CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id sigradi2006_e028c
id sigradi2006_e028c
authors Griffith, Kenfield; Sass, Larry and Michaud, Dennis
year 2006
title A strategy for complex-curved building design:Design structure with Bi-lateral contouring as integrally connected ribs
source SIGraDi 2006 - [Proceedings of the 10th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Santiago de Chile - Chile 21-23 November 2006, pp. 465-469
summary Shapes in designs created by architects such as Gehry Partners (Shelden, 2002), Foster and Partners, and Kohn Peterson and Fox rely on computational processes for rationalizing complex geometry for building construction. Rationalization is the reduction of a complete geometric shape into discrete components. Unfortunately, for many architects the rationalization is limited reducing solid models to surfaces or data on spread sheets for contractors to follow. Rationalized models produced by the firms listed above do not offer strategies for construction or digital fabrication. For the physical production of CAD description an alternative to the rationalized description is needed. This paper examines the coupling of digital rationalization and digital fabrication with physical mockups (Rich, 1989). Our aim is to explore complex relationships found in early and mid stage design phases when digital fabrication is used to produce design outcomes. Results of our investigation will aid architects and engineers in addressing the complications found in the translation of design models embedded with precision to constructible geometries. We present an algorithmically based approach to design rationalization that supports physical production as well as surface production of desktop models. Our approach is an alternative to conventional rapid prototyping that builds objects by assembly of laterally sliced contours from a solid model. We explored an improved product description for rapid manufacture as bilateral contouring for structure and panelling for strength (Kolarevic, 2003). Infrastructure typically found within aerospace, automotive, and shipbuilding industries, bilateral contouring is an organized matrix of horizontal and vertical interlocking ribs evenly distributed along a surface. These structures are monocoque and semi-monocoque assemblies composed of structural ribs and skinning attached by rivets and adhesives. Alternative, bi-lateral contouring discussed is an interlocking matrix of plywood strips having integral joinery for assembly. Unlike traditional methods of building representations through malleable materials for creating tangible objects (Friedman, 2002), this approach constructs with the implication for building life-size solutions. Three algorithms are presented as examples of rationalized design production with physical results. The first algorithm [Figure 1] deconstructs an initial 2D curved form into ribbed slices to be assembled through integral connections constructed as part of the rib solution. The second algorithm [Figure 2] deconstructs curved forms of greater complexity. The algorithm walks along the surface extracting surface information along horizontal and vertical axes saving surface information resulting in a ribbed structure of slight double curvature. The final algorithm [Figure 3] is expressed as plug-in software for Rhino that deconstructs a design to components for assembly as rib structures. The plug-in also translates geometries to a flatten position for 2D fabrication. The software demonstrates the full scope of the research exploration. Studies published by Dodgson argued that innovation technology (IvT) (Dodgson, Gann, Salter, 2004) helped in solving projects like the Guggenheim in Bilbao, the leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy, and the Millennium Bridge in London. Similarly, the method discussed in this paper will aid in solving physical production problems with complex building forms. References Bentley, P.J. (Ed.). Evolutionary Design by Computers. Morgan Kaufman Publishers Inc. San Francisco, CA, 1-73 Celani, G, (2004) “From simple to complex: using AutoCAD to build generative design systems” in: L. Caldas and J. Duarte (org.) Implementations issues in generative design systems. First Intl. Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, July 2004 Dodgson M, Gann D.M., Salter A, (2004), “Impact of Innovation Technology on Engineering Problem Solving: Lessons from High Profile Public Projects,” Industrial Dynamics, Innovation and Development, 2004 Dristas, (2004) “Design Operators.” Thesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2004 Friedman, M, (2002), Gehry Talks: Architecture + Practice, Universe Publishing, New York, NY, 2002 Kolarevic, B, (2003), Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing, Spon Press, London, UK, 2003 Opas J, Bochnick H, Tuomi J, (1994), “Manufacturability Analysis as a Part of CAD/CAM Integration”, Intelligent Systems in Design and Manufacturing, 261-292 Rudolph S, Alber R, (2002), “An Evolutionary Approach to the Inverse Problem in Rule-Based Design Representations”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 329-350 Rich M, (1989), Digital Mockup, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, 1989 Schön, D., The Reflective Practitioner: How Professional Think in Action. Basic Books. 