CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 96

_id 8087
authors Boehm, Barry W., Penedo, Maria H. and Stuckle, Don E. (et al)
year 1984
title A Software Development Environment for Improving Productivity
source IEEE Computer. June, 1984. pp. 30-44 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The software productivity system (SPS) was developed to support project activities. It involves a set of strategies, including the work environment; the evaluation and procurement of hardware equipment; the provision for immediate access to computing resources through local area networks; the building of an integrated set of tools to support the software development life cycle and all project personnel; and a user support function to transfer new technology. All of these strategies are being accomplished incrementally. The current architecture is VAX-based and uses the Unix operating system, a wideband local network, and a set of software tools. The article describes the steps that led to the creation of the software productivity project and its components and summarized the requirements analyses on which the SPS was based
keywords productivity, software, hardware, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ga9928
id ga9928
authors Goulthorpe
year 1999
title Hyposurface: from Autoplastic to Alloplastic Space
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary By way of immediate qualification to an essay which attempts to orient current technical developments in relation to a series of dECOi projects, I would suggest that the greatest liberation offered by new technology in architecture is not its formal potential as much as the patterns of creativity and practice it engenders. For increasingly in the projects presented here dECOi operates as an extended network of technical expertise: Mark Burry and his research team at Deakin University in Australia as architects and parametric/ programmatic designers; Peter Wood in New Zealand as programmer; Alex Scott in London as mathematician; Chris Glasow in London as systems engineer; and the engineers (structural/services) of David Glover’s team at Ove Arup in London. This reflects how we’re working in a new technical environment - a new form of practice, in a sense - a loose and light network which deploys highly specialist technical skill to suit a particular project. By way of a second disclaimer, I would suggest that the rapid technological development we're witnessing, which we struggle to comprehend given the sheer pace of change that overwhelms us, is somehow of a different order than previous technological revolutions. For the shift from an industrial society to a society of mass communication, which is the essential transformation taking place in the present, seems to be a subliminal and almost inexpressive technological transition - is formless, in a sense - which begs the question of how it may be expressed in form. If one holds that architecture is somehow the crystallization of cultural change in concrete form, one suspects that in the present there is no simple physical equivalent for the burst of communication technologies that colour contemporary life. But I think that one might effectively raise a series of questions apropos technology by briefly looking at 3 or 4 of our current projects, and which suggest a range of possibilities fostered by new technology. By way of a third doubt, we might qualify in advance the apparent optimism of architects for CAD technology by thinking back to Thomas More and his island ‘Utopia’, which marks in some way the advent of Modern rationalism. This was, if not quite a technological utopia, certainly a metaphysical one, More’s vision typically deductive, prognostic, causal. But which by the time of Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis is a technological utopia availing itself of all the possibilities put at humanity’s disposal by the known machines of the time. There’s a sort of implicit sanction within these two accounts which lies in their nature as reality optimized by rational DESIGN as if the very ethos of design were sponsored by Modern rationalist thought and its utopian leanings. The faintly euphoric ‘technological’ discourse of architecture at present - a sort of Neue Bauhaus - then seems curiously misplaced historically given the 20th century’s general anti-, dis-, or counter-utopian discourse. But even this seems to have finally run its course, dissolving into the electronic heterotopia of the present with its diverse opportunities of irony and distortion (as it’s been said) as a liberating potential.1 This would seem to mark the dissolution of design ethos into non-causal process(ing), which begs the question of ‘design’ itself: who 'designs' anymore? Or rather, has 'design' not become uncoupled from its rational, deterministic, tradition? The utopianism that attatches to technological discourse in the present seems blind to the counter-finality of technology's own accomplishments - that transparency has, as it were, by its own more and more perfect fulfillment, failed by its own success. For what we seem to have inherited is not the warped utopia depicted in countless visions of a singular and tyrranical technology (such as that in Orwell's 1984), but a rich and diverse heterotopia which has opened the possibility of countless channels of local dialect competing directly with the channels of power. Undoubtedly such multiplicitous and global connectivity has sent creative thought in multiple directions…
