CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 76ce
authors Grimson, W.
year 1985
title Computational Experiments with a Feature Based Stereo Algorithm
source IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell., Vol. PAMI-7, No. 1
summary Computational models of the human stereo system' can provide insight into general information processing constraints that apply to any stereo system, either artificial or biological. In 1977, Marr and Poggio proposed one such computational model, that was characterized as matching certain feature points in difference-of-Gaussian filtered images, and using the information obtained by matching coarser resolution representations to restrict the search'space for matching finer resolution representations. An implementation of the algorithm and'its testing on a range of images was reported in 1980. Since then a number of psychophysical experiments have suggested possible refinements to the model and modifications to the algorithm. As well, recent computational experiments applying the algorithm to a variety of natural images, especially aerial photographs, have led to a number of modifications. In this article, we present a version of the Marr-Poggio-Gfimson algorithm that embodies these modifications and illustrate its performance on a series of natural images.
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2dd3
authors Hall, Theodore W.
year 1985
title Design-Aided Computing: Adapting Old Spaces to New Uses
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 25-34
summary The introduction of computer-aided design to an architecture school requires many departures from tradition—not only in the curriculum, but also in the facilities. Although there is an abundance of technical information available for the design of new computer rooms, building one from scratch is a luxury that few architecture schools can afford. To catch up with the computer revolution - and, it is to be hoped, come to lead it—colleges must engage in the adaptive re-use of spaces that are often not particularly well-suited to the special needs of computing. This paper describes some of the issues that should be considered when an architecture school takes its first plunge into computing. It is not a technical reference, but rather an overview General guidelines are discussed, followed by a detailed case history of our own mixed experience The emphasis is on the need for developing specific plans regarding computer applications before making any big commitments.
series ACADIA
email twhall@cuhk.edu.hk
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 2a4f
authors Jordani, David A.
year 1985
title The Management of CADD Systems in the AEC Office
source 1985. [17] p
summary A well known A/E firm purchased a CAAD system two years ago. They report great success and satisfaction. Their staff is enthused and more importantly so are their clients. Other firms watched them, and after six months one of their competitors purchased the identical CADD system. But that's where the similarities end. At the second firm, the system is under-utilized, management and staff appear to regret their decision and there has been little impact on the firm's work, its profitability and its clients. Identical systems installed in very similar firms with totally different results. What's the difference? MANAGEMENT...Even with the brief history of CADD in the AEC office we can see that the success or failure of CADD system implementation is more likely traced to the effectiveness of management than accuracy of system selection. The information conveyed in this paper is directed at new and experienced planners and managers of turnkey CADD systems in AEC or facilities management environments. With a focus on real solutions to real problems, it addresses some of the critical issues that will help you successfully plan and implements your own CADD system
keywords practice, management, architecture, CAD, integration, systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 07c6
authors Kalay, Y.E., Harfmann, A.C. and Swerdloff, L.M.
year 1985
title ALEX: A Knowledge-Based Architectural Design System
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 96-108
summary A methodology for the development of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system and its experimental application in the domain of single family house design are presented.

The methodology involves integrating within a unified design environment, tools and techniques that have been independently developed in various disciplines (including knowledge representation, information management, geometric modeling, human,machine interface, and architectural design). By assuming the role of active design partners, the resulting systems are expected to increase the productivity of designers, improve the quality of their products, and reduce cost and lead time of the design process as a whole.

ALEX (Architecture Learning Expert), a particular application of this methodology, is a prototype knowledge-based CAD system in the domain of single family house design. It employs user-interactive, goal directed heuristic search strategies in a solution space that consists of a network of objects. Message-based change propagation techniques, guided by domain-specific knowledge, are used to ensure database integrity and well-formedness.

The significance of the methodology and its application is threefold: it furthers our knowledge of the architectural design process, explores the utilization of knowledge engineering methods in design, and serves as a prototype for developing the next generation of computer-aided architectural design systems.

