CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 89

_id 44b1
authors Balas, Egon
year 1984
title On the Facial Structure of Scheduling Polyhedra
source 49 p., 6 p. of appendix : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon Univ., December, 1984. includes bibliography
summary A well-known job shop scheduling problem can be formulated as follows. Given a graph G with node set N and with directed and undirected arcs, find an orientation of the undirected arcs that minimizes the length of a longest path in G. The author treats the problem as a disjunctive program, without recourse to integer variables, and give a partial characterization of the scheduling polyhedron P(N), i.e., the convex hull of feasible schedules. In particular, he derives all the facets inducing inequalities for the scheduling polyhedron P(K) defined on some clique with node set K, and gives a sufficient condition for such inequalities to also induce facets of P(N). One of our results is that any inequality that induces a facet of P(H) for some HCK, also induces a facet of P(K). Another one is a recursive formula for deriving a facet inducing inequality with p positive coefficients from one with p-1 positive coefficients. The author also addresses the constraint identification problem, and gives a procedure for finding an inequality that cuts off a given solution to a subset of the constraints
keywords polyhedra, graphs, optimization, convex hull
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ec87
authors Buchanan, Bruce G. and Shortliffe, Edward H. (editors)
year 1984
title Rule- Based Expert Systems : The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project
source xix, 748 p. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1984. includes bibliography: p. 717-738 and subject index
summary A detailed look at MYCIN, an expert system for diagnosing bacterial infections and prescribing treatment for them. Issues covered include detailed examinations of knowledge acquisition, reasoning, explanation, tutoring, performance evaluation, and human interface
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge acquisition, representation, reasoning, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 36
authors González, Carlos Guillermo
year 1998
title Una TecnologÌa Digital Para el Diseño: El Tde-Ac (A Digital Technology for Design: The Tde-Ac)
source II Seminario Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-97190-0-X] Mar del Plata (Argentina) 9-11 september 1998, pp. 274-279
summary TDE is a graphic language capable of notation of pure design operations, which offers an alternative to Monge and Perspective drawing. This language which was perfected and developed by Claudio Guerri in the late 80's, is originated in the Theory of Spatial Delimitation of CÈsar Janello (1974-1984). From 1995 onwards, and within the framework of the UBACyT AR025 Project (1995-1997), a software in order to apply the TDE through computer technology started to be developed. This work is carried out within the framework of the research program SPATIAL SEMIOTICS-DESIGN THEORY of the FADU-UBA directed by Claudio Guerri, and is continued in the UBACyT AR01 4 Project (1998-2000) "TDE-AC. Graphic language. TDE computer assisted". The computer tool TDE-AC, adds to this graphic language the power of the processing speed and a certain autonomy of interpretation and execution of design operations, which enables to visualize results with a remarkable speed in relation with manual or intellectual work in front of the drawing table. Trough the amplified projection on the screens of the program the stage of development and effectivity of TDE-AC will be demonstrated.
series SIGRADI
last changed 2016/03/10 08:52

_id 4af9
authors Levy, Henry
year 1984
title VAXstation : A General-Purpose Raster Graphics Architecture
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. January, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 70-83 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A raster graphics architecture and a raster graphics device are described. The graphics architecture is an extension of the RasterOp model and supports operations for rectangle movement, text writing, curve drawing, flood, and fill. The architecture is intended for implementation by both closely and loosely coupled display subsystems. The first implementation of the architecture is a remote raster display connected by fiber optics to a VAX minicomputer. The device contains a separate microprocessor, frame buffer, and additional local memory: it is capable of executing raster commands on operands in local memory or VAX host memory
keywords hardware, computer graphics, technology
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 8c95
authors Liu, Clive K.
year 1984
title Drawings as Models for Design: A Computer Drawing System to Build Models Supporting Design Process through Abstractions
source Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh
summary A general design process can be characterized by the sequence of defining various abstract objects used to represent the artifact. For example, designers use various abstractions (dclined as abstrnct objects), such as graphs, polygons, etc., to represent the artifact. As design evolves, these abstract objects will be transformed into a definition (eg. of a building) detailed enough to allow manufacturing and to determine that the result will perform as desired. This thesis is concerned with providing a computer drawing system that could support various abstractions in the design process and allow various representations of the design to be processed and interpreted. A precise drawing contains not only the shape information, but also conveys many topological and geometric relations that its elements must hold to correspond to the arbfact in reality. For many operations during design, one wants these type of relations to be maintained. Other than the drawing being an iconic model, these relations are the semantics of the drawing and, if embedded in the drawing, imbue it with many characteristics of a symbolic model. Current CAD systems have no or limited mechanisms for embedding such relations in a drawing. It is my intent to demonstrate that drawings, especially for shape (both topologV and geometry) information, can be defined as various abstract objects during design process. Therefore, drawings are used as models to represent the artifact. When a model is manipulated, relations defined in the model are maintained.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id 0ecb
authors Waerum, Jens and Rüdiger Kristiansen, Bjarne
year 1989
title CAAD Education at the School of Architecture Copenhagen
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.5.1-4.5.9
summary The establishment of Datacentret (the Data Centre) in summer 1985 was preceded by 15 years slow- moving, arduous work from the early experiments in what was then the computing laboratory under the supervision of architect Per Jacobi, author of the Danish 3D drawing system MONSTER, until 1984, when a special committee was commissioned to draw up proposals for the introduction of teaching in computing at the Architects School. In spring 1985 the school administrators decided that a central computer workshop should be set up and in cooperation with the school's institutes placed jointly in charge of instructing teachers and students, carrying out research and development within the field of architecture and taking steps to work out a curriculum of supplementary training for practising architects. With the aid of a special grant, 12 PC's were successfully acquired in the 2 years that followed, as well as a screen projector and other peripherals.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:46

