CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 69aa
authors Kaku, Bharat K. and Thompson, Gerald L.
year 1983
title An Exact Algorithm for the General Quadratic Assignment Problem
source December, 1983. 18 P. includes bibliography
summary The authors develop an algorithm that is based on the linearizaition and decomposition of a general Quadratic Assignment Problem of size n into n2 Linear Assignment problems of size (n-1). The solutions to these subproblems are used to calculate a lower bound for the original problem, and this bound is then used in an exact branch and bound procedure. These subproblems are similar to the 'minors' defined by Lawler, but allow calculation of tighter bounds. Computational experience is given for solution to optimization of problems of size up to n = 10
keywords algorithms, branch-and-bound, operations research, linear programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id aba3
authors Laing, Lamond
year 1986
title Computers in Architectural Education
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 71-77
summary Throughout Europe there is a rapidly growing volume of initiatives towards integrating computer aids within all aspects of education. In architectural education, the support offered by these initiatives presents a double-edged sword. On the one hand it is gratifying to see the work of almost two decades of CAAD research bearing fruit and the concepts gaining recognition by the profession. On the other hand the resulting pressures on the few individuals with the necessary knowledge to implement the teaching will stretch many to breaking point. Where resources are so limited it is crucial to clarify the needs and objectives and, thereby, more effectively direct resources. These needs will change over time and, in the world of computers, the means are also changing rapidly as hardware and software improves. This paper therefore outlines a scenario which I believe is relevant at this point in time but the background is constantly changing and I offer no apologies for any shift in emphasis since my last presentation of this topic in 1983.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:02

_id sigradi2005_037
id sigradi2005_037
authors Maciel, Mario
year 2005
title Interactive virtual art
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 37-41
summary The interactivity presumes behavior action events exercised mutually between machines, between digital information and persons, between two or more persons, machines and digital information in real time. Nelson Max presented in Paris the first interactive landscape in 1983. The pioneer of scientific image was Ivan Sutherland, researcher of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Another fundamental reference is Sonia Sheridan that invented a system where the user could modify the original image and visualize the result in real time. In Brazil, as well as in the outside, artists in assembly with scientists, see developing works computacionais with resorts of immersion and interatividade. Like this, in that search of new references, the text presents initially the main concepts about interactive virtual art and analyzes two important expositions: Emoção Art.Ficial 2.0 and Maior ou igual a 4D: computer art interactive. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id 69b3
authors Markelin, Antero
year 1993
title Efficiency of Model Endoscopic Simulation - An Experimental Research at the University of Stuttgart
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 31-34
summary At the Institute of Urban Planning at the University of Stuttgart early experiments were made with the help of endoscopes in the late 1970’s. The intention was to find new instruments to visualize urban design projects. The first experiment included the use of a 16 mm film of a 1:170 scale model of the market place at Karlsruhe, including design alternatives (with trees, without trees etc). The film was shown to the Karlsruhe authorities, who had to make the decision about the alternatives. It was said, that the film gave a great help for the decision-making and a design proposition had never before been presented in such understandable way. In 1975-77, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation) an investigation was carried out into existing endoscopic simulation facilities, such as those in Wageningen, Lund and Berkeley. The resulting publication was mainly concerned with technical installations and their applications. However a key question remained: ”Can reality be simulated with endoscopy?” In 1979-82, in order to answer that question, at the Institute was carried out the most extensive research of the time, into the validity of endoscopic simulation. Of special importance was the inclusion of social scientists and psychologists from the University of Heidelberg and Mannheim. A report was produced in 1983. The research was concerned with the theory of model simulation, its ways of use and its users, and then the establishment of requirements for effective model simulation. For the main research work with models or simulation films, psychological tests were developed which enabled a tested person to give accurate responses or evidence without getting involved in alien technical terminology. It was also thought that the use of semantic differentials would make the work imprecise or arbitrary.

keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id ceb1
authors Maver, T.
year 1984
title What is eCAADe?
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary The main interest of the organisation is to improve the design, teaching. The design remains the core of the professional education, while computer science can support a better understanding of the design methods. Computers should amplify the human capabilities like engines allowed to carry higher forces, radio and television enabled communication over larger distances and computers today should aid the human intellectual activities, to gain a better insight in design methodology, to investigate the design process.Design research should study more extensively how buildings behave, the integration and interaction of different disciplines which contribute to the optimization of a design and the design criteria. Computers could increase the possibility to satisfy building regulations, to access and update information, to model the design process and to understand how decisions affect the building quality (functional and economical as well as formal aspects). More effort and money should be spent on this research. The organisation has been sponsored by the EEC for bringing CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) educational material at the disposal of the design teachers. The Helsinki conference is the third European meeting (after Delft 1982 and Brussels 1983) which concentrates on information and experience exchange in CAAD-education and looks for common interests and collaboration. A specific joint study program works on typical audiovisual material and lecture notes, which will be updated according to teacher's needs. A demand has been done to implement an integrated CAAD package. eCAADe focuses to integrate computer approaches across country boundaries as well as across disciplinary boundaries, as to reach a higher quality of the design education.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:07