1983 Shelden, D, (2003), “Digital Surface Representation and the Constructability of Gehry’s Architecture.” Diss. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2003 Smithers T, Conkie A, Doheny J, Logan B, Millington K, (1989), “Design as Intelligent Behaviour: An AI in Design Thesis Programme”, Artificial Intelligence in Design, 293-334 Smithers T, (2002), “Synthesis in Designing”, Artificial Intelligence in Design ’02, 3-24 Stiny, G, (1977), “Ice-ray: a note on the generation of Chinese lattice designs” Environmental and Planning B, volume 4, pp. 89-98
keywords Digital fabrication; bilateral contouring; integral connection; complex-curve
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id ecaade2007_114
id ecaade2007_114
authors Olmos, Francisco
year 2007
title Training Programs for Art and Design Learning in the Virtual Studio
source Predicting the Future [25th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-0-9541183-6-5] Frankfurt am Main (Germany) 26-29 September 2007, pp. 639-646
summary Computers are very common drawing tools at university design studios but their potential as training tools in arts and design has not been explored in depth. In arts and design the learning process is based on ‘knowing in action’ (Schön 1983). Therefore, training is the keystone of the learning process in arts and design. This action takes the form of a reflective practice based on the manipulation of a media where each media has its own possibilities, its own limits in communicating design ideas or artistic concepts. With the introduction of digital media in the design studio, it is expected that reflective practices in design learning will experience a qualitative change. However, currently there is little understanding of how to use the digital and virtual media in a design studio as a learning tool (Szalapaj 2001), nor of the use of design training programs. In this paper the use of training programs in an experimental design course at a university level, is discussed. This experience was carried out as a PhD research experiment at the Faculty of Architecture and Arts of the Universidad de Los Andes in Merida, Venezuela. The training programs discussed here were designed for an eight week introductory design course in a virtual design studio. The programs were written in VRML and conceived as a virtual design training environment. Each program was designed for a specific design exercise, based on a learning strategy and an interactivity model proposed for object manipulation in design training. A comparative analysis of the data gathered from the course was made of training exercises done with a Cad program and with the training programs and crossing information with other sources. The experiment shows that the training programs, their learning strategy and the interactivity model proposed were successful in guiding the scope of the design exercises during the training process.
keywords E-learning, virtual studio, design training, virtual environment
series eCAADe
last changed 2007/09/16 15:55

_id 9e1a
authors Schoen, D.
year 1983
title The Reflective Practitioner
source Basic Books. New York
summary The reflection that accompanies the evidence a candidate presents in the performance-based product is a critical part of the candidate's development. Through reflection the candidate begins the ongoing process of blending the art and science of good teaching practice. Reflection requires thoughtful and careful reporting and analysis of teaching practice, philosophy, and experience. Understanding why an activity or practice was productive or nonproductive in the classroom is a key element in the progression from novice to master teacher. The reflection cycle and the guiding questions included in this packet are designed to assist licensure candidates in the reflection process. They will enable candidates to better understand the reflection process and address the question; "How does this piece of evidence demonstrate my knowledge and skill level in this activity?". The following reflection cycle offers a prescriptive structure while allowing the flexibility necessary for candidates to demonstrate their knowledge, skill, and ability in the unique context of their area and environment. The reflections of the novice teacher are also vital to the assessors charged with the responsibility for judging whether the teacher has met the required level of performance for each standard based activity. Through their responses to the guiding questions, candidates will better be able to put evidence into perspective for the review team members by explaining how the evidence or artifact addresses the standard through the activity.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 49a8
authors McCall, R., Fischer, G. and Morch, A.
