly well suited for heuristic knowledge, and their use can lead to efficient searching on the part of an expert system. Many attempts have been made to integrate features of declarative and procedural representation languages. PSN is one attempt that focuses on the integration of semantic network and procedural notions
keywords systems, knowledge base, semantic networks, integration,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8beb
authors Tomkinson, James H.
year 1983
title UCAD : Building Design Automation with General Purpose Software Tools on UNIX
source ACM IEEE Design Automation Conference proceedings (20th : 1983 : Miami Beach, Florida). pp. 774-787 : ill. includes bibliography: p. 778
summary This paper describes a unique approach to a successful Design Automation System. It is an evolutionary approach, building on flexible, general purpose UNIX software tools. It is useful in such areas of design as circuit schematics, custom IC, backplanes, software code generation, building space management, music composition and many others. Examples from two year design automation effort known as UCAD are included
keywords design, automation, software, UNIX, CAD, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6da7
authors Bridges, Alan
year 1983
title Course Description - University of Strathclyde - Msc In Building Science (Computer Aided Building Design)
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. I.40-I.51
summary This paper describes a one-year postgraduate course in computer-aided building design. The course structure is outlined, together with the resources required to run such a course. Details of the course modules are given in an appendix.

keywords Postgraduate Course, Computer-aided Building Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4052
authors Gero, John S., Akiner , Tuncer V. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1983
title What's What and What's Where : Knowledge Engineering in the Representation of Building by Computer
source 1983. 205-215 pp. : ill. floor planes. include a short bibliography
summary Knowledge engineering allows for the encoding of both numeric and symbolic knowledge as inferences. It provides a fundamentally different means of representing buildings than do traditional data structures and databases. A prototypical knowledge engineering reasoning system which reasons about topological relationships, geometric entities and attributes of buildings is described. It is applied in the analysis of an existing small hotel. Using knowledge engineering we can expect future CAAD system to be different to the one with which we have become familiar
keywords building, representation, reasoning, knowledge, analysis, evaluation, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8d5e
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick, Waterman, Donald A. and Lenat, Douglas B. (editors)
year 1983
title Building Expert System
source vii, 444 p. : ill
summary Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1983. 1: include bibliography: p. 405-420 -- (Teknowledge Series in Knowledge Engineering. Hayes-Roth, Frederick, series editor). This book is a collaboration of 38 expert system researchers and developers. It provides a broad introduction to the concepts and methods necessary for an understanding of how these systems work
keywords AI, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 596b
authors Richens, P.
year 1983
title Dis-integrated Models for Building Design
source Proceedings PARC83 International Conference on the Use of Computers in Architecture. Berlin
series other
last changed 2000/03/05 18:05

_id 8d59
authors Andersen, J.M.
year 1983
title CAD in Architectural Practice
source Mechanical Engineering. July, 1983. pp. 48-54 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary A leading architecture/engineering firm has made use of in- house computer system since 1963. This paper discusses some special topics in using computers for the design of HVAC systems, and the process of implementing CAD in the HVAC engineering practice
keywords computer graphics, HVAC, applications, practice, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2e0a
authors Besant, C.B.
year 1983
title Computer-Aided Design and Manufacture. -- 2nd. ed
source 232 p. : ill. Chicester [West Sussex], New York: Halsted Press, 1983. includes bibliography and index -- (Ellis Horwood Series in Engineering Science)
summary An introduction to computing as an aid to design and manufacture. Provides description of hardware and software of CAD systems, discusses their use in engineering drafting
keywords drafting, hardware, software, CAD, CAM, practice
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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