CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 82

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2015_9.347
id sigradi2015_9.347
authors Andrade, Eduardo; Orellana, Nicolas; Mesa, Javiera; Felmer, Patricio
year 2015
title Spatial Configuration and Sociaty. Comparison between the street market Tristan Matta and Tirso de Molina Market
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 481-485.
summary This research aims to clarify how certain visual and accessibility patterns, in buildings and urban environments, are related to social activities that take place in them. The study, based on the theory of space syntax (Hillier & Hanson 1984; Hillier, 1996), seeks to recognize patterns of behavior, both individual and aggregate. The case studies are Tirso de Molina Market and the free street market Tristan Matta, both in Santiago de Chile.
keywords pace Syntax, Visibilidad, Accesibilidad, Conectividad, Comportamiento
series SIGRADI
email edo.a@outlook.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id d5c8
authors Angelo, C.V., Bueno, A.P., Ludvig, C., Reis, A.F. and Trezub, D.
year 1999
title Image and Shape: Two Distinct Approaches
source III Congreso Iberoamericano de Grafico Digital [SIGRADI Conference Proceedings] Montevideo (Uruguay) September 29th - October 1st 1999, pp. 410-415
summary This paper is the result of two researches done at the district of Campeche, Florianópolis, by the Grupo PET/ARQ/UFSC/CAPES. Different aspects and conceptual approaches were used to study the spatial attributes of this district located in the Southern part of Santa Catarina Island. The readings and analysis of two researches were based on graphic pistures builded with the use of Corel 7.0 e AutoCadR14. The first research – "Urban Development in the Island of Santa Catarina: Public Space Study"- examined the urban structures of Campeche based on the Spatial Syntax Theory developed by Hillier and Hanson (1984) that relates form and social appropriation of public spaces. The second research – "Topoceptive Characterisation of Campeche: The Image of a Locality in Expansion in the Island of Santa Catarina" -, based on the methodology developed by Kohlsdorf (1996) and also on the visual analysis proposed by Lynch (1960), identified characteristics of this locality with the specific goal of selecting attributes that contributed to the ideas of the place its population held. The paper consists of an initial exercise of linking these two methods in order to test the complementarity of their analytical tools. Exemplifying the analytical procedures undertaken in the two approaches, the readings done - global (of the locality as a whole) and partial (from parts of the settlement) - are presented and compared.
series SIGRADI
email caludvig@arq.ufsc.br
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 44b1
authors Balas, Egon
year 1984
title On the Facial Structure of Scheduling Polyhedra
source 49 p., 6 p. of appendix : ill. Pittsburgh, PA: Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon Univ., December, 1984. includes bibliography
summary A well-known job shop scheduling problem can be formulated as follows. Given a graph G with node set N and with directed and undirected arcs, find an orientation of the undirected arcs that minimizes the length of a longest path in G. The author treats the problem as a disjunctive program, without recourse to integer variables, and give a partial characterization of the scheduling polyhedron P(N), i.e., the convex hull of feasible schedules. In particular, he derives all the facets inducing inequalities for the scheduling polyhedron P(K) defined on some clique with node set K, and gives a sufficient condition for such inequalities to also induce facets of P(N). One of our results is that any inequality that induces a facet of P(H) for some HCK, also induces a facet of P(K). Another one is a recursive formula for deriving a facet inducing inequality with p positive coefficients from one with p-1 positive coefficients. The author also addresses the constraint identification problem, and gives a procedure for finding an inequality that cuts off a given solution to a subset of the constraints
keywords polyhedra, graphs, optimization, convex hull
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 4685
authors Barsky, Brian A.