year 1990
title Supporting Reflection-in-Action in the Janus Design Environment
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 247-259
summary We have developed a computer-based design aid called Janus, which is based on a model of computer-supported design that we think has significance for the future of architectural education. Janus utilizes a knowledge-based approach to link a graphic construction system to hypertext. This allows the computer to make useful comments on the solutions that students construct in a CAD-like environment. These comments contain information intended to make students think more carefully about what they are doing while they are doing it. In other words, Janus promotes what Donald Schon has called "reflection-inaction" (Schon, 1983). The Janus design environment is named for the Roman god with a pair of faces looking in opposite directions. In our case the faces correspond to complementary design activities we call construction and argumentation. Construction is the activity of graphically creating the form of the solution e.g., a building. Traditionally this has been done with tracing paper, pencils, and pens. Argumentation is the activity of reasoning about the problem and its solution. This includes such things as considering what to do next, what alternative courses of action are available, and which course of action to choose. Argumentation is mostly verbal but partly graphical.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id acadia03_014
id acadia03_014
authors Woo, J.-H., Clayton, M., Johnson, R. and Flores, B.
year 2003
title Case Study of Tacit Knowledge Sharing in a Distributed Design Studio
source Connecting >> Crossroads of Digital Discourse [Proceedings of the 2003 Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture / ISBN 1-880250-12-8] Indianapolis (Indiana) 24-27 October 2003, pp. 107-116
summary This paper demonstrates the effects of experts’ tacit knowledge on improving architectural students’ design artifacts in a distributed design studio. In geographically distributed design environments, the Internet is an important medium by which architects can share tacit knowledge in the form of dialogue via online communication technologies, such as online chat and Instant Messaging (IM). In spring 2003, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and 8 schools conducted a collaborative design studio to develop a crew restraint system for space flights. Online chat software was used as a primary communication channel. Throughout the entire design studio, NASA professionals served as knowledge holders while undergraduate students participated as knowledge seekers. An interpretive content analysis and case study methodology were used in this study. We qualitatively observed the interactions between NASA and the students based upon two aspects: knowledge reflection and design improvement. Data were collected using document analysis of all knowledge sources and students’ design artifacts. The findings of this study indicate that the online chat system is useful in sharing tacit knowledge for the early part of design processes in a distributed design environment. Experts’ tacit knowledge appears to not only influence how students understand problems, but how they initiate conceptual design. This study provides empirical evidence regarding tacit knowledge sharing, and strengthens Schon’s (1983) claim about knowledge reflection in design studio. Furthermore, this study introduces architectural practitioners to the practical necessity of tacit knowledge sharing. This study is significant because its findings indicate the appropriate knowledge management strategy for architectural practitioners.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/10/30 15:20

_id 8e02
authors Brown, A.G.P. and Coenen, F.P.
year 2000
title Spatial reasoning: improving computational efficiency
source Automation in Construction 9 (4) (2000) pp. 361-367
summary When spatial data is analysed the result is often very computer intensive: even by the standards of contemporary technologies, the machine power needed is great and the processing times significant. This is particularly so in 3-D and 4-D scenarios. What we describe here is a technique, which tackles this and associated problems. The technique is founded in the idea of quad-tesseral addressing; a technique, which was originally applied to the analysis of atomic structures. It is based on ideas concerning Hierarchical clustering developed in the 1960s and 1970s to improve data access time [G.M. Morton, A computer oriented geodetic database and a new technique on file sequencing, IBM Canada, 1996.], and on atomic isohedral (same shape) tiling strategies developed in the 1970s and 1980s concerned with group theory [B. Grunbaum, G.C. Shephard, Tilings and Patterns, Freeman, New York, 1987.]. The technique was first suggested as a suitable representation for GIS in the early 1980s when the two strands were brought together and a tesseral arithmetic applied [F.C. Holdroyd, The Geometry of Tiling Hierarchies, Ars Combanitoria 16B (1983) 211–244.; S.B.M. Bell, B.M. Diaz, F.C. Holroyd, M.J.J. Jackson, Spatially referenced methods of processing raster and vector data, Image and Vision Computing 1 (4) (1983) 211–220.; Diaz, S.B.M. Bell, Spatial Data Processing Using Tesseral Methods, Natural Environment Research Council, Swindon, 1986.]. Here, we describe how that technique can equally be applied to the analysis of environmental interaction with built forms. The way in which the technique deals with the problems described is first to linearise the three-dimensional (3-D) space being investigated. Then, the reasoning applied to that space is applied within the same environment as the definition of the problem data. We show, with an illustrative example, how the technique can be applied. The problem then remains of how to visualise the results of the analysis so undertaken. We show how this has been accomplished so that the 3-D space and the results are represented in a way which facilitates rapid interpretation of the analysis, which has been carried out.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 19:22

