CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 21 to 40 of 98

_id 7789
authors Heckbert, P.S.
year 1984
title Survey of Texture Mapping
source IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, Vol.6, No. 11, Nov. 1984, pp. 56-67
summary Texture mapping is one of the most successful new techniques in high quality image synthesis. Its use can enhance the visual richness of raster scan images immensely while entailing only a relatively small increase in computation. The technique has been applied to a number of surface attributes: surface color, surface normal, specularity, transparency, illumination, and surface displacement, to name a few. Although the list is potentially endless, the techniques of texture mapping are essentially the same in all cases. We will survey the fundamentals of texture mapping, which can be split into two topics: the geometric mapping that warps a texture onto a surface, and the filtering that is necessary in order to avoid aliasing. An extensive bibliography is included.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 653f
authors Hedelman, Harold
year 1984
title A Data Flow Approach to Procedural Modeling
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 16-26 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography.
summary Computer graphics tasks generally involve either modeling or viewing. Modeling combines primitive building blocks (polygons, patches, etc.) into data structures that represent entire objects and scenes. To visualize a modeled object, its data structure is input to appropriate viewing routines. While a great deal has been done on modeling and viewing with geometric primitives, little has been published on the use of procedural primitives. A procedural model is a step-by-step guide for constructing a representation of an object or process, i.e., a program. It is also a function, a 'black box' with a set of inputs and outputs. Two questions are especially pertinent to the work presented in this article
keywords First, what are the advantages of both data flow methods and procedural modeling? Second, how can such models be used in composition? computer graphics, modeling, information, management
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 63a9
authors Hellgardt, Michael
year 1993
title Architectural Theory and Design Grammars
source [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Eindhoven (The Netherlands) 11-13 November 1993
summary The idea of artificial brains and artificial intelligence (AI) has been subject to criticism. The objection of J. Searle, for instance, which has been published in 1984 and which was partially directly addressed to one of the centres of AI, the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, is mainly based on two points: (1) interactions between physiological and mental functions, and (2) the intentionality and context-relatedness of meaning. - With an emphasis on architectural design, this paper is about the second point, because the problem of meaning is a neuralgic point in the discussion of "artificial intelligence in design" (AID). Technical parameters are incompatible with mechanisms of meaning in any field of artistic, cultural or non-technical expression. This point, that is the relation between acts of meaning and acts of technical problem-solving and, connectedly, the relation between technological and architectural design, has been widely ignored in the discussion on AID. The development seems to be dominated by the tacit assumption that architecture can be articulated and generated purely in technical and formal terms of information processing beyond the field of architecture itself. Design and shape grammars have become a well established field in the discussion of AID, also with respect to architecture. But questions of architectural history and theory are touched on only incidentally and not sufficiently in this discussion. The problem is not, in other words, simply to include more or less unrelated cases of architecture, or architectural concepts -even if these are famous ones, such as Laugier's original hut for instance but to establish structural relations between arguments of architectural theory and arguments of AID.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/10 08:03

_id ab9c
authors Kvan, Thomas and Kvan, Erik
year 1999
title Is Design Really Social
source International Journal of Virtual Reality, 4:1
summary There are many who will readily agree with Mitchell's assertion that "the most interesting new directions (for computer-aided design) are suggested by the growing convergence of computation and telecommunication. This allows us to treat designing not just as a technical process... but also as a social process." [Mitchell 1995]. The assumption is that design was a social process until users of computer-aided design systems were distracted into treating it as a merely technical process. Most readers will assume that this convergence must and will lead to increased communication between design participants, that better social interaction leads to be better design. The unspoken assumption appears to be that putting the participants into an environment with maximal communication channels will result in design collaboration. The tools provided, therefore, must permit the best communication and the best social interaction. We see a danger here, a pattern being repeated which may lead us into less than useful activities. As with several (popular) architectural design or modelling systems already available, however, computer system implementations all too often are poor imitations manual systems. For example, few in the field will argue with the statement that the storage of data in layers in a computer-aided drafting system is an dispensable approach. Layers derive from manual overlay drafting technology [Stitt 1984] which was regarded as an advanced (manual) production concept at the time many software engineers were specifying CAD software designs. Early implementations of CAD systems (such as RUCAPS, GDS, Computervision) avoided such data organisation, the software engineers recognising that object-based structures are more flexible, permitting greater control of data editing and display. Layer-based systems, however, are easier to implement in software, more familiar to the user and hence easier to explain, initially easier to use but more limiting for an experienced and thoughtful user, leading in the end to a lesser quality in resultant drawings and significant problems in output control (see Richens [1990], pp. 31-40 for a detailed analysis of such features and constraints). Here then we see the design for architectural software faithfully but inappropriately following manual methods. So too is there a danger of assuming that the best social interaction is that done face-to-face, therefore all collaborative design communications environments must mimic face-to-face.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/05/15 08:29