_id 8892
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1983
title CAAD in Onderwijs en Onderzoek [CAAD in Teaching and Design]
source Proceedings of THE-CAAD3 Symposium, Eindhoven
summary Students currently in schools of architecture will be at the peak of their careers around the year 2000. The pressure on the schools to provide an education and training which will stand the student in good stead between now and then is considerable. In an increasing number of departments of architecture and building science, importance is being placed on the concept of modelling: i.e. the development and use of models of the operational behaviour and aesthetic character of design proposals which will allow appraisal of how real buildings will performing the real world.
series other
last changed 2003/06/08 21:01

_id ecaade2013_139
id ecaade2013_139
authors Mendes, Leticia Teixeira; Beirão, José Nuno; Duarte, José Pinto and Celani, Gabriela
year 2013
title A Bottom-Up Social Housing System Described with Shape Grammars
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 2, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 705-714
summary This paper presents the analysis of a bottom-up design system using shape grammars. This research is part of a larger study that proposes the development of a generic grammar to improve the quality of site development in social housing plans, including the improvement of their public spaces. We show the use of shape grammars as an analytical method to study the design of Belapur social housing development, designed by Charles Correa, in 1983.
wos WOS:000340643600073
keywords Design methodology; shape grammar; analytical grammar; low-income housing.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 8324
authors Musso, Arne
year 1983
title Justifying Designs
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. 0.1-0.9
summary A distinction is made between non-justified (not 'unjustified') and justified designs. A good justification requires that a description of the solution space and a rule for selecting one solution should be given. The old but rarely used concept of the planning model is described and it is stressed that it is a useful aid when justifying design decisions. A simple example is presented to illustrate the method. It is pointed out that the use of computers can be helpful when dealing with large solution spaces, complicated evaluation rules and high demands on the quality of the justification. An increasing demand for design justification is observed, which may result in increased computer application. The hope is expressed that planning models will be used in this connection for better communication.
keywords Planning Model, Design Decisions, Communication
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:44

_id 6eaa
authors O’Connell, Dermot
year 1983
title An Educational Strategy for CAAD and its Implementation in a New System with a Sophisticated Interface
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. I.1-I.19
summary Reasons are examined for the slower uptake of CAD in architecture than in engineering. An appropriate response to Computer-Aided Architectural Design is overdue from the educational sector. Schools of Architecture should put CAAD to the forefront in their plans, taking an ambitious long-term view and aiming for high-quality system design to anticipate the industry's drive to produce first-class equipment progressively more cheaply. Schools should press for changes in the way facilities are supplied to them. They should discard obsolete software, buy software commercially, stick to what they can do best, and plan for concomitant changes across the curriculum. A new CAAD system with the emphasis on the design interface being implemented in UCD School of Architecture is briefly described.
keywords CAAD, System Design
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:45

_id ea43
authors Roberts, Teresa L. and Moran, Thomas P.
year 1983
title The Evaluation of Text Editors : Methodology and Empirical Results
source Communications of the ACM. April 1983. vol. 26: pp. 265-283 : diagrams and tables. includes bibliography
summary This paper presents a methodology for evaluating text editors on several dimensions: the time it takes experts to perform basic editing tasks, the time experts spend making and correcting errors, the rate at which novices learn to perform basic editing tasks, and the functionality of editors over more complex tasks. Time, errors, and learning are measured experimentally; functionality is measured analytically; time is also calculated analytically. The methodology has thus far been used to evaluate nine diverse text editors, producing an initial database of performance results. The database is used to tell us not only about the editors but also about the users - the magnitude of individual differences and the factors affecting novice learning
keywords design, evaluation, word processing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 413f
authors Wirth, Niklaus
year 1983
title Programming in Modula-2
source 176 p. : ill. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1983. 2nd ed.: includes bibliography and index.--- Text and Monographs in Computer Science Series edited by Gries, David
summary An introduction to programming in general and a manual for programming in Modula-2. It covers all facilities of that language. Part 1 covers basic notions of the variable, expression, assignment, conditional and repetitive statement, and array data structures. Part 2 introduces the important concept of the procedure or subroutine. Part 3 is concerned with data types and structures, and Part 4 introduces the notion of the module
keywords programming, languages, MODULA-2, education
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:10

