CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 1 to 20 of 143

_id 07c6
authors Kalay, Y.E., Harfmann, A.C. and Swerdloff, L.M.
year 1985
title ALEX: A Knowledge-Based Architectural Design System
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 96-108
summary A methodology for the development of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system and its experimental application in the domain of single family house design are presented.

The methodology involves integrating within a unified design environment, tools and techniques that have been independently developed in various disciplines (including knowledge representation, information management, geometric modeling, human,machine interface, and architectural design). By assuming the role of active design partners, the resulting systems are expected to increase the productivity of designers, improve the quality of their products, and reduce cost and lead time of the design process as a whole.

ALEX (Architecture Learning Expert), a particular application of this methodology, is a prototype knowledge-based CAD system in the domain of single family house design. It employs user-interactive, goal directed heuristic search strategies in a solution space that consists of a network of objects. Message-based change propagation techniques, guided by domain-specific knowledge, are used to ensure database integrity and well-formedness.

The significance of the methodology and its application is threefold: it furthers our knowledge of the architectural design process, explores the utilization of knowledge engineering methods in design, and serves as a prototype for developing the next generation of computer-aided architectural design systems.

series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0e0a
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Harfmann, Anton C. and Swerdloff, Lucien M.
year 1985
title An Expert System Approach to Computer-Aided Participatory Architectural Design
source February, 1985. 16 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Increased satisfaction of the built environment can be achieved by more effective communication between the people who use that environment and the designers who form it. Participatory design is a method which educates and involves the users in the actual design process so that such a communication becomes possible. Methods that have so far been developed for participatory design have proven to be too limited, due mainly to the large time demands they place on architects. An effective participatory design method can be achieved by the use of a knowledge-based expert system which is capable of providing an educational design experience to the user. The development and implementation of such a system, specifically for the design of single family homes, is the focus of this paper
keywords expert systems, CAD, architecture, design process
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8e75
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Redefining the Role of Computers in Architecture : From Drafting/Modeling Tools to Knowledge- Based Design Assistants
source Computer Aided Design September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 319-328 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper argues that the modeling/drafting role computers have been assigned in architectural design should be changed, so that computers will become intelligent assistants to designers, relieving them from the need to perform the more trivial design tasks and augmenting their decision making capabilities. A conceptual framework of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system is presented, and its potential for increasing the utility of computers in the design buildings is discussed
keywords AI, architecture, design, knowledge base, intelligence, building, CAD
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4f6f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Design to Assist Designers of Physical Artifacts
source 1985. [15] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The objectives of this project are to increase the productivity of physical designers, and to improve the quality of designed artifacts and environments. The means for achieving these objectives include the development, implementation and verification of a broad-based methodology to be used for building context-sensitive computer-aided design systems to facilitate the design and fabrication of physical artifacts. Such systems will extend computer aides for design over the earliest phases of the design process and thus facilitate design-capture in addition to the common design-communication utilities they currently provide. They will thus constitute intelligent design assistants that will relieve the designer from the necessity to deal with some design details, as well as the need to explicitly manage the consistency of the design database. The project employs principles developed by Artificial Intelligence methods that are used in non-deterministic problem solving processes that represent data and knowledge in distributed networks. Principles such as object-centered data factorization and message-based change propagation techniques are implemented in an existing architectural computer-aided design system and field-tested in a practicing Architectural/Engineering office
keywords CAD, knowledge base, design methods, design process, architecture
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a217
authors Bhatt, Rajesh V., Fisher, Edward L. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Information Retrieval Architectures For Expert System/DBMS Communication
source Industrial Engineering Fall Conference Proceedings. December, 1985. pp. 315-320. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The development of expert systems (ES) for manufacturing problems indicates a need to interact with potentially large amounts of data, much of which resides elsewhere in the ES user's organization. A large amount of information required for planning, design, and control operations can be made available through an existing database management system (DBMS). The need for an ES to access that data is critical. This paper presents two approaches to the development of ES- DBMS interfaces, both query-language based. One approach uses a procedural attachment to the ES language to obtain the required data via the DBMS query language, while the other one uses a separate interface program between the ES and the query language of the DBMS. The procedural attachment is able to acquire data from a DBMS at a faster rate than the interface program; however, the procedural attachment lacks knowledge of the DBMS schema. On the other hand, the interface program sacrifices speed but promotes flexibility, as it has the capability of selecting which DBMS to extract the required data from and allowing augmentation of schema knowledge outside of the ES. A disadvantage of the interface approach is the amount of time involved in data retrieval. The process of writing information to disk files is I/O intensive. This can be quite slow, particularly in PROLOG, the language used to implement the ES. Thus the use of such an interface is only suitable in applications such as design, where extremely fast I/O is not required