series other
more http://www.generativeart.com/
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id ac8b
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1984
title CAD Technology, Its Effects on Practice and the Response of Education - an Overview
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary Related with the evolution of hardware there also is an evolution of CAD techniques. The very first CAD/CAM packages were developed on mainframes. They moved into practice when 16-bit minicomputers became available. The packages mainly were production drafting applications. The 32-bit super minicomputers give wider possibilities, but at the same time some software problems arise, namely the complexity of CAD- databases and the development and maintenance cost of large programs. With VLSI the distribution of intelligence becomes possible, the enthousiasm for CAD increases, but still the gap between available hardware and high quality software, remains high.Concerning CAD teaching there are severe problems. First of all there are not enough really good designers which know CAD in such a way that they can teach it. Second there is a shortage of equipment and a financial problem. Thirdly there is the question what the students need to know about CAD. which is not clear at the moment. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the following 5 subjects are teached: Computer Support, Computer Literacy, Professional Practice Implications, Exploration of CAD as a Design Medium and Theoretical Foundations of CAD. To use computers as a medium it is necessary to understand architecture, its objects, its operators and its evaluation criteria. The last topic is considered at research level.
series eCAADe
email wjm@mit.edu
more www.ecaade.org
last changed 2001/10/20 08:23

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 63a9
authors Hellgardt, Michael
year 1993
title Architectural Theory and Design Grammars
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The idea of artificial brains and artificial intelligence (AI) has been subject to criticism. The objection of J. Searle, for instance, which has been published in 1984 and which was partially directly addressed to one of the centres of AI, the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is mainly based on two points: (1) interactions between physiological and mental functions, and (2) the intentionality and context-relatedness of meaning. - With an emphasis on architectural design, this paper is about the second point, because the problem of meaning is a neuralgic point in the discussion of "artificial intelligence in design" (AID). Technical parameters are incompatible with mechanisms of meaning in any field of artistic, cultural or non-technical expression. This point, that is the relation between acts of meaning and acts of technical problem-solving and, connectedly, the relation between technological and architectural design, has been widely ignored in the discussion on AID. The development seems to be dominated by the tacit assumption that architecture can be articulated and generated purely in technical and formal terms of information processing beyond the field of architecture itself. Design and shape grammars have become a well established field in the discussion of AID, also with respect to architecture. But questions of architectural history and theory are touched on only incidentally and not sufficiently in this discussion. The problem is not, in other words, simply to include more or less unrelated cases of architecture, or architectural concepts -even if these are famous ones, such as Laugier's original hut for instance but to establish structural relations between arguments of architectural theory and arguments of AID.

series eCAADe
email michael@hellgar.iaf.nl
last changed 2003/05/10 08:03

_id caadria2004_k-1
id caadria2004_k-1
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 2004
title CONTEXTUALIZATION AND EMBODIMENT IN CYBERSPACE
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 5-14
summary The introduction of VRML (Virtual Reality Markup Language) in 1994, and other similar web-enabled dynamic modeling software (such as SGI’s Open Inventor and WebSpace), have created a rush to develop on-line 3D virtual environments, with purposes ranging from art, to entertainment, to shopping, to culture and education. Some developers took their cues from the science fiction literature of Gibson (1984), Stephenson (1992), and others. Many were web-extensions to single-player video games. But most were created as a direct extension to our new-found ability to digitally model 3D spaces and to endow them with interactive control and pseudo-inhabitation. Surprisingly, this technologically-driven stampede paid little attention to the core principles of place-making and presence, derived from architecture and cognitive science, respectively: two principles that could and should inform the essence of the virtual place experience and help steer its development. Why are the principles of place-making and presence important for the development of virtual environments? Why not simply be content with our ability to create realistically-looking 3D worlds that