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 0d6d
authors Doyle, Jon
year 1983
title Admissible State Semantics for Representational Systems
source IEEE Computer. IEEE computer society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 119-122. includes bibliography
summary A clear semantic is one of the most important requirements in designing representational systems. This article indicates how many kinds of informal semantics can be transformed directly into formal semantics of no greater complexity. The author focuses on the meaning rather than on the expression within a particular logical language. The distinction of the meaning of mental components from general ecological meaning is done by the name admissible state semantics, leaving the specification of external meaning to the standard tools of model theory. The method of admissible state semantic is simple, resembling the usual explanations of intended meanings given by system designers. The designer explains the meaning of one representation in terms of its relations to other representation in the system. Examples are given
keywords logic, languages, representation, systems, semantics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 273f
authors Elcock, E.W.
year 1983
title How Complete are Knowledge Representation Systems?
source IEEE Computer. IEEE computer society, October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 114-118. includes bibliography
summary Prolog, the most feasible of the first-order logic systems, has intriguing analogies with Absys, short for Aberdeen System, an assertative programming system developed in 1968. In this article, the issue of incompleteness is explored by comparing aspects of the two systems, and the incompleteness resulting from any serious use of Prolog as a vehicle for a knowledge-based system is addressed
keywords PROLOG, algorithms, knowledge, systems, languages
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e8c7
authors Feigenbaum, Edward A. and McCorduck, Pamela
year 1983
title The Fifth Generation : Artificial Intelligence and Japan's Computer Challenge to the World
source ix, 275 p. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Pub. Co., 1983. includes bibliography: p. 268
summary Knowledge is the future power and Japan wants to be the first in developing and marketing the Fifth Generation of computers
keywords What is The Fifth Generation? Why Japan ? and how would it affect the Western world? expert systems, hardware, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id b190
authors Goldberg, Adele and Robson, David
year 1983
title Smalltalk-80: The language and its implementation
source New York, NY: Addison Wesley Co
summary Smalltalk-80 is the classic standard Smalltalk language as described in Smalltalk-80: The Language and Its Implementation by Goldberg and Robson. This book is commonly called "the Blue Book". Squeak implements the dialect of Smalltalk described in this book, but has a different implementation. Overview of the Smalltalk Language Smalltalk is a general purpose, high level programming language. It was the first original "pure" object oriented language, but not the first to use the object oriented concept, which is credited to Simula 67. The explosive growth of Object Oriented Programming (OOP) technologies began in the early 1980's, with Smalltalk's introduction. Behind it was the idea that the individual human user should be the most important component of any computing system, and that programming should be a natural extension of thinking, and also a dynamic and evolutionary process consistent with the model of human learning activity. In Smalltalk, these ideas are embodied in a framework for human-computer communication. In a sense, Smalltalk is yet another language like C and Pascal, and programs can be written in Smalltalk that have the look and feel of such conventional languages. The difference lies * in the amount of code that can be reduced, * less cryptic syntax, * and code that is easier to handle for application maintenance and enhancement. But Smalltalk's most powerful feature is easy code reuse. Smalltalk makes reuse of programs, routines, and subroutines (methods) far easier. Though procedural languages allow reuse too, it is harder to do, and much easier to cheat. It is no surprise that Smalltalk is relatively easy to learn, mainly due to its simple syntax and semantics, as well as few concepts. Objects, classes, messages, and methods form the basis of programming in Smalltalk. The general methodology to use Smalltalk The notion of human-computer interface also results in Smalltalk promoting the development of safer systems. Errors in Smalltalk may be viewed as objects telling users that confusion exists as to how to perform a desired function.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 60c5
authors Gordon, William J.