_id 2885
authors Lansdown, J. and Maver, T.W.
year 1984
title CAD in Architecture and Building
source Computer Aided Design, Vol 16, No 3
summary CAAD tool have gradually come into use in architecture over the past years. Appraisal and evaluation of designs and design tools and the preparation of product innovations are discussed. Types of visualisation and flexible layout programs for CAAD are assessed. The areas which knowledge-based design systems should cover are discussed .
series journal paper
last changed 2003/06/10 13:55

_id 4b27
authors Lansdown, John
year 1984
title Knowledge for Designers
source Architect`s journal. England: February, 1984. vol. 179: pp. 55-58
summary The first of two articles discussing expert systems. Both design and construction are carried out within the framework of empirical rules and regulations designed more for ease of implementation and checking than scientific validity. On completion of a building, little follow up research is done on the way it is used or on the way in which the assumption made in its design are borne out in practice. This present two problems: How to make information from disparate sources easily available to designers and constructors, and how to make them aware that they need this information. This paper describes how a special type of computer programming might assist in solving these problems
keywords design, construction, building, expert systems, knowledge base, systems, programming, life cycle
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id 88e0
authors Lee, Y.T., De Pennington, P. and Shaw, N.K.
year 1984
title Automatic Finite- Element Mesh Generation from Geometric Models : A Point Based Approach
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 287-311 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A novel algorithm for automatic finite-element mesh generation is described. It uses constructive solid geometry to provide the geometric data for the object to be meshed. The geometric definition of the object and a value for the required mesh density are the only inputs. The method consists of two stages: point generation and mesh construction over the points. It has been implemented in two dimensions and is capable of generating predominantly 'good' quadrilateral elements. Triangular elements are only created in circumstances under which quadrilateral elements are not feasible
keywords solids, geometric modeling, finite elements, analysis, CSG
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 05b4
authors Liang, You-Dong and Barsky, Brian A.
year 1984
title A New Concept and Method for Line Clipping
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. January, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 1-22 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A new concept and method for line clipping is developed that describes clipping in an exact and mathematical form. The basic ideas form the foundation for a family of algorithms for two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and four-dimensional (homogeneous coordinates) line clipping. The line segment to be clipped is mapped into a parametric representation. From this, a set of conditions is derived that describes the interior of the clipping region. Observing that these conditions are all of similar form, they are rewritten such that the solution to the clipping problem is reduced to a simple max/min expression. For each dimension, the mathematics are discussed, an example is given, the algorithm is designed, and a performance test is conducted. The new algorithm is compared with the traditional Sutherland-Cohen clipping algorithm. Using randomly generated data, the new algorithm showed a 36 percent, 40 percent, and 79 percent improvement for two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and four- dimensional clipping, respectively. One of the advantages of this algorithm is the quick rejection of line segments that are invisible. In addition, this algorithm can be easily generalized for clipping against any convex viewing volume
keywords algorithms, clipping, computer graphics, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id b0e0
authors Martens, Bob
year 1991
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 44-52
summary Since 1977 the Institut für Raumgestaltung ('Architectural Styling of Space') had been trying to set up a full-scale laboratory designed for teaching and research purposes. The aim was even more so invigorated by the International Architecture Symposion "Man and Architectural Space" organized by our institute (1984).
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:17

