CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 41 to 60 of 98

_id a688
authors Walters, R. J.
year 1984
title Towards and End User View of Design Systems
source 1984? pp. 17-27 : tables. includes bibliography
summary Based upon detailed reporting of CAD use in hospital projects, an end user's view of design systems is developed. From the recorded user experience system development, implementation, performance in use and effects upon design practice are assessed. Aspects of user technique are developed. Current systems are found to be flawed but satisfactory results may be obtained under the right conditions. These are identified. The range of factors required in the development of an end user view of design systems also identified. An evaluation of the use of OXSYS/BDS on Milton Keynes DGH is presented together with an assessment of CAD use (both BDS and GDS) on health building projects at Oxford RHA. The paper summaries a detailed report (Walters 83). The paper is presented in 4 parts: an introduction, results of a detailed case study and an assessment leading towards an end user view of current design systems
keywords design, CAD, systems, applications, practice, user interface, evaluation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id cf2009_poster_39
id cf2009_poster_39
authors Wang, Chung-Yang
year 2009
title The Modular Units of CAD/CAM Fabrication
source T. Tidafi and T. Dorta (eds) Joining Languages Cultures and Visions: CAADFutures 2009 CD-Rom
summary After Frank O’Gehry’s completion of the fish sculpture in Barcelona, the technique of CAD/CAM fabrication has gradually matured. Designers could use computer to acquire the freedom of form without most restrictions. Typical CAD/CAM fabrication can precisely capture the sections of 3D (three-dimensional) freeform and output those contours into 2D (two-dimensional) structures by computer assistance (Kolarevic 2001; Groover and Emory 1984). In the procedure, due to the accurate output of frameworks, designers could realize the outlines of complicated forms in a low error way. After making frames, architects have to attach suitable skins on the structures according to different situations of form (Lim 2006). It is a traditional CAD/CAM fabrication which has established for a long time.
keywords CAD/CAM, Fabrication, Modular Units
series CAAD Futures
type poster
last changed 2009/08/21 05:39

_id 0589
authors Weghorst, H., Hooper, G., and Greenberg, D.
year 1984
title Improved Computational Methods for Ray Tracing
source ACM Trans. on Graphics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 52-69, Jan. 1984
summary This paper describes algorithmic procedures that have been implemented to reduce the computational expense of producing ray-traced images. The selection of bounding volumes is examined to reduce the computational cost of the ray-intersection test. The use of object coherence, which relies on a hierarchical description of the environment, is then presented. Finally, since the building of the ray-intersection trees is such a large portion of the computation, a method using image coherence is described. This visible-surface preprocessing method, which is dependent upon the creation of an "item buffer," takes advantage of a priori image information. Examples that indicate the efficiency of these techniques for a variety of representative environments are presented.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id ddss9503
id ddss9503
authors Wineman, Jean and Serrato, Margaret
year 1994
title Visual and Spatial Analysis in Office Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The demands for rapid response to complex problems, flexibility, and other characteristics of today's workplace, such as a highly trained work force, have led many organizations to move from strict hierarchical structures to a more flexible project team organization. The organizational structure is broader and flatter, with greater independence given to organizational units, in this case the project teams. To understand the relationship between project team communication patterns and the design and layout of team space, a study was conducted of an architectural office before and after a move to new space. The study involved three project teams. Information was collected on individual communication patterns; perceptions of the ease of communication; and the effectiveness of the design and layout of physical space to support these communications. In order to provide guidance for critical decision-making in design, these communication data were correlated with a series of measures for the specification of team space enclosure and layout. These group/team space measures were adaptations of existing measures of individual work space, and included an enclosure measure, based on an enclosure measure developed by Stokols (1990); a measure of visual field, based on the "isovist" fields of Benedikt (1979); and an "integration" measure, based on the work of Hillier and Hanson (1984). Results indicate both linear and non-linear relationships between interaction patterns and physical space measures. This work is the initial stage of a research program to define a set of specific physical measures to guide the design of supportive work space for project teams and work groups within various types of organizations.