series ACADIA
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id e234
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Harfmann, Anton C.
year 1985
title An Integrative Approach to Computer-Aided Design Education in Architecture
source February, 1985. [17] p. : [8] p. of ill
summary With the advent of CAD, schools of architecture are now obliged to prepare their graduates for using the emerging new design tools and methods in architectural practices of the future. In addition to this educational obligation, schools of architecture (possibly in partnership with practicing firms) are also the most appropriate agents for pursuing research in CAD that will lead to the development of better CAD software for use by the profession as a whole. To meet these two rather different obligations, two kinds of CAD education curricula are required: one which prepares tool- users, and another that prepares tool-builders. The first educates students about the use of CAD tools for the design of buildings, whereas the second educates them about the design of CAD tools themselves. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has recognized these two obligations, and in Fall 1982 began to meet them by planning and implementing an integrated CAD environment. This environment now consists of 3 components: a tool-building sequence of courses, an advanced research program, and a general tool-users architectural curriculum. Students in the tool-building course sequence learn the principles of CAD and may, upon graduation, become researchers and the managers of CAD systems in practicing offices. While in school they form a pool of research assistants who may be employed in the research component of the CAD environment, thereby facilitating the design and development of advanced CAD tools. The research component, through its various projects, develops and provides state of the art tools to be used by practitioners as well as by students in the school, in such courses as architectural studio, environmental controls, performance programming, and basic design courses. Students in these courses who use the tools developed by the research group constitute the tool-users component of the CAD environment. While they are being educated in the methods they will be using throughout their professional careers, they also act as a 'real-world' laboratory for testing the software and thereby provide feedback to the research component. The School of Architecture and Planning in SUNY at Buffalo has been the first school to incorporate such a comprehensive CAD environment in its curriculum, thereby successfully fulfilling its obligation to train students in the innovative methods of design that will be used in architectural practices of the future, and at the same time making a significant contribution to the profession of architecture as a whole. This paper describes the methodology and illustrates the history of the CAD environment's implementation in the School
keywords CAD, architecture, education
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8e75
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Redefining the Role of Computers in Architecture : From Drafting/Modeling Tools to Knowledge- Based Design Assistants
source Computer Aided Design September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 319-328 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper argues that the modeling/drafting role computers have been assigned in architectural design should be changed, so that computers will become intelligent assistants to designers, relieving them from the need to perform the more trivial design tasks and augmenting their decision making capabilities. A conceptual framework of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system is presented, and its potential for increasing the utility of computers in the design buildings is discussed
keywords AI, architecture, design, knowledge base, intelligence, building, CAD
series CADline
email kalay@socrates.berkeley.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6db4
authors Karakatsanis, Andreas Georgiou
year 1985
title Floder: A Floor Designer Expert System
source Department of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA
summary The use of computers in structural design for the last two decades has been limited to algorithmic and procedural tasks. The use of expert system environments facilitates the implementation of conceptual tasks in computer programs. The goal of this study is to develop an expert system for the structural design of floor framings. FLODER, the resulting expert system, generates, analyzes, and evaluates floor framings for a given architectural plan. Framing generation consists of determination of the locations of structural elements in the architectural plan. Analysis involves an approximation of the dimensions of the slabs. Evaluation numerically ranks all generated framings using heuristic features for the alternatives. FLODER is implemented in OPS5 and LISP. The primary representations used are OPS5 production rules for the knowledge-base, and OPS5 working memory elements, for the context. Tasks amenable to algorithmic approaches are implemented in LISP. FLODER, even in its present state, can be viewed as a useful assistant to a designer. It can rapidly generate and evaluate alternative framings for a given architectural plan and thus increase the work productivity of its users [includes bibliography].
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, Design, Architecture, Civil Engineering, Representation, Expert Systems, Floor Plans, Synthesis, Structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:27