_id ceb1
authors Maver, T.
year 1984
title What is eCAADe?
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary The main interest of the organisation is to improve the design, teaching. The design remains the core of the professional education, while computer science can support a better understanding of the design methods. Computers should amplify the human capabilities like engines allowed to carry higher forces, radio and television enabled communication over larger distances and computers today should aid the human intellectual activities, to gain a better insight in design methodology, to investigate the design process.Design research should study more extensively how buildings behave, the integration and interaction of different disciplines which contribute to the optimization of a design and the design criteria. Computers could increase the possibility to satisfy building regulations, to access and update information, to model the design process and to understand how decisions affect the building quality (functional and economical as well as formal aspects). More effort and money should be spent on this research. The organisation has been sponsored by the EEC for bringing CAAD (Computer Aided Architectural Design) educational material at the disposal of the design teachers. The Helsinki conference is the third European meeting (after Delft 1982 and Brussels 1983) which concentrates on information and experience exchange in CAAD-education and looks for common interests and collaboration. A specific joint study program works on typical audiovisual material and lecture notes, which will be updated according to teacher's needs. A demand has been done to implement an integrated CAAD package. eCAADe focuses to integrate computer approaches across country boundaries as well as across disciplinary boundaries, as to reach a higher quality of the design education.

series eCAADe
last changed 2001/06/04 15:07

_id ac8b
authors Mitchell, W.
year 1984
title CAD Technology, Its Effects on Practice and the Response of Education - an Overview
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary Related with the evolution of hardware there also is an evolution of CAD techniques. The very first CAD/CAM packages were developed on mainframes. They moved into practice when 16-bit minicomputers became available. The packages mainly were production drafting applications. The 32-bit super minicomputers give wider possibilities, but at the same time some software problems arise, namely the complexity of CAD- databases and the development and maintenance cost of large programs. With VLSI the distribution of intelligence becomes possible, the enthousiasm for CAD increases, but still the gap between available hardware and high quality software, remains high.Concerning CAD teaching there are severe problems. First of all there are not enough really good designers which know CAD in such a way that they can teach it. Second there is a shortage of equipment and a financial problem. Thirdly there is the question what the students need to know about CAD. which is not clear at the moment. At the University of California, Los Angeles, the following 5 subjects are teached: Computer Support, Computer Literacy, Professional Practice Implications, Exploration of CAD as a Design Medium and Theoretical Foundations of CAD. To use computers as a medium it is necessary to understand architecture, its objects, its operators and its evaluation criteria. The last topic is considered at research level.
series eCAADe
last changed 2001/10/20 08:23

_id c57c
authors Pöyry Matti (Ed.)
year 1984
title The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [Conference Proceedings]
source eCAADe Conference Proceedings / Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984
summary The conference took place in the Department of Architecture of the Helsinki University of Technology (Otaniemi). There were 63 delegates from Finland, Sweden, Switzerland, Belgium, Italy, Australia, France, Israel, Germany, Norway, United Kingdom, Denmark, California and the Netherlands. The conference program was divided into three parts, namely general lectures (T. Maver, W. Mitchell, A. Neil and J. Gero), national situation reports and parallel workshops.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/12 05:52

_id 6ed3
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1985
title The Role of Computing in Engineering Education
source Toward Expert Systems, Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, July, 1985. vol. 20: pp. 11-15. Also published in: Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics edited by A. K. Noor and R. J. Hayduk
summary Pergamon Press, 1985. --- Also Published in : Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics, Pergamon Press, George Washington University and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. pp. 11-15, Oct.1984. The rapid advances occurring in interactive micro-computing and computer science have provided the engineer with a powerful means of processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying data. The effective use of computer technology in engineering processes and applications is recognized by many as the key to increased individual, company, and national productivity. The implications of this observation for the academic community are clear: we must prepare our students to use computer methods and applications as part of their fundamental education. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science principles and practices is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The components of an education should include operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures. It is critically important for engineering students to receive an education that teaches them these fundamentals. This paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires, in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computing content of many other courses so that students come to treat the computer as a fundamental component of their work. This is a major undertaking, but new engineers graduating with advanced computing knowledge will provide potentially significant future innovations in the engineering profession
keywords CAE, education, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id af26
authors Renson, Michel
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Université de Liege (Belgium, Southern Part)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Belgium there are two possibilities to study architecture, it can either be done at a higher institute or academy, or at a university. At the higher schools of architecture the computer equipment has just been installed during the last years, and teaching of CAAD is not yet integrated. There exists only a general computer course. At the universities hardware has been available since several years, and software has been developed. The following programs have been implemented in Liege : LPB1, LPB2, LPB3, LPB4 (energy analysis), FEASIBILITY (to obtain acceptable values for the main global parameters of a design), VOLUME, (3D modelling for building modelisation and manipulation) and TYPOLOGIE (for the determination of classes for the energetic behaviour of residential buildings).