keywords design, engineering, expert systems, information, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
email aleppo@cc.nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 4e29
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1985
title Logic Programming As a Means of Representing Semantics in Design Languages
source Environment and Planning B. 1985. vol. 12: pp. 351-369 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic programming is discussed as a method for representing aspects of design language: Descriptions of designs domain knowledge, transformation rules, design grammar and control mechanisms necessary to implement rules. The applicability of logic programming to the representation of semantics in design is also explored. Control at the semantic level provides a means of directing the automated generation of designs. Examples are drawn from a rule-based design system written in the logic programming language PROLOG
keywords PROLOG, logic, programming, design, shape grammars, semantics, languages, representation
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0551
authors Haller, Fritz
year 1985
title The Design of Buildings Which Have Complex Mechanical Infrastructure Using Expert Systems
source 1985? 24 p. : ill. Co-authored by several contributors. Includes bibliography
summary The paper presents a project whose aim is to find better methods for the design of buildings like laboratories, office buildings, schools, hospitals etc., which have complex mechanical systems. The design of the mechanical infrastructure in such buildings is as important as the design of other architectural or construction parts. The fundamental idea of the project is to integrate design problems of the mechanical system into the design of the architectural and structural concepts of the entire building. This is based on the belief that using an expert system containing computer programs for the solution of design problems can support the whole design process and that the design of buildings having complex mechanical infrastructure can be qualitatively better and more efficient than the design with traditional methods
keywords architecture, expert systems, mechanical, systems, applications, design, building, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 6db4
authors Karakatsanis, Andreas Georgiou
year 1985
title Floder: A Floor Designer Expert System
source Department of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA
summary The use of computers in structural design for the last two decades has been limited to algorithmic and procedural tasks. The use of expert system environments facilitates the implementation of conceptual tasks in computer programs. The goal of this study is to develop an expert system for the structural design of floor framings. FLODER, the resulting expert system, generates, analyzes, and evaluates floor framings for a given architectural plan. Framing generation consists of determination of the locations of structural elements in the architectural plan. Analysis involves an approximation of the dimensions of the slabs. Evaluation numerically ranks all generated framings using heuristic features for the alternatives. FLODER is implemented in OPS5 and LISP. The primary representations used are OPS5 production rules for the knowledge-base, and OPS5 working memory elements, for the context. Tasks amenable to algorithmic approaches are implemented in LISP. FLODER, even in its present state, can be viewed as a useful assistant to a designer. It can rapidly generate and evaluate alternative framings for a given architectural plan and thus increase the work productivity of its users [includes bibliography].
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, Design, Architecture, Civil Engineering, Representation, Expert Systems, Floor Plans, Synthesis, Structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:27

_id 687b
authors Lansdown, John
year 1986
title Requirements for Knowledge-based Systems in Design
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 120-127
summary Even from the comparatively small amount of work that has been done in this area it is already clear that expert systems can be of value in many architectural applications. This is particularly so in those applications involving what broadly can be called, 'classification' (such as fault diagnosis, testing for conformity with regulations and so on). What we want to look at in this chapter are some of the developments in knowledge-based systems (KBS) which will be needed in order to make them more useful in a broader application area and, especially, in creative design. At the heart of these developments will be two things: (1), more appropriate methods of representing knowledge which are as accessible to humans as they are to computers; and (2), better ways of ensuring that this knowledge can be brought to bear exactly where and when it is needed. Knowledge engineers usually call these elements, respectively, 'knowledge representation' and 'control'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e02f
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1985
title The Design of Buildings which Have Complex Mechanical Infrastructure using Expert Systems
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 52-68
summary This paper presents a project under development at the University of Karlsruhe in which the author took part for two years. The aim of this project which was supported by the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) is to find better methods for the design of buildings having complex mechanical systems like laboratories, office buildings, schools, hospitals. etc. The design of the mechanical infrastructure in such buildings is as important as the design of other architectural or construction parts. The fundamental idea of the project is to consider design problems of the mechanical system as part of the design of the architectural and structural concepts of the entire building. This is based on the belief that the use of an expert system containing computer programs for the solution of design problems can support the whole design procedure and that the design of buildings having complex mechanical infrastructure can be qualitatively better and more efficient than the design with traditional methods.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:50

