CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddss2008-02
id ddss2008-02
authors Gonçalves Barros, Ana Paula Borba; Valério Augusto Soares de Medeiros, Paulo Cesar Marques da Silva and Frederico de Holanda
year 2008
title Road hierarchy and speed limits in Brasília/Brazil
source H.J.P. Timmermans, B. de Vries (eds.) 2008, Design & Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning, ISBN 978-90-6814-173-3, University of Technology Eindhoven, published on CD
summary This paper aims at exploring the theory of the Social Logic of Space or Space Syntax as a strategy to define parameters of road hierarchy and, if this use is found possible, to establish maximum speeds allowed in the transportation system of Brasília, the capital city of Brazil. Space Syntax – a theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) – incorporates the space topological relationships, considering the city shape and its influence in the distribution of movements within the space. The theory’s axiality method – used in this study – analyses the accessibility to the street network relationships, by means of the system’s integration, one of its explicative variables in terms of copresence, or potential co-existence between the through-passing movements of people and vehicles (Hillier, 1996). One of the most used concepts of Space Syntax in the integration, which represents the potential flow generation in the road axes and is the focus of this paper. It is believed there is a strong correlation between urban space-form configuration and the way flows and movements are distributed in the city, considering nodes articulations and the topological location of segments and streets in the grid (Holanda, 2002; Medeiros, 2006). For urban transportation studies, traffic-related problems are often investigated and simulated by assignment models – well-established in traffic studies. Space Syntax, on the other hand, is a tool with few applications in transport (Barros, 2006; Barros et al, 2007), an area where configurational models are considered to present inconsistencies when used in transportation (cf. Cybis et al, 1996). Although this is true in some cases, it should not be generalized. Therefore, in order to simulate and evaluate Space Syntax for the traffic approach, the city of Brasília was used as a case study. The reason for the choice was the fact the capital of Brazil is a masterpiece of modern urban design and presents a unique urban layout based on an axial grid system considering several express and arterial long roads, each one with 3 to 6 lanes,
keywords Space syntax, road hierarchy
series DDSS
last changed 2008/09/01 15:06

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6118
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Code Tuning -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. February, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 91-96
summary Efficiency is one of many problems in programming, and there are many ways to achieve it. This column is about a low-level approach . 'Code tuning' locates the expensive parts of an existing program and then modifies that code to improve its performance
keywords programming, search, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id f9f4
authors Cook, R.L., Porter, Th. and Carpenter, L.
year 1984
title Distributed Ray Tracing
source Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 137145, July 1984. SIGGRAPH '84 Proceedings
summary Ray tracing is one of the most elegant techniques in computer graphics. Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light. Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this has limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provides correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections. Motion blur and depth of field calculations can be integrated with the visible surface calculations, avoiding the problems found in previous methods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id avocaad_2001_15
id avocaad_2001_15
authors Henri Achten, Jos van Leeuwen
year 2001
title Scheming and Plotting your Way into Architectural Complexity
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, our ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Following the four waves of design methodology as distinguished by Cross (1984), we see changing architectural design attitudes with respect to complexity. Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, designers such as Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke embrace complexity and make it a focus in their design work. The computer is an indispensable instrument in this approach. The paper discusses the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and reflects in particular on the role of design representations in this discussion. It is advanced that a number of recent developments are based on an intensified use of design representations such as schema’s, diagrams, and interactive modelling techniques. Within the field of possibilities in this field, the authors discuss Feature-Based Modelling (FBM) as a formalism to represent knowledge of the design. It is demonstrated how the FBM approach can be used to describe graphic representations as used in design, and how other levels and kinds of design knowledge can be incorporated, in particular the less definite qualitative information in the early design phase. The discussion section concludes with an extrapolation of the current role of design representation in the design process, and advances a few positions on the advantage and disadvantage of this role in architectural design.
series AVOCAAD
email h.h.achten@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4eaf
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1984
title A Database Management Approach to CAD/CAM Systems Integration
source December, 1984. 13 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Facilitating the communication between different CAD/CAM systems is rapidly becoming an important issue, as more systems reach the market. A solution to the communication problem can be found if it is considered part of the more general problem of managing the complex information associated with the representation of physical artifacts and environments in the memory of computers, thereby accounting for the operators that are used for accessing the data as well as the data itself. Database management systems have provided powerful solutions to information management problems in a variety of disciplines and enjoy a broad and rigorous research foundation. If the techniques, methods and systems that were developed for database management could be utilized for CAD/CAM integration, they would save a considerable duplication of effort, enhance the integrity of the data, and bring to bear the results and advances that have been achieved over a long period of hard work
keywords CAD, CAM, relational database, integration, architecture
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ab9c
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1999
title Is Design Really Social
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 4:1
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell's assertion that "the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process." [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants, that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided, therefore, must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We see a danger here, a pattern being repeated which may lead us into less than useful activities. As with several (popular) architectural design or modelling systems already available, however, computer system implementations all too often are poor imitations manual systems. For example, few in the field will argue with the statement that the storage of data in layers in a computer-aided drafting system is an dispensable approach. Layers derive from manual overlay drafting technology [Stitt 1984] which was regarded as an advanced (manual) production concept at the time many software engineers were specifying CAD software designs. Early implementations of CAD systems (such as RUCAPS, GDS, Computervision) avoided such data organisation, the software engineers recognising that object-based structures are more flexible, permitting greater control of data editing and display. Layer-based systems, however, are easier to implement in software, more familiar to the user and hence easier to explain, initially easier to use but more limiting for an experienced and thoughtful user, leading in the end to a lesser quality in resultant drawings and significant problems in output control (see Richens [1990], pp. 31-40 for a detailed analysis of such features and constraints). Here then we see the design for architectural software faithfully but inappropriately following manual methods. So too is there a danger of assuming that the best social interaction is that done face-to-face, therefore all collaborative design communications environments must mimic face-to-face.