we can visit remotely? What could we possibly learn about making these worlds better, had we understood the essence of place and presence? To answer these questions we cannot look at place-making (both physical and virtual) from a 3D space-making point of view alone, because places are not an end unto themselves. Rather, places must be considered a locus of contextualization and embodiment that ground human activities and give them meaning. In doing so, places acquire a meaning of their own, which facilitates, improves, and enriches many aspects of our lives. They provide us with a means to interpret the activities of others and to direct our own actions. Such meaning is comprised of the social and cultural conceptions and behaviors imprinted on the environment by the presence and activities of its inhabitants, who in turn, ‘read’ by them through their own corporeal embodiment of the same environment. This transactional relationship between the physical aspects of an environment, its social/cultural context, and our own embodiment of it, combine to create what is known as a sense of place: the psychological, physical, social, and cultural framework that helps us interpret the world around us, and directs our own behavior in it. In turn, it is our own (as well as others’) presence in that environment that gives it meaning, and shapes its social/cultural character. By understanding the essence of place-ness in general, and in cyberspace in particular, we can create virtual places that can better support Internet-based activities, and make them equal to, in some cases even better than their physical counterparts. One of the activities that stands to benefit most from understanding the concept of cyber-places is learning—an interpersonal activity that requires the co-presence of others (a teacher and/or fellow learners), who can point out the difference between what matters and what does not, and produce an emotional involvement that helps students learn. Thus, while many administrators and educators rush to develop webbased remote learning sites, to leverage the economic advantages of one-tomany learning modalities, these sites deprive learners of the contextualization and embodiment inherent in brick-and-mortar learning institutions, and which are needed to support the activity of learning. Can these qualities be achieved in virtual learning environments? If so, how? These are some of the questions this talk will try to answer by presenting a virtual place-making methodology and its experimental implementation, intended to create a sense of place through contextualization and embodiment in virtual learning environments.
series CAADRIA
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/20 16:37

_id 6c6f
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Technion (Haifa, Israel)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Israel there is only one School of Architecture. CAAD teaching has been introduced since 1969-1970. Last year it has been decided that each department (electronical, mechanical, architectural) will have its own CAD laboratory for computer graphics, based on a super minicomputer (CDC Cyber 170/720). The following software is available for CAAD : CD2000 (wireframe drawings), ICEM (solid modelling), TIGS (terminal independent graphics system), GOAL and BIBLE, ACA (integrated CAAD software). At the Technion teachers and architects which can educate CAAD are available. The following courses are teached : Computer Aided Architectural Design (I + II), Computer Methods in City Planning, Mathematical Models in Architectural Design, Design Course - Geometrical Modelling, Design Course - Solar Energy Design Seminar. It was decided that since next year the following courses will use CAAD : Design course - Geometrical Modelling and Appraisal, Morphology I, 2D-Design and Design Course - Passive Solar Communities.
series eCAADe
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ecaade2013_094
id ecaade2013_094
authors Tomé, Ana; Heitor, Teresa and Nunes, Mário
year 2013
title Space-Use Interactions Described Through Computer Vision
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 403-412
wos WOS:000340635300042
summary This paper examines analytical procedures aimed at the study of the functional condition of architectural artefacts and, as a result, the promotion of a better understanding of the connections established with spatial conditions. The goal is to contribute to the development of techniques based on computer vision of mobility and users’ interaction, producing non-arbitrary registries of their movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns via a quantitatively based analysis.Movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns were correlated with configurational properties obtained by applying the space syntax descriptive model (Hillier and Hanson, 1984). It was possible to analyse relations between the spatial configuration and the movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns, a key question within the architectural conceptual process.
keywords Space-use analysis method; computer vision; movement/navigation patterns; occupation/co-presence patterns; occupation/movement indices.
series eCAADe
email anatome@ist.utl.pt
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id c9c1
authors Basili, Victor R. and Perricone, Barry T.