_id a36a
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Perspectives on Knowledge in Engineering Design
source Proceedings of the International Computers in Engineering Conference. Boston, MA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, August, 1985. Vol. 2: pp. 249-253. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. Expert systems provide a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI- oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system tool, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and the use of the expert system
keywords knowledge, AI, civil engineering, expert systems, CAE, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 448d
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1985
title Architectural Expert Systems: Definition, Application Areas and Practical Examples
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 43-51
summary Knowledge Based Expert Systems (KBES) have emerged as a new tool for decision making in scientific disciplines. From the definition of the term and from previous experiences in geology, computer science, engineering, and medicine, it seems that they could develop into an important tool for architectural design and the building industry. This paper gives a very general overview over existing expert systems and potential application areas in architecture. It then presents in more detail two of the prototype systems that are under development in the Department of Architecture at Carnegie - Mellon University to gain practical experience.

series ACADIA
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 8f9d
authors Wolchko, Matthew J.
year 1985
title Strategies Toward Architectural Knowledge Engineering
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 69-82
summary Conventional CAD-drafting systems become more powerful modeling tools with the addition of a linked attribute spreadsheet module. This affords the designer the ability to make design decisions not only in the graphic environment, but also as a consequence of quantitative design constraints made apparent in the spreadsheet. While the spreadsheet interface is easily understood by the user, it suffers from two limitations: it lacks a variety of functional capabilities that would enable it to solve more complex design tasks; also, it can only report on existing conditions in the graphic environment. A proposal is made for the enhancement of the spreadsheet's programming power, creating an interface for the selection of program modules that can solve various architectural design tasks. Due to the complexity and graphic nature of architectural design, it is suggested that both procedural and propositional programming methods be used in concert within such a system. In the following, a suitable design task (artificial illumination-reflected ceiling layout) is selected, and then decomposed into two parts: the quantitative analysis (via the application of a procedural programming algorithm), and a logical model generation using shape grammar rules in a propositional framework.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:51

_id 66b3
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth
year 1985
title Integrating CADD into the AEC Process - A Case Study
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 13-24
summary A research grant was awarded to the Graduate School of Architecture at the University of Houston by Nash Phillips/Copus, a large homebuilding corporation, to study the integration of computer aided design into the entire building process. A computer aided design system had been utilized by the firm's department of architecture and planning for several months. A team of University faculty and graduate students studied the organization of the firm with respect to functions that could be automated. Its determination was that by utilizing an integrated data base, with information to be extracted from the computer generated drawings, the entire process of bidding and building a structure could be made more efficient and cost effective. The research team developed a system in which cost estimating could be done directly from the drawings. As drawings were modified, new reports could be automatically generated. More design solutions could be studied from the impact of cost as well as aesthetics. Additionally, once plans were drawn, a program written by students would automatically generate elevations of wall panels to be sent to the construction department for its use, and which would also generate material reports. The team also studied techniques of computer modelling for usage by the architectural planning department in client presentations.
series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id cbd0
authors Brown, David C.
year 1985
title Failure Handling in a Design Expert System
source computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 436-442 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with how to handle the failures that occur during design problem-solving. Failure handlers and redesigners are introduced. Failure recovery action and the knowledge involved is presented for each agent. The role of suggestions and redesign strategies is discussed. The handling of plan failures is also presented. The paper concludes by surveying other methods of failure handling from the literature
keywords expert systems, problem solving, mechanical engineering, planning,constraints, design, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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