series journal paper
email tkvan@arch.hku.hk
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 4b27
authors Lansdown, John
year 1984
title Knowledge for Designers
source Architect`s journal. England: February, 1984. vol. 179: pp. 55-58
summary The first of two articles discussing expert systems. Both design and construction are carried out within the framework of empirical rules and regulations designed more for ease of implementation and checking than scientific validity. On completion of a building, little follow up research is done on the way it is used or on the way in which the assumption made in its design are borne out in practice. This present two problems: How to make information from disparate sources easily available to designers and constructors, and how to make them aware that they need this information. This paper describes how a special type of computer programming might assist in solving these problems
keywords design, construction, building, expert systems, knowledge base, systems, programming, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id ac8b
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1984
title CAD Technology, Its Effects on Practice and the Response of Education - an Overview
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary Related with the evolution of hardware there also is an evolution of CAD techniques. The very first CAD/CAM packages were developed on mainframes. They moved into practice when 16-bit minicomputers became available. The packages mainly were production drafting applications. The 32-bit super minicomputers give wider possibilities, but at the same time some software problems arise, namely the complexity of CAD- databases and the development and maintenance cost of large programs. With VLSI the distribution of intelligence becomes possible, the enthousiasm for CAD increases, but still the gap between available hardware and high quality software, remains high.Concerning CAD teaching there are severe problems. First of all there are not enough really good designers which know CAD in such a way that they can teach it. Second there is a shortage of equipment and a financial problem. Thirdly there is the question what the students need to know about CAD. which is not clear at the moment. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the following 5 subjects are teached: Computer Support, Computer Literacy, Professional Practice Implications, Exploration of CAD as a Design Medium and Theoretical Foundations of CAD. To use computers as a medium it is necessary to understand architecture, its objects, its operators and its evaluation criteria. The last topic is considered at research level.
series eCAADe
email wjm@mit.edu
more www.ecaade.org
last changed 2001/10/20 08:23

_id 6045
authors Rychener, Michael D.
year 1984
title Expert systems for Engineering Design : Problem Components, Technique, & Prototypes
source 31 p. : charts Design Research Center, CMU, March, 1984. DRC-0502-83. includes bibliography
summary A number of problems in diagnosis and engineering design can be solved by using current expert system techniques. This paper enumerates the main components of such problems and the steps that are taken in solving them. A few prototypical artificial intelligence systems embody techniques that can be applied to engineering problems are surveyed, and their relevance to components of design problems is discussed. Some expert system in design domain are summarized, with emphasis on aspects that can illustrate wider applicability of the techniques
keywords expert systems, AI, problem solving, design, methods, engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8860
authors Choi, B.K., Barash, M.M. and Anderson, D.C.
year 1984
title Automatic Recognition of Machined Surfaces from a 3D Solid Model
source computer Aided Design. March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 81-86 : ill. includes bibliography
summary It has been proposed that a direct link between CAD and CAM be provided through a computer-automated process planning system. Described in this paper are algorithmic procedures to identify machined surfaces (i.e., machining requirements) for a workpiece directly from its 3D geometric description. A machined surface is a portion of workpiece that can be generated by a certain mode of metal removal operation. Machined surfaces are algorithmically recognized from a 3D boundary file, and then their 2 1/2D descriptions are obtained in a data structure (format) suitable for an automated process planning system. A simplified boundary file data structure is introduced in order to explain the machined surface recognition procedures
keywords A machined surface type is defined as a pattern of faces, and a syntactic pattern recognition method is used to find the machined surface from the boundary file
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id f59d
authors Koelbl, R., Bruntsch, St. and Knoflacher, H.