year 1983
title An Operator Calculus for Surface and Volume Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications October, 1983. vol. 3: pp. 18-22 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article briefly describes the mathematical techniques underlying surface and volume modeling techniques in current practice. The first part outlines what might be termed an operator calculus for the approximation and interpolation of functions of more than one independent variable. This operator calculus uses operator multiplication and Boolean addition to compound the linear operators associated with simple bivariate and multivariate interpolation/approximation schemes. The result is a distributive lattice of approximation operators. The other two sections of the article contain specific examples of how this operator calculus leads to practical techniques for sculptured surface and volume modeling
keywords curved surfaces, representation, solid modeling, boolean operations
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 1247
authors Hasell, Mary Joyce
year 1983
title Gaming Simulation: A Communication Tool for Architects and Designers
source University of Michigan
summary In today's technological society, people spend more and more time in built environments that they have little or no control in shaping. There is also a large gap in communication between designers of the built environment and non-designers. The language that non-designers use to communicate specific spatial needs, whether aesthetic or functional, is different from the formal language that designers use to communicate these issues with each other. Gaming simulation, as a communication tool, has a number Note of characteristics that make it useful for improving communication and increasing participation among designers and non-designers. In this study, a method of teaching the design of gaming simulation to designers of the built environment is developed. This method includes a Game Design Index or cataloging system of gaming tehniques, within the context of a game design process. A questionnaire was used to interview the designers of the most current physical design games about the gaming techniques in their games. Their answers were organized into the Game Design Index and set within the context of a process for designing a game. This process was tested by teaching a course to graduate students in Urban Planning and Architecture. Further testing was done by holding a game design workshop for professional architects. The findings indicate that it is possible to analyze existing games for their gaming techniques and to index them in an organized way. It is also possible to add this index to an existing game design process. By using this process, graduate students were able to design gaming simulations of high quality, although professionals who attended a day-and-a-half workshop, were not so successful. This latter problem was primarily the result of the complexity of the task and the time constraint imposed. This dissertation describes the game design process that was used to teach neophytes to design games as well as the Game Design Indexes for ten existing games. A comprehensive review of games concerned with physical design is included
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 8d5e
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick, Waterman, Donald A. and Lenat, Douglas B. (editors)
year 1983
title Building Expert System
source vii, 444 p. : ill
summary Reading,Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub., 1983. 1: include bibliography: p. 405-420 -- (Teknowledge Series in Knowledge Engineering. Hayes-Roth, Frederick, series editor). This book is a collaboration of 38 expert system researchers and developers. It provides a broad introduction to the concepts and methods necessary for an understanding of how these systems work
keywords AI, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c25a
authors Israel, David J.
year 1983
title The Role of Logic in Knowledge Representation
source IEEE Computer. October, 1983. vol. 16: pp. 37-41 : ill. includes bibliography
summary AI researchers have long debated over the value of logic in knowledge representation. This article discusses the debate between John McCarthy's and Marvin Minsky's philosophies on how to make true thinking machines, and what do they mean when they speak about 'logic.'
keywords AI, logic, representation, philosophy, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6259
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Majkowski, Bruce R.