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/12 06:04

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 46b0
authors Schijf, Rik
year 1986
title CAD in the Netherlands: Integrated CAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 176-184
summary One of the things in which a small country can excel is its number of architects' offices per inhabitant. In the Netherlands this is approximately one in 6500, or twice the UK density (CBS, 1984; CICA, 1982). Of the 2150 Dutch offices, 88 per cent employ less than 10 people, which compares rather well with the British Situation. For the Netherlands it is interesting that its boom in CAD, on average an annual doubling or tripling for the next few years, is likely to coincide with a revolution in CAD itself. There is no doubt that very soon the personal and larger CAD systems will clash at supermicro-level.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 6c6f
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1984
title National Situation Report: Technion (Haifa, Israel)
source The Third European Conference on CAD in the Education of Architecture [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Helsinki (Finnland) 20-22 September 1984.
summary In Israel there is only one School of Architecture. CAAD teaching has been introduced since 1969-1970. Last year it has been decided that each department (electronical, mechanical, architectural) will have its own CAD laboratory for computer graphics, based on a super minicomputer (CDC Cyber 170/720). The following software is available for CAAD : CD2000 (wireframe drawings), ICEM (solid modelling), TIGS (terminal independent graphics system), GOAL and BIBLE, ACA (integrated CAAD software). At the Technion teachers and architects which can educate CAAD are available. The following courses are teached : Computer Aided Architectural Design (I + II), Computer Methods in City Planning, Mathematical Models in Architectural Design, Design Course - Geometrical Modelling, Design Course - Solar Energy Design Seminar. It was decided that since next year the following courses will use CAAD : Design course - Geometrical Modelling and Appraisal, Morphology I, 2D-Design and Design Course - Passive Solar Communities.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:36

_id ecaade2013_094
id ecaade2013_094
authors Tomé, Ana; Heitor, Teresa and Nunes, Mário
year 2013
title Space-Use Interactions Described Through Computer Vision
source Stouffs, Rudi and Sariyildiz, Sevil (eds.), Computation and Performance – Proceedings of the 31st eCAADe Conference – Volume 1, Faculty of Architecture, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands, 18-20 September 2013, pp. 403-412
summary This paper examines analytical procedures aimed at the study of the functional condition of architectural artefacts and, as a result, the promotion of a better understanding of the connections established with spatial conditions. The goal is to contribute to the development of techniques based on computer vision of mobility and users’ interaction, producing non-arbitrary registries of their movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns via a quantitatively based analysis.Movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns were correlated with configurational properties obtained by applying the space syntax descriptive model (Hillier and Hanson, 1984). It was possible to analyse relations between the spatial configuration and the movement/navigation and occupancy/co-presence patterns, a key question within the architectural conceptual process.
wos WOS:000340635300042
keywords Space-use analysis method; computer vision; movement/navigation patterns; occupation/co-presence patterns; occupation/movement indices.
series eCAADe
last changed 2016/05/16 09:08

_id 676a
authors Valiant, L.G.
year 1984
title A Theory of the Learnable
source Communications of the ACM. November,1984. vol. 27: pp. 1134-1142. includes bibliography
summary In this paper the author regards learning as the phenomenon of knowledge acquisition in the absence of explicit programming. The author gives a precise methodology for studying this phenomenon from a computational viewpoint. It consists of choosing an appropriate information gathering mechanism, the learning protocol, and exploring the class of concepts that can be learned using it in a reasonable (polynomial) number of steps. Although inherent algorithmic complexity appears to set serious limits on the range of concepts that can be learned, the author shows that there are some important nontrivial classes of propositional concepts that can be learned in a realistic sense
keywords AI, learning, natural languages, research, techniques, design, knowledge acquisition, theory
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

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