year 1984
title A Description and Evaluation of Various 3-D Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 38-52 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary The use of parametric curves and surfaces for object modeling in computer graphics is becoming increasingly popular. There is sometimes, however, a reluctance to use them because it seems that the added power they give is more than offset by the complexity of their formulations and their computations. The purpose of this article is to clarify their meanings and uses and show how much they have in common behind the diversity of their formulations. The author discusses the properties and benefits of using the parametric Hermite, Coons, Bezier, B-spline, and Beta-spline curve and surface formulations
keywords Hermite, Coons, curved surfaces, Bezier, curves, B- splines, computational geometry, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ecaadesigradi2019_449
id ecaadesigradi2019_449
authors Becerra Santacruz, Axel
year 2019
title The Architecture of ScarCity Game - The craft and the digital as an alternative design process
source Sousa, JP, Xavier, JP and Castro Henriques, G (eds.), Architecture in the Age of the 4th Industrial Revolution - Proceedings of the 37th eCAADe and 23rd SIGraDi Conference - Volume 3, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal, 11-13 September 2019, pp. 45-52
summary The Architecture of ScarCity Game is a board game used as a pedagogical tool that challenges architecture students by involving them in a series of experimental design sessions to understand the design process of scarcity and the actual relation between the craft and the digital. This means "pragmatic delivery processes and material constraints, where the exchange between the artisan of handmade, representing local skills and technology of the digitally conceived is explored" (Huang 2013). The game focuses on understanding the different variables of the crafted design process of traditional communities under conditions of scarcity (Michel and Bevan 1992). This requires first analyzing the spatial environmental model of interaction, available human and natural resources, and the dynamic relationship of these variables in a digital era. In the first stage (Pre-Agency), the game set the concept of the craft by limiting students design exploration from a minimum possible perspective developing locally available resources and techniques. The key elements of the design process of traditional knowledge communities have to be identified (Preez 1984). In other words, this stage is driven by limited resources + chance + contingency. In the second stage (Post-Agency) students taking the architects´ role within this communities, have to speculate and explore the interface between the craft (local knowledge and low technological tools), and the digital represented by computation data, new technologies available and construction. This means the introduction of strategy + opportunity + chance as part of the design process. In this sense, the game has a life beyond its mechanics. This other life challenges the participants to exploit the possibilities of breaking the actual boundaries of design. The result is a tool to challenge conventional methods of teaching and leaning controlling a prescribed design process. It confronts the rules that professionals in this field take for granted. The game simulates a 'fake' reality by exploring in different ways with surveyed information. As a result, participants do not have anything 'real' to lose. Instead, they have all the freedom to innovate and be creative.
keywords Global south, scarcity, low tech, digital-craft, design process and innovation by challenge.
series eCAADeSIGraDi
email axbesa03@gmail.com
last changed 2019/08/26 20:28

_id c159
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title A Case Study in Applied Algorithm Design
source IEEE Computer. February, 1984. vol. 17: pp. 75-88 : ill. tables. includes bibliography
summary In this article the author describes how an algorithm design was used in the development of a small routine in a software system
keywords algorithms, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6118
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Code Tuning -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. February, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 91-96
summary Efficiency is one of many problems in programming, and there are many ways to achieve it. This column is about a low-level approach . 'Code tuning' locates the expensive parts of an existing program and then modifies that code to improve its performance
keywords programming, search, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6050
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Algorithm Design Techniques -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. September, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 865-871 : ill
summary The problem arose in one-dimensional pattern recognition: The input is a vector X of N real numbers; the output is the maximum sum found in any contiguous subvector of the input. The problem is when some of the numbers are negative. This column is built around that problem with an emphasis on the algorithms that solve it and the techniques used to design them
keywords techniques, programming, algorithms, pattern recognition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4e4e
authors Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
year 1984
title Geometric Structures for Three- Dimensional Shape Representation
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 266-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Different geometric structures are investigated in the context of discrete surface representation. It is shown that minimal representations (i.e., polyhedra) can be provided by a surface-based method using nearest neighbors structures or by a volume-based method using the Delaunay triangulation. Both approaches are compared with respect to various criteria, such as space requirements, computation time, constraints on the distribution of the points, facilities for further calculations, and agreement with the actual shape of the object
keywords algorithms, polyhedra, curves, curved surfaces, solids, representation, geometric modeling, data structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ea4c
authors Chang, Hsi and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1984
title Efficient Algorithms to Globally Balance a Binary Search Tree
source Communications of the ACM. July, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 695-702. includes bibliography
summary A binary search tree can be globally balanced by readjustment of pointers or with a sorting process in O(n) time, n being the total number of nodes. This paper presents three global balancing algorithms, one of which uses folding with the other two adopting parallel procedures. These algorithms show improvement in time efficiency over some sequential algorithms when applied to large binary search trees. A comparison of various algorithms is presented
keywords techniques, parallel processing, algorithms, search, sorting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8860
authors Choi, B.K., Barash, M.M. and Anderson, D.C.