series DDSS
email jean.winem@arch.gatech.edu
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddssar0031
id ddssar0031
authors Witt, Tom
year 2000
title Indecision in quest of design
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fifth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings (Nijkerk, the Netherlands)
summary Designers all start with a solution (Darke, 1984), with what is known (Rittel, 1969, 1970). Hans Menghol, Svein Gusrud and Peter Opvik did so with the chair in the 1970s. Not content with the knowledge of the chair, however, they walked backward to the ignorance of the question that has always elicited the solution of chair and asked themselves the improbable question, “What is a chair?” Their answer was the Balans chair. “Until the introduction of the Norwegian Balans (balance) chair, the multi-billion dollar international chair industry had been surprisingly homogeneous. This chair is the most radical of the twentieth century and probably since the invention of the chair-throne itself (Cranz 1998). Design theorists have tried to understand in a measurable way what is not measurable: the way that designers think. Rather than attempt to analyze something that cannot be taken apart, I attempt to illuminate methods for generating new knowledge through ways of seeing connections that are not logical, and in fact are sometimes ironic. Among the possibilities discussed in this dialogue are the methodological power of language in the form of metaphor, the power of the imagination in mind experiments, the power of mythological story telling, and the power of immeasurable intangibles in the generation of the new knowledge needed to design.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id af76
authors Wong, Waycal C.H. and Will, Barry F.
year 1996
title An Analysis of Using a Digital 3D Sundial as a Design and Decision Support Tool
source CAADRIA ‘96 [Proceedings of The First Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 9627-75-703-9] Hong Kong (Hong Kong) 25-27 April 1996, pp. 131-141
summary The rapid speed of computer development brings new technologies, and these advances require innovative investigations to apply them optimally in the field of architecture. Burkett (1984) demonstrated that computer graphics can ‘provide an excellent opportunity for exploring solar issues in building redesign’. With one of the latest computer technologies, the "hyper-model” environment, this research investigates how to environment can become an aid in the design and decision support area. The research first reviews the communication between the architect and the client as described by Salisbury (1990). The review indicates that an interactive 3D hypermedia paradigm, with quick response, fast data manipulation and 3D visualization, offers a better communication media between the architect and the client. This research applies the "hyper-model” environment to design and develop a new methodology in collecting, analyzing, and presenting solar data. It also endeavors to show the possibilities of using the environment in design process.
series CAADRIA
last changed 1999/01/31 14:06

_id avocaad_2001_09
id avocaad_2001_09
authors Yu-Tung Liu, Yung-Ching Yeh, Sheng-Cheng Shih
year 2001
title Digital Architecture in CAD studio and Internet-based competition
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary Architectural design has been changing because of the vast and creative use of computer in different ways. From the viewpoint of designing itself, computer has been used as drawing tools in the latter phase of design (Mitchell 1977; Coyne et al. 1990), presentation and simulation tools in the middle phase (Liu and Bai 2000), and even critical media which triggers creative thinking in the very early phase (Maher et al. 2000; Liu 1999; Won 1999). All the various roles that computer can play have been adopted in a number of professional design corporations and so-called computer-aided design (CAD) studio in schools worldwide (Kvan 1997, 2000; Cheng 1998). The processes and outcomes of design have been continuously developing to capture the movement of the computer age. However, from the viewpoint of social-cultural theories of architecture, the evolvement of design cannot be achieved solely by designers or design processes. Any new idea of design can be accepted socially, culturally and historically only under one condition: The design outcomes could be reviewed and appreciated by critics in the field at the time of its production (Csikszentmihalyi 1986, 1988; Schon and Wiggins 1992; Liu 2000). In other words, aspects of design production (by designers in different design processes) are as critical as those of design appreciation (by critics in different review processes) in the observation of the future trends of architecture.Nevertheless, in the field of architectural design with computer and Internet, that is, so-called computer-aided design computer-mediated design, or internet-based design, most existing studies pay more attentions to producing design in design processes as mentioned above. Relatively few studies focus on how critics act and how they interact with designers in the review processes. Therefore, this study intends to investigate some evolving phenomena of the interaction between design production and appreciation in the environment of computer and Internet.This paper takes a CAD studio and an Internet-based competition as examples. The CAD studio includes 7 master's students and 2 critics, all from the same countries. The Internet-based competition, held in year 2000, includes 206 designers from 43 counties and 26 critics from 11 countries. 3 students and the 2 critics in the CAD studio are the competition participating designers and critics respectively. The methodological steps are as follows: 1. A qualitative analysis: observation and interview of the 3 participants and 2 reviewers who join both the CAD studio and the competition. The 4 analytical criteria are the kinds of presenting media, the kinds of supportive media (such as verbal and gesture/facial data), stages of the review processes, and interaction between the designer and critics. The behavioral data are acquired by recording the design presentation and dialogue within 3 months. 2. A quantitative analysis: statistical analysis of the detailed reviewing data in the CAD studio and the competition. The four 4 analytical factors are the reviewing time, the number of reviewing of the same project, the comparison between different projects, and grades/comments. 3. Both the qualitative and quantitative data are cross analyzed and discussed, based on the theories of design thinking, design production/appreciation, and the appreciative system (Goodman 1978, 1984).The result of this study indicates that the interaction between design production and appreciation during the review processes could differ significantly. The review processes could be either linear or cyclic due to the influences from the kinds of media, the environmental discrepancies between studio and Internet, as well as cognitive thinking/memory capacity. The design production and appreciation seem to be more linear in CAD studio whereas more cyclic in the Internet environment. This distinction coincides with the complementary observations of designing as a linear process (Jones 1970; Simon 1981) or a cyclic movement (Schon and Wiggins 1992). Some phenomena during the two processes are also illustrated in detail in this paper.This study is merely a starting point of the research in design production and appreciation in the computer and network age. The future direction of investigation is to establish a theoretical model for the interaction between design production and appreciation based on current findings. The model is expected to conduct using revised protocol analysis and interviews. The other future research is to explore how design computing creativity emerge from the process of producing and appreciating.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 409c
authors Akin, Omer, Flemming, Ulrich and Woodbury, Robert F.