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4685
authors Barsky, Brian A.
year 1984
title A Description and Evaluation of Various 3-D Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 38-52 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary The use of parametric curves and surfaces for object modeling in computer graphics is becoming increasingly popular. There is sometimes, however, a reluctance to use them because it seems that the added power they give is more than offset by the complexity of their formulations and their computations. The purpose of this article is to clarify their meanings and uses and show how much they have in common behind the diversity of their formulations. The author discusses the properties and benefits of using the parametric Hermite, Coons, Bezier, B-spline, and Beta-spline curve and surface formulations
keywords Hermite, Coons, curved surfaces, Bezier, curves, B- splines, computational geometry, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8087
authors Boehm, Barry W., Penedo, Maria H. and Stuckle, Don E. (et al)
year 1984
title A Software Development Environment for Improving Productivity
source IEEE Computer. June, 1984. pp. 30-44 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The software productivity system (SPS) was developed to support project activities. It involves a set of strategies, including the work environment; the evaluation and procurement of hardware equipment; the provision for immediate access to computing resources through local area networks; the building of an integrated set of tools to support the software development life cycle and all project personnel; and a user support function to transfer new technology. All of these strategies are being accomplished incrementally. The current architecture is VAX-based and uses the Unix operating system, a wideband local network, and a set of software tools. The article describes the steps that led to the creation of the software productivity project and its components and summarized the requirements analyses on which the SPS was based
keywords productivity, software, hardware, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4e4e
authors Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
year 1984
title Geometric Structures for Three- Dimensional Shape Representation
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 266-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Different geometric structures are investigated in the context of discrete surface representation. It is shown that minimal representations (i.e., polyhedra) can be provided by a surface-based method using nearest neighbors structures or by a volume-based method using the Delaunay triangulation. Both approaches are compared with respect to various criteria, such as space requirements, computation time, constraints on the distribution of the points, facilities for further calculations, and agreement with the actual shape of the object
keywords algorithms, polyhedra, curves, curved surfaces, solids, representation, geometric modeling, data structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 8860
authors Choi, B.K., Barash, M.M. and Anderson, D.C.
year 1984
title Automatic Recognition of Machined Surfaces from a 3D Solid Model
source computer Aided Design. March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 81-86 : ill. includes bibliography
summary It has been proposed that a direct link between CAD and CAM be provided through a computer-automated process planning system. Described in this paper are algorithmic procedures to identify machined surfaces (i.e., machining requirements) for a workpiece directly from its 3D geometric description. A machined surface is a portion of workpiece that can be generated by a certain mode of metal removal operation. Machined surfaces are algorithmically recognized from a 3D boundary file, and then their 2 1/2D descriptions are obtained in a data structure (format) suitable for an automated process planning system. A simplified boundary file data structure is introduced in order to explain the machined surface recognition procedures
keywords A machined surface type is defined as a pattern of faces, and a syntactic pattern recognition method is used to find the machined surface from the boundary file
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 6054
authors Cook, R.L.
year 1984
title Shade Trees
source Computer Graphics, Vol. 18, No.3, pp.223-23 1
summary Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The model provides an easy means for specifying complex shading characteristics. It is also efficient because it can tailor the shading calculations to each type of surface.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id e7cf
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Preiss, K.
year 1984
title A Review of Solid Shape Modelling Based on Integrity
source Computer Aided Design March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 66-80 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The potential benefits of using a canonical model for representing the shapes of solid objects has led to the design and implementation of a number of geometric modelers with varying capabilities. This paper reviews the approaches taken in solid modeling by defining the well-formedness conditions which must be implemented in any modeling system. The methods for satisfying the well-formedness constraints in the various solid modeling methods are reviewed, using the concept of integrity constraints. The incorporation of integrity constraints, both explicitly and implicitly, into solid modelers are considered, with particular focus on boundary modelers. The use of integrity constraints for defining shape families and assembly families are also presented. The result is a unified view of solid shape modeling systems that enables their classification and extension into particular application areas
keywords solid modeling, constraints, B-rep
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id a461
authors Gerzso, Miguel J. and Buchmann, Alejandro P.
year 1984
title TM : An Object- Oriented Language for CAD and Required Database Capabilities
source Silver Spring: IEEE Computer Society, 1984. pp. 115-123 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The object-oriented language TM is presented and its main features are discussed, such as attribute inheritance, extensibility, encapsulation, definition of public and private responses, and addition of responses. These features make TM attractive for expansion into a programming environment providing extensive DBMS capabilities. Since TM is conceived as a programming language for CAD, the extensions that are proposed are intended to convert TM into a programming environment and DBMS for CAD applications, providing the ability to handle molecular objects, heterogeneously formatted data and constraint management. The language has been implemented while the expansions are the subject of current research
keywords programming, languages, OOPS, CAD, applications,
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id b8b9
authors Gibson, W.
year 1984
title Neuromancer
source Victor Gollancz
summary Here is the novel that started it all, launching the cyberpunk generation, and the first novel to win the holy trinity of science fiction: the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award and the Philip K. Dick Award. With Neuromancer, William Gibson introduced the world to cyberspace--and science fiction has never been the same. Case was the hottest computer cowboy cruising the information superhighway--jacking his consciousness into cyberspace, soaring through tactile lattices of data and logic, rustling encoded secrets for anyone with the money to buy his skills. Then he double-crossed the wrong people, who caught up with him in a big way--and burned the talent out of his brain, micron by micron. Banished from cyberspace, trapped in the meat of his physical body, Case courted death in the high-tech underworld. Until a shadowy conspiracy offered him a second chance--and a cure--for a price....
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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