year 1984
title Automatic Recognition of Machined Surfaces from a 3D Solid Model
source computer Aided Design. March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 81-86 : ill. includes bibliography
summary It has been proposed that a direct link between CAD and CAM be provided through a computer-automated process planning system. Described in this paper are algorithmic procedures to identify machined surfaces (i.e., machining requirements) for a workpiece directly from its 3D geometric description. A machined surface is a portion of workpiece that can be generated by a certain mode of metal removal operation. Machined surfaces are algorithmically recognized from a 3D boundary file, and then their 2 1/2D descriptions are obtained in a data structure (format) suitable for an automated process planning system. A simplified boundary file data structure is introduced in order to explain the machined surface recognition procedures
keywords A machined surface type is defined as a pattern of faces, and a syntactic pattern recognition method is used to find the machined surface from the boundary file
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id f9f4
authors Cook, R.L., Porter, Th. and Carpenter, L.
year 1984
title Distributed Ray Tracing
source Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 137145, July 1984. SIGGRAPH '84 Proceedings
summary Ray tracing is one of the most elegant techniques in computer graphics. Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light. Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this has limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provides correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections. Motion blur and depth of field calculations can be integrated with the visible surface calculations, avoiding the problems found in previous methods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 20ff
id 20ff
authors Derix, Christian
year 2004
title Building a Synthetic Cognizer
source Design Computation Cognition conference 2004, MIT
summary Understanding ‘space’ as a structured and dynamic system can provide us with insight into the central concept in the architectural discourse that so far has proven to withstand theoretical framing (McLuhan 1964). The basis for this theoretical assumption is that space is not a void left by solid matter but instead an emergent quality of action and interaction between individuals and groups with a physical environment (Hillier 1996). In this way it can be described as a parallel distributed system, a self-organising entity. Extrapolating from Luhmann’s theory of social systems (Luhmann 1984), a spatial system is autonomous from its progenitors, people, but remains intangible to a human observer due to its abstract nature and therefore has to be analysed by computed entities, synthetic cognisers, with the capacity to perceive. This poster shows an attempt to use another complex system, a distributed connected algorithm based on Kohonen’s self-organising feature maps – SOM (Kohonen 1997), as a “perceptual aid” for creating geometric mappings of these spatial systems that will shed light on our understanding of space by not representing space through our usual mechanics but by constructing artificial spatial cognisers with abilities to make spatial representations of their own. This allows us to be shown novel representations that can help us to see new differences and similarities in spatial configurations.
keywords architectural design, neural networks, cognition, representation
series other
type poster
email christian.derix@aedas.com
more http://www.springer.com/computer/ai/book/978-1-4020-2392-7
last changed 2012/09/17 19:13

_id e7cf
authors Eastman, Charles M. and Preiss, K.
year 1984
title A Review of Solid Shape Modelling Based on Integrity
source Computer Aided Design March, 1984. vol. 16: pp. 66-80 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The potential benefits of using a canonical model for representing the shapes of solid objects has led to the design and implementation of a number of geometric modelers with varying capabilities. This paper reviews the approaches taken in solid modeling by defining the well-formedness conditions which must be implemented in any modeling system. The methods for satisfying the well-formedness constraints in the various solid modeling methods are reviewed, using the concept of integrity constraints. The incorporation of integrity constraints, both explicitly and implicitly, into solid modelers are considered, with particular focus on boundary modelers. The use of integrity constraints for defining shape families and assembly families are also presented. The result is a unified view of solid shape modeling systems that enables their classification and extension into particular application areas
keywords solid modeling, constraints, B-rep
series CADline
email chuck.eastman@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/05/17 08:15

_id 26de
authors Enderle, G., K. Kansy and Pfaff, G.