year 1984
title Software Errors and Complexity : An Empirical Investigation
source communications of the ACM. January, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 42-52 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The relationships between the frequency and distribution of errors during software development, the maintenance of the developed software, and a the influence of a variety of environmental factors on software development were analyzed. These factors include the complexity of the software, the developer's experience with the application, and the reuse of existing design and code. Such relationships can not only provide an insight into the characteristics of computer software development and the effects that the environment can have on the product, but also improve its reliability and quality. The study is based on data derived from a medium- scale software development project
keywords software, engineering, programming, reliability
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8860
authors Choi, B.K., Barash, M.M. and Anderson, D.C.
year 1984
title Automatic Recognition of Machined Surfaces from a 3D Solid Model
source computer Aided Design. March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 81-86 : ill. includes bibliography
summary It has been proposed that a direct link between CAD and CAM be provided through a computer-automated process planning system. Described in this paper are algorithmic procedures to identify machined surfaces (i.e., machining requirements) for a workpiece directly from its 3D geometric description. A machined surface is a portion of workpiece that can be generated by a certain mode of metal removal operation. Machined surfaces are algorithmically recognized from a 3D boundary file, and then their 2 1/2D descriptions are obtained in a data structure (format) suitable for an automated process planning system. A simplified boundary file data structure is introduced in order to explain the machined surface recognition procedures
keywords A machined surface type is defined as a pattern of faces, and a syntactic pattern recognition method is used to find the machined surface from the boundary file
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.springer.com/computer/ai/book/978-1-4020-2392-7
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id 26de
authors Enderle, G., K. Kansy and Pfaff, G.
year 1984
title Computer Graphics Programming : GKS - the graphics standard
source 542 p. : ill. (some col.) Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984. includes bibliography: p. 527-532 and index. -- (Symbolic Computation Series)
summary Covers computer graphics programming on the basis of the Graphical Kernel System. It gives an overview over the GKS concepts, the history of the GKS design and the various system interfaces. A detailed description of the application of GKS functions both in PASCAL and FORTRAN is a significant part
keywords standards, computer graphics, GKS, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 61be
authors Goldberg, A.J.
year 1984
title Smalltalk-80: The Interactive Programming Environment
source Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
summary This book describes the process by which Smalltalk was introduced to people outside Xerox PARC, where it was developed. This book first describes the incredibly exciting history of how Smalltalk was built from scratch. It then goes on to show the way in which Smalltalk was made public. At first, this was an engineering process. Large companies were contacted and offered to participate by porting the Smalltalk VM to their machines, and then running an image provided on tape. Each of these teams then wrote a paper on their experience, and these original papers are included in this book. Xerox PARC also wrote its own paper. These papers are an invaluable source of information for any Smalltalker. They range from overall design issues down to statistics on the work of the VM and image contents.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 40d6
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1984
title The Integration of Economic Analysis and Computer-based Building Models
source CIB W-65 Symposium. July, 1984. [19] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Most current methods used to evaluate the economics of building designs are inadequate in that they focus on the evaluation of completed designs and do not assist in the development and creation of designs. They are used after most major design decisions have been made. This paper describes the first year of a two year research project (funded by the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Government) which seeks to integrate economic analysis techniques into design decision-making within the context of an interactive computer-aided architectural and engineering design system. Issues reviewed include the current state of computer software, existing economic analysis models and existing economic analysis software. A conclusion is reached that most economic analysis systems fall into the category of single purpose software and are not adaptable to the wide range of idiosyncratic evaluation models used in real estate, architecture, engineering, construction and building management. Objectives are proposed for a general purpose, interactive cost modeling system that is integrated with a geometric computer-based building model. Initial experiments with a prototype of this system at various stages of the design-construction-use process are discussed. Further development of this system as a research tool for exploring alternative economic modeling procedures is presented
keywords analysis, evaluation, CAD, architecture, design, methods, economics, integration
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ebcc
authors Kolb, David A.
year 1984
title Experiential Learning
source Prentice Hall
summary In his book Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (1984), David Kolb introduces his experiential learning theory and provides a model for its application in schools, organizations, and virtually anywhere people are gathered together. Kolb's comprehensive and practical theory builds on the rich foundations of experience-based learning provided by John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, and Jean Piaget. We first consider the roots of his theory following which we offer a summary of it in practice.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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