CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 4b27
authors Lansdown, John
year 1984
title Knowledge for Designers
source Architect`s journal. England: February, 1984. vol. 179: pp. 55-58
summary The first of two articles discussing expert systems. Both design and construction are carried out within the framework of empirical rules and regulations designed more for ease of implementation and checking than scientific validity. On completion of a building, little follow up research is done on the way it is used or on the way in which the assumption made in its design are borne out in practice. This present two problems: How to make information from disparate sources easily available to designers and constructors, and how to make them aware that they need this information. This paper describes how a special type of computer programming might assist in solving these problems
keywords design, construction, building, expert systems, knowledge base, systems, programming, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ac8b
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1984
title CAD Technology, Its Effects on Practice and the Response of Education - an Overview
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary Related with the evolution of hardware there also is an evolution of CAD techniques. The very first CAD/CAM packages were developed on mainframes. They moved into practice when 16-bit minicomputers became available. The packages mainly were production drafting applications. The 32-bit super minicomputers give wider possibilities, but at the same time some software problems arise, namely the complexity of CAD- databases and the development and maintenance cost of large programs. With VLSI the distribution of intelligence becomes possible, the enthousiasm for CAD increases, but still the gap between available hardware and high quality software, remains high.Concerning CAD teaching there are severe problems. First of all there are not enough really good designers which know CAD in such a way that they can teach it. Second there is a shortage of equipment and a financial problem. Thirdly there is the question what the students need to know about CAD. which is not clear at the moment. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the following 5 subjects are teached: Computer Support, Computer Literacy, Professional Practice Implications, Exploration of CAD as a Design Medium and Theoretical Foundations of CAD. To use computers as a medium it is necessary to understand architecture, its objects, its operators and its evaluation criteria. The last topic is considered at research level.
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/10/20 08:23

_id 6ed3
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1985
title The Role of Computing in Engineering Education
source Toward Expert Systems, Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, July, 1985. vol. 20: pp. 11-15. Also published in: Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics edited by A. K. Noor and R. J. Hayduk
summary Pergamon Press, 1985. --- Also Published in : Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics, Pergamon Press, George Washington University and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. pp. 11-15, Oct.1984. The rapid advances occurring in interactive micro-computing and computer science have provided the engineer with a powerful means of processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying data. The effective use of computer technology in engineering processes and applications is recognized by many as the key to increased individual, company, and national productivity. The implications of this observation for the academic community are clear: we must prepare our students to use computer methods and applications as part of their fundamental education. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science principles and practices is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The components of an education should include operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures. It is critically important for engineering students to receive an education that teaches them these fundamentals. This paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires, in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computing content of many other courses so that students come to treat the computer as a fundamental component of their work. This is a major undertaking, but new engineers graduating with advanced computing knowledge will provide potentially significant future innovations in the engineering profession
keywords CAE, education, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 6118
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Code Tuning -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. February, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 91-96
summary Efficiency is one of many problems in programming, and there are many ways to achieve it. This column is about a low-level approach . 'Code tuning' locates the expensive parts of an existing program and then modifies that code to improve its performance
keywords programming, search, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ga9928
id ga9928
authors Goulthorpe
year 1999
title Hyposurface: from Autoplastic to Alloplastic Space
source International Conference on Generative Art
summary By way of immediate qualification to an essay which attempts to orient current technical developments in relation to a series of dECOi projects, I would suggest that the greatest liberation offered by new technology in architecture is not its formal potential as much as the patterns of creativity and practice it engenders. For increasingly in the projects presented here dECOi operates as an extended network of technical expertise: Mark Burry and his research team at Deakin University in Australia as architects and parametric/ programmatic designers; Peter Wood in New Zealand as programmer; Alex Scott in London as mathematician; Chris Glasow in London as systems engineer; and the engineers (structural/services) of David Glover’s team at Ove Arup in London. This reflects how we’re working in a new technical environment - a new form of practice, in a sense - a loose and light network which deploys highly specialist technical skill to suit a particular project. By way of a second disclaimer, I would suggest that the rapid technological development we're witnessing, which we struggle to comprehend given the sheer pace of change that overwhelms us, is somehow of a different order than previous technological revolutions. For the shift from an industrial society to a society of mass communication, which is the essential transformation taking place in the present, seems to be a subliminal and almost inexpressive technological transition - is formless, in a sense - which begs the question of how it may be expressed in form. If one holds that architecture is somehow the crystallization of cultural change in concrete form, one suspects that in the present there is no simple physical equivalent for the burst of communication technologies that colour contemporary life. But I think that one might effectively raise a series of questions apropos technology by briefly looking at 3 or 4 of our current projects, and which suggest a range of possibilities fostered by new technology. By way of a third doubt, we might qualify in advance the apparent optimism of architects for CAD technology by thinking back to Thomas More and his island ‘Utopia’, which marks in some way the advent of Modern rationalism. This was, if not quite a technological utopia, certainly a metaphysical one, More’s vision typically deductive, prognostic, causal. But which by the time of Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis is a technological utopia availing itself of all the possibilities put at humanity’s disposal by the known machines of the time. There’s a sort of implicit sanction within these two accounts which lies in their nature as reality optimized by rational DESIGN as if the very ethos of design were sponsored by Modern rationalist thought and its utopian leanings. The faintly euphoric ‘technological’ discourse of architecture at present - a sort of Neue Bauhaus - then seems curiously misplaced historically given the 20th century’s general anti-, dis-, or counter-utopian discourse. But even this seems to have finally run its course, dissolving into the electronic heterotopia of the present with its diverse opportunities of irony and distortion (as it’s been said) as a liberating potential.1 This would seem to mark the dissolution of design ethos into non-causal process(ing), which begs the question of ‘design’ itself: who 'designs' anymore? Or rather, has 'design' not become uncoupled from its rational, deterministic, tradition? The utopianism that attatches to technological discourse in the present seems blind to the counter-finality of technology's own accomplishments - that transparency has, as it were, by its own more and more perfect fulfillment, failed by its own success. For what we seem to have inherited is not the warped utopia depicted in countless visions of a singular and tyrranical technology (such as that in Orwell's 1984), but a rich and diverse heterotopia which has opened the possibility of countless channels of local dialect competing directly with the channels of power. Undoubtedly such multiplicitous and global connectivity has sent creative thought in multiple directions…
