CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 96 of 96

_id 676a
authors Valiant, L.G.
year 1984
title A Theory of the Learnable
source Communications of the ACM. November,1984. vol. 27: pp. 1134-1142. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the author regards learning as the phenomenon of knowledge acquisition in the absence of explicit programming. The author gives a precise methodology for studying this phenomenon from a computational viewpoint. It consists of choosing an appropriate information gathering mechanism, the learning protocol, and exploring the class of concepts that can be learned using it in a reasonable (polynomial) number of steps. Although inherent algorithmic complexity appears to set serious limits on the range of concepts that can be learned, the author shows that there are some important nontrivial classes of propositional concepts that can be learned in a realistic sense
keywords AI, learning, natural languages, research, techniques, design, knowledge acquisition, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a166
authors Van der Heiden, G. H. and Grandjean, E.
year 1984
title Ergonomic Studies in Computer-Aided Design Ergodesign 84 -- Ergonomics and Design in the Electronic Office:2. Field Studies, Office Furniture and Hardware
source Behaviour and Information Technology 1984 v.3 n.4 p.341-346
summary This paper describes the results of an ergonomic survey on interactive graphics workstations for computer-aided design (CAD). A work-sampling study was carried out to characterize the use of keyboard, digitizer tablet and video display. Subjective impressions of CAD software, CAD hardware and health aspects were collected by means of a questionnaire. Working methods and working postures were recorded on videotape. The two most important differences in comparison with other office terminals are: (i) dynamic working methods result in an absence of constrained postures in CAD operators and allow full-body exercise; (ii) CAD operators spend more time (46-68 per cent of working hours) viewing the video display than the average office terminal operator. Some ergonomic recommendations have been deduced for the construction of CAD terminals, as well as for the ergonomic improvement of existing workstations.
series other
last changed 2002/07/07 14:01

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 09e8
authors Wallace, Mark
year 1984
title Communicating with Databases in Natural Languages
source 170 p. West, Sussex, England: Ellis Horwood limited, 1984. includes bibliography: p.[163]-166 and index. -- (Ellis Horwood Series on Artificial Intelligence)
summary In the first chapters is a full description of natural languages and interface to relational database. Natural language processing and the use of PROLOG are discussed. Features include also a practical discussion of parsing natural language with accompanying programs in PROLOG
keywords natural languages, PROLOG, relational database, user interface
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:10

_id a688
authors Walters, R. J.
year 1984
title Towards and End User View of Design Systems
source 1984? pp. 17-27 : tables. includes bibliography
summary Based upon detailed reporting of CAD use in hospital projects, an end user's view of design systems is developed. From the recorded user experience system development, implementation, performance in use and effects upon design practice are assessed. Aspects of user technique are developed. Current systems are found to be flawed but satisfactory results may be obtained under the right conditions. These are identified. The range of factors required in the development of an end user view of design systems also identified. An evaluation of the use of OXSYS/BDS on Milton Keynes DGH is presented together with an assessment of CAD use (both BDS and GDS) on health building projects at Oxford RHA. The paper summaries a detailed report (Walters 83). The paper is presented in 4 parts: an introduction, results of a detailed case study and an assessment leading towards an end user view of current design systems
keywords design, CAD, systems, applications, practice, user interface, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cf2009_poster_39
id cf2009_poster_39
authors Wang, Chung-Yang
year 2009
title The Modular Units of CAD/CAM Fabrication
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary After Frank O’Gehry’s completion of the fish sculpture in Barcelona, the technique of CAD/CAM fabrication has gradually matured. Designers could use computer to acquire the freedom of form without most restrictions. Typical CAD/CAM fabrication can precisely capture the sections of 3D (three-dimensional) freeform and output those contours into 2D (two-dimensional) structures by computer assistance (Kolarevic 2001; Groover and Emory 1984). In the procedure, due to the accurate output of frameworks, designers could realize the outlines of complicated forms in a low error way. After making frames, architects have to attach suitable skins on the structures according to different situations of form (Lim 2006). It is a traditional CAD/CAM fabrication which has established for a long time.
keywords CAD/CAM, Fabrication, Modular Units
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/08/21 05:39