year 1984
title Development of Computer Systems for Use in Architectural Education
source 1984. ii, 47 p. includes bibliography
summary Computers have not been used in education in a way that fosters intellectual development of alternate approaches to design. Sufficient theory exists to use computing devices to support other potentially fruitful approaches to design. A proposal is made for the development of a computer system for architectural education which is built upon a particular model for design, that of rational decision making. Within the framework provided by the model, a series of courseware development projects are proposed which together with hardware acquisitions constitute a comprehensive computer system for architectural education
keywords architecture, education, design, decision making
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id sigradi2015_9.347
id sigradi2015_9.347
authors Andrade, Eduardo; Orellana, Nicolas; Mesa, Javiera; Felmer, Patricio
year 2015
title Spatial Configuration and Sociaty. Comparison between the street market Tristan Matta and Tirso de Molina Market
source SIGRADI 2015 [Proceedings of the 19th Conference of the Iberoamerican Society of Digital Graphics - vol. 2 - ISBN: 978-85-8039-133-6] Florianópolis, SC, Brasil 23-27 November 2015, pp. 481-485.
summary This research aims to clarify how certain visual and accessibility patterns, in buildings and urban environments, are related to social activities that take place in them. The study, based on the theory of space syntax (Hillier & Hanson 1984; Hillier, 1996), seeks to recognize patterns of behavior, both individual and aggregate. The case studies are Tirso de Molina Market and the free street market Tristan Matta, both in Santiago de Chile.
keywords pace Syntax, Visibilidad, Accesibilidad, Conectividad, Comportamiento
series SIGRADI
email edo.a@outlook.com
last changed 2016/03/10 08:47

_id 4685
authors Barsky, Brian A.
year 1984
title A Description and Evaluation of Various 3-D Models
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. January, 1984. vol. 4: pp. 38-52 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary The use of parametric curves and surfaces for object modeling in computer graphics is becoming increasingly popular. There is sometimes, however, a reluctance to use them because it seems that the added power they give is more than offset by the complexity of their formulations and their computations. The purpose of this article is to clarify their meanings and uses and show how much they have in common behind the diversity of their formulations. The author discusses the properties and benefits of using the parametric Hermite, Coons, Bezier, B-spline, and Beta-spline curve and surface formulations
keywords Hermite, Coons, curved surfaces, Bezier, curves, B- splines, computational geometry, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6118
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Code Tuning -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. February, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 91-96
summary Efficiency is one of many problems in programming, and there are many ways to achieve it. This column is about a low-level approach . 'Code tuning' locates the expensive parts of an existing program and then modifies that code to improve its performance
keywords programming, search, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6050
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1984
title Algorithm Design Techniques -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. September, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 865-871 : ill
summary The problem arose in one-dimensional pattern recognition: The input is a vector X of N real numbers; the output is the maximum sum found in any contiguous subvector of the input. The problem is when some of the numbers are negative. This column is built around that problem with an emphasis on the algorithms that solve it and the techniques used to design them
keywords techniques, programming, algorithms, pattern recognition
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8087
authors Boehm, Barry W., Penedo, Maria H. and Stuckle, Don E. (et al)
year 1984
title A Software Development Environment for Improving Productivity
source IEEE Computer. June, 1984. pp. 30-44 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The software productivity system (SPS) was developed to support project activities. It involves a set of strategies, including the work environment; the evaluation and procurement of hardware equipment; the provision for immediate access to computing resources through local area networks; the building of an integrated set of tools to support the software development life cycle and all project personnel; and a user support function to transfer new technology. All of these strategies are being accomplished incrementally. The current architecture is VAX-based and uses the Unix operating system, a wideband local network, and a set of software tools. The article describes the steps that led to the creation of the software productivity project and its components and summarized the requirements analyses on which the SPS was based
