CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4052
authors Gero, John S., Akiner , Tuncer V. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1983
title What's What and What's Where : Knowledge Engineering in the Representation of Building by Computer
source 1983. 205-215 pp. : ill. floor planes. include a short bibliography
summary Knowledge engineering allows for the encoding of both numeric and symbolic knowledge as inferences. It provides a fundamentally different means of representing buildings than do traditional data structures and databases. A prototypical knowledge engineering reasoning system which reasons about topological relationships, geometric entities and attributes of buildings is described. It is applied in the analysis of an existing small hotel. Using knowledge engineering we can expect future CAAD system to be different to the one with which we have become familiar
keywords building, representation, reasoning, knowledge, analysis, evaluation, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c4a6
authors Haapasalo, Harri
year 1997
title The Role of CAD In Creative Architectural Sketching
source Challenges of the Future [15th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-3-0] Vienna (Austria) 17-20 September 1997
summary The history of computers in architectural design is very short; only a few decades; when compared to the development of methods in practical design (Gero 1983). However, the development of the user interfaces has been very fast. According to the practical observations of over one hundred architects, user interfaces are at present inflexible in sketching, although computers can make drafts and the creation of alternatives quicker and more effective in the final stages of designing (Haapasalo 1997). Based on our research in the field of practical design we would wish to stimulate a wider debate about the theory of design. More profound perusal compels us to examine human modes, pre-eminently different levels of thinking and manners of inference. What is the meaning of subconscious and conscious thinking in design? What is the role of intuition in practical design? Do the computer aided design programs apply to creative architectural sketching? To answer such questions, distinct, profound and broad understanding from different disciplines is required. Even then, in spite of such specialist knowledge we cannot hope to unambiguously and definitively answer such questions.
keywords Creativity, Design Process, Architectural Design, Sketching, Computer Aided Design
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/08/17 13:11

_id c25a
authors Israel, David J.
year 1983
title The Role of Logic in Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 37-41 : ill. includes bibliography
summary AI researchers have long debated over the value of logic in knowledge representation. This article discusses the debate between John McCarthy's and Marvin Minsky's philosophies on how to make true thinking machines, and what do they mean when they speak about 'logic.'
keywords AI, logic, representation, philosophy, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 0a78
authors McCalla, Gordon and Cercone, Nick
year 1983
title Approaches to Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 12-18 : ill. includes bibliography
summary In contrast to conventional database systems, AI systems require a knowledge base with diverse kinds of knowledge. These include, but are not limited to knowledge about objects, knowledge about processes, and hard to represent common sense knowledge about goals, motivations, causality, time, actions etc. This article is an introduction to a special issue in which 15 articles contributed by a broad spectrum of researchers discuss various aspects of knowledge representation. It gives some background and context to these articles by mapping out the basic approaches to knowledge representation that have developed over the years
keywords knowledge, representation, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id acadia03_014
id acadia03_014
authors Woo, J.-H., Clayton, M., Johnson, R. and Flores, B.
year 2003
title Case Study of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in a Distributed Design Studio
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 107-116
summary This paper demonstrates the effects of experts’ tacit knowledge on improving architectural students’ design artifacts in a distributed design studio. In geographically distributed design environments, the Internet is an important medium by which architects can share tacit knowledge in the form of dialogue via online communication technologies, such as online chat and Instant Messaging (IM). In spring 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and 8 schools conducted a collaborative design studio to develop a crew restraint system for space flights. Online chat software was used as a primary communication channel. Throughout the entire design studio, NASA professionals served as knowledge holders while undergraduate students participated as knowledge seekers. An interpretive content analysis and case study methodology were used in this study. We qualitatively observed the interactions between NASA and the students based upon two aspects: knowledge reflection and design improvement. Data were collected using document analysis of all knowledge sources and students’ design artifacts. The findings of this study indicate that the online chat system is useful in sharing tacit knowledge for the early part of design processes in a distributed design environment. Experts’ tacit knowledge appears to not only influence how students understand problems, but how they initiate conceptual design. This study provides empirical evidence regarding tacit knowledge sharing, and strengthens Schon’s (1983) claim about knowledge reflection in design studio. Furthermore, this study introduces architectural practitioners to the practical necessity of tacit knowledge sharing. This study is significant because its findings indicate the appropriate knowledge management strategy for architectural practitioners.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id e1cd
authors Woods, William A.
year 1983
title What's Important About Knowledge Representation ?