series other
last changed 2003/08/07 15:25

_id 653f
authors Hedelman, Harold
year 1984
title A Data Flow Approach to Procedural Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 16-26 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography.
summary Computer graphics tasks generally involve either modeling or viewing. Modeling combines primitive building blocks (polygons, patches, etc.) into data structures that represent entire objects and scenes. To visualize a modeled object, its data structure is input to appropriate viewing routines. While a great deal has been done on modeling and viewing with geometric primitives, little has been published on the use of procedural primitives. A procedural model is a step-by-step guide for constructing a representation of an object or process, i.e., a program. It is also a function, a 'black box' with a set of inputs and outputs. Two questions are especially pertinent to the work presented in this article
keywords First, what are the advantages of both data flow methods and procedural modeling? Second, how can such models be used in composition? computer graphics, modeling, information, management
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id avocaad_2001_15
id avocaad_2001_15
authors Henri Achten, Jos van Leeuwen
year 2001
title Scheming and Plotting your Way into Architectural Complexity
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, our ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Following the four waves of design methodology as distinguished by Cross (1984), we see changing architectural design attitudes with respect to complexity. Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, designers such as Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke embrace complexity and make it a focus in their design work. The computer is an indispensable instrument in this approach. The paper discusses the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and reflects in particular on the role of design representations in this discussion. It is advanced that a number of recent developments are based on an intensified use of design representations such as schema’s, diagrams, and interactive modelling techniques. Within the field of possibilities in this field, the authors discuss Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) as a formalism to represent knowledge of the design. It is demonstrated how the FBM approach can be used to describe graphic representations as used in design, and how other levels and kinds of design knowledge can be incorporated, in particular the less definite qualitative information in the early design phase. The discussion section concludes with an extrapolation of the current role of design representation in the design process, and advances a few positions on the advantage and disadvantage of this role in architectural design.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id e799
authors Howes, Jaki
year 1986
title Computer Education in Schools of Architecture and the Needs of Practice
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 45-48
summary In April 1985 there was a meeting (at Huddersfield Polytechnic) or representatives from 26 Schools of Architecture. At this, concern was expressed about the lack of direction from the RIBA with regard to the appropriate level of computer teaching on architectural courses. In addition, it was felt that it was essential that at least one member of a Visiting Board panel should be computer literate and in a position to give advice. These points were raised at the RIBA Computer Committee later in 1985, and the committee's attention was also drawn to comments contained in the report by HM Inspector on Public Sector Education in Architecture (1985) based on investigations made during 1984.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/23 08:30

_id 4eaf
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1984
title A Database Management Approach to CAD/CAM Systems Integration
source December, 1984. 13 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Facilitating the communication between different CAD/CAM systems is rapidly becoming an important issue, as more systems reach the market. A solution to the communication problem can be found if it is considered part of the more general problem of managing the complex information associated with the representation of physical artifacts and environments in the memory of computers, thereby accounting for the operators that are used for accessing the data as well as the data itself. Database management systems have provided powerful solutions to information management problems in a variety of disciplines and enjoy a broad and rigorous research foundation. If the techniques, methods and systems that were developed for database management could be utilized for CAD/CAM integration, they would save a considerable duplication of effort, enhance the integrity of the data, and bring to bear the results and advances that have been achieved over a long period of hard work
keywords CAD, CAM, relational database, integration, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ab9c
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1999
title Is Design Really Social
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 4:1
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell's assertion that "the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process." [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants, that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided, therefore, must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We see a danger here, a pattern being repeated which may lead us into less than useful activities. As with several (popular) architectural design or modelling systems already available, however, computer system implementations all too often are poor imitations manual systems. For example, few in the field will argue with the statement that the storage of data in layers in a computer-aided drafting system is an dispensable approach. Layers derive from manual overlay drafting technology [Stitt 1984] which was regarded as an advanced (manual) production concept at the time many software engineers were specifying CAD software designs. Early implementations of CAD systems (such as RUCAPS, GDS, Computervision) avoided such data organisation, the software engineers recognising that object-based structures are more flexible, permitting greater control of data editing and display. Layer-based systems, however, are easier to implement in software, more familiar to the user and hence easier to explain, initially easier to use but more limiting for an experienced and thoughtful user, leading in the end to a lesser quality in resultant drawings and significant problems in output control (see Richens [1990], pp. 31-40 for a detailed analysis of such features and constraints). Here then we see the design for architectural software faithfully but inappropriately following manual methods. So too is there a danger of assuming that the best social interaction is that done face-to-face, therefore all collaborative design communications environments must mimic face-to-face.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 6045
authors Rychener, Michael D.