keywords productivity, software, hardware, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 4e4e
authors Boissonnat, Jean-Daniel
year 1984
title Geometric Structures for Three- Dimensional Shape Representation
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. October, 1984. vol. 3: pp. 266-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Different geometric structures are investigated in the context of discrete surface representation. It is shown that minimal representations (i.e., polyhedra) can be provided by a surface-based method using nearest neighbors structures or by a volume-based method using the Delaunay triangulation. Both approaches are compared with respect to various criteria, such as space requirements, computation time, constraints on the distribution of the points, facilities for further calculations, and agreement with the actual shape of the object
keywords algorithms, polyhedra, curves, curved surfaces, solids, representation, geometric modeling, data structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ec87
authors Buchanan, Bruce G. and Shortliffe, Edward H. (editors)
year 1984
title Rule- Based Expert Systems : The MYCIN Experiments of the Stanford Heuristic Programming Project
source xix, 748 p. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1984. includes bibliography: p. 717-738 and subject index
summary A detailed look at MYCIN, an expert system for diagnosing bacterial infections and prescribing treatment for them. Issues covered include detailed examinations of knowledge acquisition, reasoning, explanation, tutoring, performance evaluation, and human interface
keywords AI, expert systems, knowledge acquisition, representation, reasoning, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ea4c
authors Chang, Hsi and Iyengar, S. Sitharama
year 1984
title Efficient Algorithms to Globally Balance a Binary Search Tree
source Communications of the ACM. July, 1984. vol. 27: pp. 695-702. includes bibliography
summary A binary search tree can be globally balanced by readjustment of pointers or with a sorting process in O(n) time, n being the total number of nodes. This paper presents three global balancing algorithms, one of which uses folding with the other two adopting parallel procedures. These algorithms show improvement in time efficiency over some sequential algorithms when applied to large binary search trees. A comparison of various algorithms is presented
keywords techniques, parallel processing, algorithms, search, sorting
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8fd4
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1984
title Integrated Computer Aided Design: Present and Future Data Structure
source CIB W78, Colloquium June, 1984. 6 p. : ill. includes bibliography.
summary The article presents some viewpoints on data structures which may mirror the building process and development of integrated computer aided design systems. The emphasis is upon the necessity to find a sufficiently valid general approach to system development in order to meet the fast evolution within the field and the demand for development strategies
keywords data structures, integration, CAD, systems, building process, architecture, standards, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id f9f4
authors Cook, R.L., Porter, Th. and Carpenter, L.
year 1984
title Distributed Ray Tracing
source Computer Graphics, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 137145, July 1984. SIGGRAPH '84 Proceedings
summary Ray tracing is one of the most elegant techniques in computer graphics. Many phenomena that are difficult or impossible with other techniques are simple with ray tracing, including shadows, reflections, and refracted light. Ray directions, however, have been determined precisely, and this has limited the capabilities of ray tracing. By distributing the directions of the rays according to the analytic function they sample, ray tracing can incorporate fuzzy phenomena. This provides correct and easy solutions to some previously unsolved or partially solved problems, including motion blur, depth of field, penumbras, translucency, and fuzzy reflections. Motion blur and depth of field calculations can be integrated with the visible surface calculations, avoiding the problems found in previous methods.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 6054
authors Cook, R.L.
year 1984
title Shade Trees
source Computer Graphics, Vol. 18, No.3, pp.223-23 1
summary Shading is an important part of computer imagery, but shaders have been based on fixed models to which all surfaces must conform. As computer imagery becomes more sophisticated, surfaces have more complex shading characteristics and thus require a less rigid shading model. This paper presents a flexible tree-structured shading model that can represent a wide range of shading characteristics. The model provides an easy means for specifying complex shading characteristics. It is also efficient because it can tailor the shading calculations to each type of surface.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

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