year 1984
title Computer Graphics Programming : GKS - the graphics standard
source 542 p. : ill. (some col.) Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984. includes bibliography: p. 527-532 and index. -- (Symbolic Computation Series)
summary Covers computer graphics programming on the basis of the Graphical Kernel System. It gives an overview over the GKS concepts, the history of the GKS design and the various system interfaces. A detailed description of the application of GKS functions both in PASCAL and FORTRAN is a significant part
keywords standards, computer graphics, GKS, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 3386
authors Gavin, L., Keuppers, S., Mottram, C. and Penn, A.
year 2001
title Awareness Space in Distributed Social Networks
source Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Futures [ISBN 0-7923-7023-6] Eindhoven, 8-11 July 2001, pp. 615-628
summary In the real work environment we are constantly aware of the presence and activity of others. We know when people are away from their desks, whether they are doing concentrated work, or whether they are available for interaction. We use this peripheral awareness of others to guide our interactions and social behaviour. However, when teams of workers are spatially separated we lose 'awareness' information and this severely inhibits interaction and information flow. The Theatre of Work (TOWER) aims to develop a virtual space to help create a sense of social awareness and presence to support distributed working. Presence, status and activity of other people are made visible in the theatre of work and allow one to build peripheral awareness of the current activity patterns of those who we do not share space with in reality. TOWER is developing a construction set to augment the workplace with synchronous as well as asynchronous awareness. Current, synchronous activity patterns and statuses are played out in a 3D virtual space through the use of symbolic acting. The environment itself however is automatically constructed on the basis of the organisation's information resources and is in effect an information space. Location of the symbolic actor in the environment can therefore represent the focus of that person's current activity. The environment itself evolves to reflect historic patterns of information use and exchange, and becomes an asynchronous representation of the past history of the organisation. A module that records specific episodes from the synchronous event cycle as a Docudrama forms an asynchronous information resource to give a history of team work and decision taking. The TOWER environment is displayed using a number of screen based and ambient display devices. Current status and activity events are supplied to the system using a range of sensors both in the real environment and in the information systems. The methodology has been established as a two-stage process. The 3D spatial environment will be automatically constructed or generated from some aspect of the pre-existing organisational structure or its information resources or usage patterns. The methodology must be extended to provide means for that structure to grow and evolve in the light of patterns of actual user behaviour in the TOWER space. We have developed a generative algorithm that uses a cell aggregation process to transcribe the information space into a 3d space. In stage 2 that space was analysed using space syntax methods (Hillier & Hanson, 1984; Hillier 1996) to allow the properties of permeability and intelligibility to be measured, and then these fed back into the generative algorithm. Finally, these same measures have been used to evaluate the spatialised behaviour that users of the TOWER space show, and will used to feed this back into the evolution of the space. The stage of transcription from information structure to 3d space through a generative algorithm is critical since it is this stage that allows neighbourhood relations to be created that are not present in the original information structure. It is these relations that could be expected to help increase social density.
keywords Algorithmic Form Generation, Distributed Workgroups, Space Syntax
series CAAD Futures
email l.gavin@ucl.ac.uk
last changed 2006/11/07 06:22

_id b8b9
authors Gibson, W.
year 1984
title Neuromancer
source Victor Gollancz
summary Here is the novel that started it all, launching the cyberpunk generation, and the first novel to win the holy trinity of science fiction: the Hugo Award, the Nebula Award and the Philip K. Dick Award. With Neuromancer, William Gibson introduced the world to cyberspace--and science fiction has never been the same. Case was the hottest computer cowboy cruising the information superhighway--jacking his consciousness into cyberspace, soaring through tactile lattices of data and logic, rustling encoded secrets for anyone with the money to buy his skills. Then he double-crossed the wrong people, who caught up with him in a big way--and burned the talent out of his brain, micron by micron. Banished from cyberspace, trapped in the meat of his physical body, Case courted death in the high-tech underworld. Until a shadowy conspiracy offered him a second chance--and a cure--for a price....
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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