_id 0589
authors Weghorst, H., Hooper, G., and Greenberg, D.
year 1984
title Improved Computational Methods for Ray Tracing
source ACM Trans. on Graphics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 52-69, Jan. 1984
summary This paper describes algorithmic procedures that have been implemented to reduce the computational expense of producing ray-traced images. The selection of bounding volumes is examined to reduce the computational cost of the ray-intersection test. The use of object coherence, which relies on a hierarchical description of the environment, is then presented. Finally, since the building of the ray-intersection trees is such a large portion of the computation, a method using image coherence is described. This visible-surface preprocessing method, which is dependent upon the creation of an "item buffer," takes advantage of a priori image information. Examples that indicate the efficiency of these techniques for a variety of representative environments are presented.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 6b2f
authors Wilensky, Robert, Arens, Yigal and Chin, David
year 1984
title Talking to UNIX in English: An Overview of UC
source Communications of the ACM Vol. 6 (June, 1984): pp. 574-593. includes bibliography
summary UC is a natural language help facility which advises users in using the UNIX operating system. Users can query UC about how to do things, command names and formats, online definitions of UNIX or general operating systems terminology, and debugging problems in using commands. UC is comprised of the following components: a language analyzer and generator, a context and memory model, an experimental common-sense planner, highly extensible knowledge bases on both the UNIX domain and the English language, a goal analysis component, and a system for acquisition of new knowledge through instruction in English. The language interface of UC is based on a 'phrasal analysis' approach which integrates semantic, grammatical and other types of information. In addition, it includes capabilities for ellipsis resolution and reference disambiguation
keywords UNIX, natural languages, user interface, knowledge acquisition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id af76
authors Wong, Waycal C.H. and Will, Barry F.
year 1996
title An Analysis of Using a Digital 3D Sundial as a Design and Decision Support Tool
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 131-141
summary The rapid speed of computer development brings new technologies, and these advances require innovative investigations to apply them optimally in the field of architecture. Burkett (1984) demonstrated that computer graphics can ‘provide an excellent opportunity for exploring solar issues in building redesign’. With one of the latest computer technologies, the "hyper-model” environment, this research investigates how to environment can become an aid in the design and decision support area. The research first reviews the communication between the architect and the client as described by Salisbury (1990). The review indicates that an interactive 3D hypermedia paradigm, with quick response, fast data manipulation and 3D visualization, offers a better communication media between the architect and the client. This research applies the "hyper-model” environment to design and develop a new methodology in collecting, analyzing, and presenting solar data. It also endeavors to show the possibilities of using the environment in design process.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:06

_id 2c1b
authors Woolf, Beverly and McDonald, David D.
year 1984
title Building a Computer Tutor : Design Issues
source IEEE Computer. September, 1984. vol. 17: pp. 61-73 : diagrams. includes bibliography
summary An effective tutor must deal with a fundamental problem of communication: to determine how messages are received and understood and to formulate appropriate answers. This means that a tutor, more than a speaker, must verify that both parties know what information has been covered, what is missing, and which communication might be erroneous. In this article the authors discuss how an understanding of a student can be constructed in an artificial intelligence program and how this understanding, coupled with a facility for language generation, can be used to build flexible machine tutor
keywords education, communication, information, learning, AI, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 1b36
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1984
title Design Systems in Practice and Education
source Proceedings of CIB W-78 Colloquium on Integrated CAD Systems, Garston
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 392f
authors Maver, T.W.
year 1984
title Visualisation in Architecture and Planning
source Proceedings of Aicographics 84, (Ed: P Arthur et al) Milan
series other
last changed 2003/06/02 13:00

_id 1f66
authors Porter, T. and Duff, T.
year 1984
title Compositing digital images
source Computer Graphics (USA), vol. 18, pp. 253-259, July 1984
summary This class is designed to provide digital imaging instruction covering normalization and other basics of digital image compositing.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

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