year 1990
title CAD Technology Transfer: A Case Study
source From Research to Practice [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Big Sky (Montana - USA) 4-6 October 1990, pp. 133-143
summary Transferring innovative university-based research results to the industry or practice that will ultimately use them is an arduous, time-consuming effort. One way to effect this technology transfer is to develop a demonstrable prototype product and then find or form a corporation that can expand the prototype into a full product and market it to the profession. Another way, which can shorten the transfer process, is to "sell" the idea, rather than the product, to a corporation that has the vision, the resources and the technical competency to support its development, with the intent to eventually market it. In this paper, we describe a case study of this latter approach, based on our seven year experience of researching, developing and transferring innovative architectural CAD technology. We describe the birth, growth, and maturity of Worldview, a computer-aided design and modeling system for use by architects. The project was initiated in 1983, and went through five software versions, numerous grants and grant extensions, two granting corporations, and extensive field testing. The software has developed into a mature system, with sufficient functionality appropriate for commercial distribution. The paper describes not only the factual chronology of the project, but also highlights the advantages and drawbacks of market-oriented university research. We conclude with suggestions as to how the process may be improved, and how problems and obstacles can be minimized.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id sigradi2005_037
id sigradi2005_037
authors Maciel, Mario
year 2005
title Interactive virtual art
source SIGraDi 2005 - [Proceedings of the 9th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] Lima - Peru 21-24 november 2005, vol. 1, pp. 37-41
summary The interactivity presumes behavior action events exercised mutually between machines, between digital information and persons, between two or more persons, machines and digital information in real time. Nelson Max presented in Paris the first interactive landscape in 1983. The pioneer of scientific image was Ivan Sutherland, researcher of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Another fundamental reference is Sonia Sheridan that invented a system where the user could modify the original image and visualize the result in real time. In Brazil, as well as in the outside, artists in assembly with scientists, see developing works computacionais with resorts of immersion and interatividade. Like this, in that search of new references, the text presents initially the main concepts about interactive virtual art and analyzes two important expositions: Emoção Art.Ficial 2.0 and Maior ou igual a 4D: computer art interactive. [Full paper in Portuguese]
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:55

_id ceb1
authors Maver, T.
year 1984
title What is eCAADe?
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary The main interest of the organisation is to improve the design, teaching. The design remains the core of the professional education, while computer science can support a better understanding of the design methods. Computers should amplify the human capabilities like engines allowed to carry higher forces, radio and television enabled communication over larger distances and computers today should aid the human intellectual activities, to gain a better insight in design methodology, to investigate the design process.Design research should study more extensively how buildings behave, the integration and interaction of different disciplines which contribute to the optimization of a design and the design criteria. Computers could increase the possibility to satisfy building regulations, to access and update information, to model the design process and to understand how decisions affect the building quality (functional and economical as well as formal aspects). More effort and money should be spent on this research. The organisation has been sponsored by the EEC for bringing CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) educational material at the disposal of the design teachers. The Helsinki conference is the third European meeting (after Delft 1982 and Brussels 1983) which concentrates on information and experience exchange in CAAD-education and looks for common interests and collaboration. A specific joint study program works on typical audiovisual material and lecture notes, which will be updated according to teacher's needs. A demand has been done to implement an integrated CAAD package. eCAADe focuses to integrate computer approaches across country boundaries as well as across disciplinary boundaries, as to reach a higher quality of the design education.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:07

_id 8892
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1983
title CAAD in Onderwijs en Onderzoek [CAAD in Teaching and Design]
source Proceedings of THE-CAAD3 Symposium, Eindhoven
summary Students currently in schools of architecture will be at the peak of their careers around the year 2000. The pressure on the schools to provide an education and training which will stand the student in good stead between now and then is considerable. In an increasing number of departments of architecture and building science, importance is being placed on the concept of modelling: i.e. the development and use of models of the operational behaviour and aesthetic character of design proposals which will allow appraisal of how real buildings will performing the real world.
series other
last changed 2003/06/08 21:01

_id 07c4
authors McGilton, Henry and Morgan, Rachel
year 1983
title Introducing the UNIX system
source 556 p. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983. includes bibliography: p. 541-544 and index. --- ( McGraw-Hill software series for computer professionals)
summary A reference guide for version 7 of the UNIX system including: Key concepts behind the system, from how to log on, the directory structure and a file system to the ideas of standard files and processes. Popular UNIX packages, software development tools, management and maintenance and more
keywords UNIX, software, tools, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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