year 1984
title Expert systems for Engineering Design : Problem Components, Technique, & Prototypes
source 31 p. : charts Design Research Center, CMU, March, 1984. DRC-0502-83. includes bibliography
summary A number of problems in diagnosis and engineering design can be solved by using current expert system techniques. This paper enumerates the main components of such problems and the steps that are taken in solving them. A few prototypical artificial intelligence systems embody techniques that can be applied to engineering problems are surveyed, and their relevance to components of design problems is discussed. Some expert system in design domain are summarized, with emphasis on aspects that can illustrate wider applicability of the techniques
keywords expert systems, AI, problem solving, design, methods, engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0ecb
authors Waerum, Jens and Rüdiger Kristiansen, Bjarne
year 1989
title CAAD Education at the School of Architecture Copenhagen
source CAAD: Education - Research and Practice [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 87-982875-2-4] Aarhus (Denmark) 21-23 September 1989, pp. 4.5.1-4.5.9
summary The establishment of Datacentret (the Data Centre) in summer 1985 was preceded by 15 years slow- moving, arduous work from the early experiments in what was then the computing laboratory under the supervision of architect Per Jacobi, author of the Danish 3D drawing system MONSTER, until 1984, when a special committee was commissioned to draw up proposals for the introduction of teaching in computing at the Architects School. In spring 1985 the school administrators decided that a central computer workshop should be set up and in cooperation with the school's institutes placed jointly in charge of instructing teachers and students, carrying out research and development within the field of architecture and taking steps to work out a curriculum of supplementary training for practising architects. With the aid of a special grant, 12 PC's were successfully acquired in the 2 years that followed, as well as a screen projector and other peripherals.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/24 09:46

_id a688
authors Walters, R. J.
year 1984
title Towards and End User View of Design Systems
source 1984? pp. 17-27 : tables. includes bibliography
summary Based upon detailed reporting of CAD use in hospital projects, an end user's view of design systems is developed. From the recorded user experience system development, implementation, performance in use and effects upon design practice are assessed. Aspects of user technique are developed. Current systems are found to be flawed but satisfactory results may be obtained under the right conditions. These are identified. The range of factors required in the development of an end user view of design systems also identified. An evaluation of the use of OXSYS/BDS on Milton Keynes DGH is presented together with an assessment of CAD use (both BDS and GDS) on health building projects at Oxford RHA. The paper summaries a detailed report (Walters 83). The paper is presented in 4 parts: an introduction, results of a detailed case study and an assessment leading towards an end user view of current design systems
keywords design, CAD, systems, applications, practice, user interface, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6b2f
authors Wilensky, Robert, Arens, Yigal and Chin, David
year 1984
title Talking to UNIX in English: An Overview of UC
source Communications of the ACM Vol. 6 (June, 1984): pp. 574-593. includes bibliography
summary UC is a natural language help facility which advises users in using the UNIX operating system. Users can query UC about how to do things, command names and formats, online definitions of UNIX or general operating systems terminology, and debugging problems in using commands. UC is comprised of the following components: a language analyzer and generator, a context and memory model, an experimental common-sense planner, highly extensible knowledge bases on both the UNIX domain and the English language, a goal analysis component, and a system for acquisition of new knowledge through instruction in English. The language interface of UC is based on a 'phrasal analysis' approach which integrates semantic, grammatical and other types of information. In addition, it includes capabilities for ellipsis resolution and reference disambiguation
keywords UNIX, natural languages, user interface, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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