_id 6d3e
authors Yau, Mann-may and Srihari, Sargur N.
year 1983
title A Hierarchical Data Structure for Multidimensional Digital Images
source Communications of the ACM. July, 1983. vol. 26: pp. 504-515 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A tree data structure for representing multidimensional digital binary images is described. The method is based on recursive subdivision of the d-dimensional space into 2d hyperoctants. An algorithm for constructing the tree of a d- dimensional binary image from the tree of its (d-1)- dimensional cross sections is given. The computational advantages of the data structure and the algorithm are demonstrated both theoretically and in application to a three-dimensional reconstruction of a human brain
keywords algorithms, computational geometry, representation, data structures, solid modeling
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ecaade2009_123
id ecaade2009_123
authors Achten, Henri; Beetz, Jakob
year 2009
title What Happened to Collaborative Design?
source Computation: The New Realm of Architectural Design [27th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-8-9] Istanbul (Turkey) 16-19 September 2009, pp. 357-366
summary In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive literature survey on the development of collaborative design. We reviewed 324 papers on collaborative design, taken from various sources (conferences, journals, and PhD-theses). We grouped the papers based on common themes, and in that way derived a classification of themes through the last 25 years (1983-2008). Each category is described, its development, and key publications are identified.
wos WOS:000334282200043
keywords Collaborative design
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 2387
authors Akin, Omer, Baykan, Can D. and Rao, Radha D.
year 1983
title Searching in the UNIX Directory
source December, 1983. 19 p. : ill., tables. includes bibliography
summary The structure of the directory space and subjects search behaviors in the UNIX operating system environment are examined. Protocol analysis with two subjects and survey of the contents of the directory space of all users of E-VAX and X-VAX systems in the Architecture and Computer Science Systems at Carnegie Mellon University were conducted. Depth first search characterized both the organization of the directories and the behavior of the subjects. Single step as opposed to multiple step traversal of the directory tree was also prevalent in the subject`s behaviors. Recommendations for system friendliness, in term of reusability, orientation, robustness, and consistency are developed
keywords UNIX, user interface, protocol analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8d59
authors Andersen, J.M.
year 1983
title CAD in Architectural Practice
source Mechanical Engineering. July, 1983. pp. 48-54 : ill. includes a short bibliography
summary A leading architecture/engineering firm has made use of in- house computer system since 1963. This paper discusses some special topics in using computers for the design of HVAC systems, and the process of implementing CAD in the HVAC engineering practice
keywords computer graphics, HVAC, applications, practice, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e118
authors Balas, Egon
year 1983
title Disjunctive Programming and a Hierarchy of Relaxations for Discrete Optimization Problems
source December, 1983. 38 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The author discuss a new conceptual framework for the convexification of discrete optimization problems, and a general technique for obtaining approximations to the convex hull of the feasible set. The concepts come from disjunctive programming and the key tool is a description of the convex hull of a union of polyhedra in terms of a higher dimensional polyhedron. Although this description was known for several years, only recently was it shown by Jeroslow and Lowe to yield improved representations of discrete optimization problems. The author expresses the feasible set of a discrete optimization problem as the intersection (conjunction) of unions of polyhedra, and define an operation that takes one such expression into another, equivalent one, with fewer conjuncts. He then introduces a class of relaxations based on replacing each conjunct (union of polyhedra) by its convex hull. The strength of the relaxations increases as the number of conjuncts decreases, and the class of relaxations forms a hierarchy that spans the spectrum between the common linear programming relaxation, and the convex hull of the feasible set itself. Instances where this approach presents advantages include critical path problems in disjunctive graphs, network synthesis problems, certain fixed charge network flow problems, etc. The approach on the first of these problems is illustrated, which is a model for machine sequencing
keywords polyhedra, computational geometry, optimization, programming, convex hull, graphs
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 86cb
authors Bell, John
year 1983
title Designers Get the Picture
source New Scientist March, 1983. pp. 815-[822] : col. ill.
summary One firm that had installed a CAD system is the Somerset Shoemaker Clarks Ltd. It took four years to develop the software that was developed by CADCenter in Cambridge. The article describes the program and the process of shoemaking
keywords CAD, practice, engineering
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 213d
authors Bernard, Yves and Dupagne, Albert
year 1983
title Volume: a computer Program for building Modelisation and Manipulation
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.70-III.79
summary We describe a computer program VOLUME for interactive 3D modelling of building which can be used in many problems (heat losses calculations, architectural evaluation, ...) where a geometric representation is required. The program is more than a tool to input a geometry: it is also a tool for design; manipulations are very easy and many design solutions can be tried. We then discuss about developments for improving the quality of that tool in the design process.
keywords Computer Aided Design, 3D Modelling, Computer-user Interface, Evaluations
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id e10e
authors Billon, R. and Rocca, R.
year 1983
title Comprendre KEOPS: Logiciel de conception assistee par ordinateur en architecture
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. III.19-III.35
summary En informatique graphique, la méthode la plus courante pour saisir un bâtiment consiste à dêcrire et à stocker en base de données les "pleins": les murs, planchers, composants. Cette procédure est vite fastidieuse, et ne permet pas réellement une véritable conception assistée par ordinateur. KEOPS expérimente une autre méthode qui consiste à décrire l'esquisse par ses "vides", c'est-à-dire les volumes des locaux en trois dimensions. Le logiciel opère automatiquement la transformation "filaire" en composants et ouvrages du bâtiment en exploitant un savoir technologique. Le benéfice? La réduction spectaculaire du temps de saisie et un logiciel de C.A.O. enfin opérationnel en bâtiment.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8c67
authors Brachman, Ronald J., Levesque, Hector J. and Fikes, Richard E.
year 1983
title Krypton : A Functional Approach to Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 67-73 : ill. includes bibliography
summary While the basic ideas of frame systems are straight forward, complication arise in their design. A design strategy was developed and have been implemented in a representation system called Krypton. Krypton distinguishes between definitional and factual information by using both frame- based and logic-based languages. The result is a system defined in functional not structural terms
keywords AI, frames, knowledge, representation, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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