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol.16: pp. 22-27 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article discusses a number of issues that serve as research goals for discovering the general principles of knowledge representation. Using techniques and concepts evolved while developing the knowledge-representation system KL-One as illustrations
keywords knowledge, representation, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0cfd
authors Zawack, Daniel J. and Thompson, Gerald L.
year 1983
title A Dynamic Space-Time Network Flow Model for City Traffic Congestion
source 43 p. : ill. graphs Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center CMU, December, 1983. DRC-70-18-83. includes bibliography
summary A space-time network is used to model traffic flows over time for a capacitated road transportation system having one-way and two-way streets. Also traffic signal lights, which change the network structure, are explicitly incorporated into the model. A linear (time) cost per unit flow is associated with each arc, and it is shown that under the model structure, travel time on a street is piecewise linear convex function of the number of units travelling on that street. Hence congestion effects are explicitly considered while maintaining the linear nature of the model. Two efficient solutions methods are proposed. A network flow solution for multiple source single destination network and a shortest path solution for a single source single destination network
keywords dynamic programming, simulation, planning, graphs, networks, transportation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8c67
authors Brachman, Ronald J., Levesque, Hector J. and Fikes, Richard E.
year 1983
title Krypton : A Functional Approach to Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 67-73 : ill. includes bibliography
summary While the basic ideas of frame systems are straight forward, complication arise in their design. A design strategy was developed and have been implemented in a representation system called Krypton. Krypton distinguishes between definitional and factual information by using both frame- based and logic-based languages. The result is a system defined in functional not structural terms
keywords AI, frames, knowledge, representation, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8b75
authors Cullen, Ian
year 1983
title Expert Systems in Architectural and Planning Education
source Proceedings of the International Conference eCAADe [European Computer Aided Architectural Design Education] Brussels (Belgium) 1983, pp. IV.1-IV.15
summary The paper discusses the problems and possibilities of a project initiated recently within the Bartlett in the general area of knowledge engineering. The aim is to assemble a set of knowledge bases which may be explored interactively by students. The system will differ from traditional CAL packages in that it will be both problem oriented - designed to extract from the students the information required to reach a specific decision - and capable of providing an explanation of its approach at any point.
keywords Knowledge Engineering
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 05:56

_id e7b8
authors Dahl, Veronica
year 1983
title Logic Programming as a Representation of Knowledge
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 106-110 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic has traditionally provided a firm conceptual framework for representing knowledge. As it can formally deal with the notion of logical consequence, the introduction of Prolog has made it possible to represent knowledge in terms of logic and also to expect appropriate inferences to be drawn from it automatically. This article illustrates and explores these ideas with respect to two central representational issues: problem solving knowledge and database knowledge. The technical aspects of both subjects have been covered elsewhere (Kowalski, R. Logic for problem solving, North- Holland pub. 1979 ; Dahl, V. on database system development through logic ACM Trans.vol.7/no.3/Mar.1982 pp.102). This explanation uses simple, nontechnical terms
keywords PROLOG, knowledge, representation, logic, programming, problem solving, database
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 273f
authors Elcock, E.W.
year 1983
title How Complete are Knowledge Representation Systems?
source IEEE Computer. IEEE computer society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 114-118. includes bibliography
summary Prolog, the most feasible of the first-order logic systems, has intriguing analogies with Absys, short for Aberdeen System, an assertative programming system developed in 1968. In this article, the issue of incompleteness is explored by comparing aspects of the two systems, and the incompleteness resulting from any serious use of Prolog as a vehicle for a knowledge-based system is addressed
keywords PROLOG, algorithms, knowledge, systems, languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e8c7
authors Feigenbaum, Edward A. and McCorduck, Pamela
year 1983
title The Fifth Generation : Artificial Intelligence and Japan's Computer Challenge to the World
source ix, 275 p. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Pub. Co., 1983. includes bibliography: p. 268
summary Knowledge is the future power and Japan wants to be the first in developing and marketing the Fifth Generation of computers
keywords What is The Fifth Generation? Why Japan ? and how would it affect the Western world? expert systems, hardware, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id sigradi2007_af13
id sigradi2007_af13
authors Granero, Adriana Edith; Alicia Barrón; María Teresa Urruti
year 2007
title Transformations in the educational system, Influence of the Digital Graph [Transformaciones en el sistema educacional, influencia de la Gráfica Digital]
source SIGraDi 2007 - [Proceedings of the 11th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] México D.F. - México 23-25 October 2007, pp. 182-186
summary The educative proposal was based on the summary attained through experiences piled up during the 2 last semester courses, 2/2006-1/2007. This proposal corresponds to a mix of methodology (by personal attendance / by internet). Founding on the Theory of the Game (Eric Berne 1960) and on different theories such as: Multiple intelligences (Haward Gardner 1983), Emotional Intelligence (Peter Salowey and John Mayer 1990, Goleman 1998), Social Intelligence (Goleman 2006), the Triarchy of Intelligence (Stemberg, R.J. 1985, 1997), “the hand of the human power”, it´s established that the power of the voice, that of the imagination, the reward, the commitment and association produce a significant increase of the productivity (Rosabeth Moss Kanter 2000), aside from the constructive processes of the knowledge (new pedagogical concepts constructivista of Ormrod J.E. 2003 and Tim O´Reilly 2004).