year 2003
title Perspective Vienna – A Comparison of Planning Scenarios and Real Development
source CORP 2003, Vienna University of Technology, 25.2.-28.2.2003 [Proceedings on CD-Rom]
summary With the suspension of national boarders in unions of nations, cities and their regions gain in significance for the economic, social and cultural development. This is particularly valid for Vienna, which lies close to the eastern boarder of the European Union, which should fall with the enlargement of EU in the near future. Of prominent importance is therefore to obtain a comprehensive understanding between proposed and defined aims for an urban development, the related measures and their extent ofimplementations and their actual or real effects. This paper attempts to give a strategic analysis of the Viennese urban and traffic development programs, from 1962, 1972, 1984 and 1994, on the one hand, and the data analysis of the statistical year books beginning from 1960 until 2000, on the other. The results show that adjustments have been made not only in response to certain trends, but also to a change of philosophy of urban development. It can be seen that certain assumptions of, for example, economic and transport measures can have the opposite outcome in relation to the intended objectives. Hence, one main question remains to beanswered: How should Vienna deal with the challenges ahead, to secure and foster a sustainable development under such circumstances on a long-term basis. In this respect, some measures are given, which should make it possible to overcome successfully these challenges.
series other
email stefan.bruntsch@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/03/11 19:39

_id ecaade2011_149
id ecaade2011_149
authors Popov, Nikolay
year 2011
title Generative sub-division morphogenesis with Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Modelling
source RESPECTING FRAGILE PLACES [29th eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 978-9-4912070-1-3], University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Architecture (Slovenia) 21-24 September 2011, pp.166-174
summary This paper reports on some recent research carried out to develop computational generative urban design system that can be used as an alternative approach to master planning. The focus of the investigation is an 11 ha site located in the South-East edge of Auckland, New Zealand. The urban (or sub-urban) morphology is modelled as cellular automaton based on Hillier’s (1984) x-y syntax in order to resemble the morphology of the existing village. An agent based system based on Reynolds’ (1987) flocking algorithm evolves synchronously with the automaton and tests its ecological fitness. The emergent pattern of development therefore results from the mutual co-adaption of the cellular automaton and the agent based model. The outcomes are variety of spatial morphologies that connects well with adjacent existing village and at the same time take into account landscape and ecological peculiarities of the site.
wos WOS:000335665500019
keywords Generative urban design; structural coupling; cellular automata; agent based modelling
series eCAADe
email npopov@unitec.ac.nz
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 6c6f
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Technion (Haifa, Israel)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Israel there is only one School of Architecture. CAAD teaching has been introduced since 1969-1970. Last year it has been decided that each department (electronical, mechanical, architectural) will have its own CAD laboratory for computer graphics, based on a super minicomputer (CDC Cyber 170/720). The following software is available for CAAD : CD2000 (wireframe drawings), ICEM (solid modelling), TIGS (terminal independent graphics system), GOAL and BIBLE, ACA (integrated CAAD software). At the Technion teachers and architects which can educate CAAD are available. The following courses are teached : Computer Aided Architectural Design (I + II), Computer Methods in City Planning, Mathematical Models in Architectural Design, Design Course - Geometrical Modelling, Design Course - Solar Energy Design Seminar. It was decided that since next year the following courses will use CAAD : Design course - Geometrical Modelling and Appraisal, Morphology I, 2D-Design and Design Course - Passive Solar Communities.
series eCAADe
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 6b2f
authors Wilensky, Robert, Arens, Yigal and Chin, David
year 1984
title Talking to UNIX in English: An Overview of UC
source Communications of the ACM Vol. 27.no. 6 (June, 1984): pp. 574-593. includes bibliography
summary UC is a natural language help facility which advises users in using the UNIX operating system. Users can query UC about how to do things, command names and formats, online definitions of UNIX or general operating systems terminology, and debugging problems in using commands. UC is comprised of the following components: a language analyzer and generator, a context and memory model, an experimental common-sense planner, highly extensible knowledge bases on both the UNIX domain and the English language, a goal analysis component, and a system for acquisition of new knowledge through instruction in English. The language interface of UC is based on a 'phrasal analysis' approach which integrates semantic, grammatical and other types of information. In addition, it includes capabilities for ellipsis resolution and reference disambiguation
keywords UNIX, natural languages, user interface, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 392f
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1984
title Visualisation in Architecture and Planning
source Proceedings of Aicographics 84, (Ed: P Arthur et al) Milan
series other
email t.w.maver@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
email Dana.Vanier@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2015_9.347
id sigradi2015_9.347
authors Andrade, Eduardo; Orellana, Nicolas; Mesa, Javiera; Felmer, Patricio
year 2015
title Spatial Configuration and Sociaty. Comparison between the street market Tristan Matta and Tirso de Molina Market
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 481-485.
summary This research aims to clarify how certain visual and accessibility patterns, in buildings and urban environments, are related to social activities that take place in them. The study, based on the theory of space syntax (Hillier & Hanson 1984; Hillier, 1996), seeks to recognize patterns of behavior, both individual and aggregate. The case studies are Tirso de Molina Market and the free street market Tristan Matta, both in Santiago de Chile.
keywords pace Syntax, Visibilidad, Accesibilidad, Conectividad, Comportamiento
series SIGRADI
email edo.a@outlook.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

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