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 8d5e
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick, Waterman, Donald A. and Lenat, Douglas B. (editors)
year 1983
title Building Expert System
source vii, 444 p. : ill
summary Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1983. 1: include bibliography: p. 405-420 -- (Teknowledge Series in Knowledge Engineering. Hayes-Roth, Frederick, series editor). This book is a collaboration of 38 expert system researchers and developers. It provides a broad introduction to the concepts and methods necessary for an understanding of how these systems work
keywords AI, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4d66
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1983
title A Relational Database for Non-Manipulative Representation of Solid Objects
source Computer Aided Design September, 1983. vol. 15: pp. 271-276 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Being the heart of any solid modeling system, much effort has been spent on formulating the data models which represent the shape of a polyhedral solid object within the computer in an accurate, unique and complete manner. This paper presents an example relational model as a complementary logical schema for viewing the shape database. It facilitates compact storage and supports non-manipulative query operations through the projection, selection and join operators defined for the relational model, without requiring expert knowledge of the manipulative structure. The flexibility of the relational model, compared with that of the hierarchical, manipulative one, allows easy extensibility and the association of non- geometric attributes with each data item
keywords solid modeling, polyhedra, relational database, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id aba3
authors Laing, Lamond
year 1986
title Computers in Architectural Education
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 71-77
summary Throughout Europe there is a rapidly growing volume of initiatives towards integrating computer aids within all aspects of education. In architectural education, the support offered by these initiatives presents a double-edged sword. On the one hand it is gratifying to see the work of almost two decades of CAAD research bearing fruit and the concepts gaining recognition by the profession. On the other hand the resulting pressures on the few individuals with the necessary knowledge to implement the teaching will stretch many to breaking point. Where resources are so limited it is crucial to clarify the needs and objectives and, thereby, more effectively direct resources. These needs will change over time and, in the world of computers, the means are also changing rapidly as hardware and software improves. This paper therefore outlines a scenario which I believe is relevant at this point in time but the background is constantly changing and I offer no apologies for any shift in emphasis since my last presentation of this topic in 1983.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:02

_id aa73
authors Langley, Pat
year 1983
title Representational Issues in Learning Systems
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 47-51 : ill. includes bibliography
summary One of the central issues in artificial intelligence involves learning -- the modification of behavior through the acquisition of knowledge. The way knowledge is represented impacts the way learning occurs and indeed may determine whether learning can occur at all. The issues of learning and representation have many potential interactions. The purpose of this paper is to illuminate representational problems that may not have occurred to researchers setting out to construct self-modifying systems, and to suggest some possible solution to these problems
keywords AI, learning, knowledge acquisition, knowledge representation
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 08c4
authors Mylopoulos, John, Shibahara, Tetsutaro and Tsotsos, John K.
year 1983
title Building Knowledge-Based Systems : The PSN Experience
source IEEE Computer. IEEE Computer Society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 83-88. includes bibliography
summary Knowledge-representation languages have been classified traditionally as declarative or procedural, depending on whether their basic features come from mathematical logic or data structures on one hand, or from programming languages on the other hand. Procedural representation languages are particularly well suited for heuristic knowledge, and their use can lead to efficient searching on the part of an expert system. Many attempts have been made to integrate features of declarative and procedural representation languages. PSN is one attempt that focuses on the integration of semantic network and procedural notions
keywords systems, knowledge base, semantic networks, integration,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 9e1a
authors Schoen, D.
year 1983
title The Reflective Practitioner
source Basic Books. New York
summary The reflection that accompanies the evidence a candidate presents in the performance-based product is a critical part of the candidate's development. Through reflection the candidate begins the ongoing process of blending the art and science of good teaching practice. Reflection requires thoughtful and careful reporting and analysis of teaching practice, philosophy, and experience. Understanding why an activity or practice was productive or nonproductive in the classroom is a key element in the progression from novice to master teacher. The reflection cycle and the guiding questions included in this packet are designed to assist licensure candidates in the reflection process. They will enable candidates to better understand the reflection process and address the question; "How does this piece of evidence demonstrate my knowledge and skill level in this activity?". The following reflection cycle offers a prescriptive structure while allowing the flexibility necessary for candidates to demonstrate their knowledge, skill, and ability in the unique context of their area and environment. The reflections of the novice teacher are also vital to the assessors charged with the responsibility for judging whether the teacher has met the required level of performance for each standard based activity. Through their responses to the guiding questions, candidates will better be able to put evidence into perspective for the review team members by explaining how the evidence or artifact addresses the standard through the activity.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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