_id 4839
authors Kripac, Jiri
year 1985
title Classification of Edges and its Application in Determining Visibility
source Computer Aided Design. January/ February 1985. vol. 17: pp.30-36 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A new hidden-line algorithm is proposed for illustrating objects consisting of plane faces. The algorithm determines the degree of edge and classifies edges and faces into contoural and non-contoural. To reduce memory requirements, sequential files and sorting are used. The algorithm is particularly intended for illustrating complex objects, such as curved surfaces approximated by plane faces
keywords algorithms, hidden lines, curved surfaces, geometric modeling, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 00ed
authors O'Leary, Dianne and Stewart, G.W.
year 1985
title Data-Flow Algorithms for Parallel Matrix Computations
source Communications of the ACM August, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 840-853. includes bibliography.
summary In this article the authors develop some algorithms and tools for solving matrix problems on parallel processing computers. Operations are synchronized through data-flow alone, which makes global synchronization unnecessary and enables the algorithms to be implemented on machines with very simple operating systems and communication protocols. As examples, an algorithm that forms the main modules for solving Liapounov matrix equations is presented. The authors compare this approach to wave front array processors and systolic arrays, and note its advantages in handling missized problems, in evaluating variations of algorithms or architectures, in moving algorithms from system to system, and in debugging parallel algorithms on sequential machines
keywords tools, algorithms, mathematics, parallel processing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e115
authors Pipes, Alan (Ed.)
year 1986
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, 245 p.
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures was conceived late one evening in the bar of the Metropole Hotel in Brighton, UK. Those present - veterans of a hundred and one CAD conferences - were bemoaning the degree to which big business was taking over the conference scene: exhibiting was replacing conferring, selling was replacing thinking, products were replacing ideas. Wouldn't it be nice, we agreed, to get back to an 'academic' conference which would take stock of current developments in CAAD and attempt to anticipate the direction of future developments and their impact on architectural practice, on the building industry and on the quality of the built environment? Four major themes are explored in CAAD Futures: (1) Systematic design; (2) Drawing and visualization; (3) Artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering; (4) Implications for practice. // Stimulus papers on these four themes were circulated prior to the Conference, and the conference papers themselves elaborated the issues raised in the stimulus papers in such a way as to encourage discussion. The resulting book, we believe, will be a major reference text for students, researchers and practitioners.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a127
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Salley, George C.
year 1985
title Generative Engineering Databases - Toward Expert Systems
source Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, 1985. vol. 22: pp. 11-15
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention. Research in this area promises advantages for many engineering applications, particularly those which use data innovatively. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base (KB) of design constraints with a database (DB) of engineering data items to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. Thus, in addition to the designer and engineering design and analysis application programs, the database itself contributes to the design process. The KB/DB framework proposed here requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The framework also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. The goal sought is a central integrated repository of data, supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining integrity while generating new data. The resulting system permits the unaided generation of constrained data values, thereby serving as an active design assistant. This paper suggests this new conceptual framework as a means of improving engineering data representation, generation, use, and management
keywords management, optimization, synthesis, database, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6ed3
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1985
title The Role of Computing in Engineering Education
source Toward Expert Systems, Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, July, 1985. vol. 20: pp. 11-15. Also published in: Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics edited by A. K. Noor and R. J. Hayduk
summary Pergamon Press, 1985. --- Also Published in : Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics, Pergamon Press, George Washington University and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. pp. 11-15, Oct.1984. The rapid advances occurring in interactive micro-computing and computer science have provided the engineer with a powerful means of processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying data. The effective use of computer technology in engineering processes and applications is recognized by many as the key to increased individual, company, and national productivity. The implications of this observation for the academic community are clear: we must prepare our students to use computer methods and applications as part of their fundamental education. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science principles and practices is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The components of an education should include operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures. It is critically important for engineering students to receive an education that teaches them these fundamentals. This paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires, in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computing content of many other courses so that students come to treat the computer as a fundamental component of their work. This is a major undertaking, but new engineers graduating with advanced computing knowledge will provide potentially significant future innovations in the engineering profession
keywords CAE, education, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 206caadria2004
id 206caadria2004
authors Ricardo Sosa and John S. Gero
year 2004
title Diffusion of Design Ideas: Gatekeeping Effects
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 287-302
summary Designers and design managers are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the complexities of creativity and innovation (Langdon and Rothwell 1985). These two phenomena can be seen as complementary dimensions of a differentiation cycle where design plays a key value-adding role that gradually reduces through commoditisation. However, there is a lack of relevant evidence to explain the link between creativity and innovation. Creativity is increasingly considered as occurring in the interaction between the individual generator of an idea and a group of evaluators (Sawyer et al 2003). However, most studies have regarded the generation of a solution -and not its social impact- as the outcome of the creative process (Runco and Pritzker 1999). Accordingly, computational modelling of creativity has been mainly conducted in a social void (Boden 1999).
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2004/05/20 16:46

_id a0d4
id a0d4
authors Rosa Enrich, Andrea Carnicero, Gustavo Fornari & Pedro Orazzi
year 2004
title ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICAL LEARNING STRUCTURES
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Spetial Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 13-21.
summary Abstract: A series of practical tasks have been done under the general name of “Surfaces in invisible cities”. Each task was based on a story taken from the book The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino. The research carried out allows to design a pedagogical project which makes evident , generates and connects several intentions, motivations and learning structures. It proposes the use of multi- level languages and readings. Therefore, each task takes more time than that of the proposed mathematical class. Its implementation generates a broader view than that seen at the time of design.

From the detailed analysis of the results obtained, the following diverse pedagogical aspects of this work project arise: a. The use of several multiple intelligence: Howard Gardner (1985) found that a man has several distinct intelligence types among which Logical-Mathematical; Spatial; Linguistic -oriented; Musical; Intra-personal; Kinesthetic-Corporal; Interpersonal stand out. Only those types used in the task will be analyzed, making a brief description of each type. b. The architectonic-city planning aspects: architectonic-city planning interpretation of the space imagined after reading the text, with the purpose of identifying figures, shapes, volumes and colors which are expressed via an analogous space. They consist of visual, architectonic and territorial speculations without a rigorous spatial theory and it is pretended that they possess a technical precision at mathematical concept level. c. The mathematical contents: a study of the conical and square shapes present in the designs done and used in a creative manner in students’ compositions following the reading of the story chosen is carried out. An analysis of shapes is performed and mathematical problems are posed within the design context.

Traditional sketching methods have been used in task solving and the possibilities offered by the virtual tools are analyzed.

Emphasis has been put on the vertical and horizontal interchanges in the Chair, generating changes in knowledge transmission perspectives, thus allowing the sharing of contents, abilities and resources. The architectonic work imagined and created by the students will focus on these different working lines creating a harmonious and significant whole. The work is the result of multiple connections and creative proposals.

keywords city, geometry, multiple intelligence
series other
type normal paper
email enrich@infovia.com.ar
last changed 2005/04/07 10:46

_id 6903
authors Rosenman, Michael A. and Gero, John S.
year 1985
title Design Codes as Expert Systems
source Computer Aided Design. 1985. vol. 17: pp. 399-409. includes bibliography ; appendix
summary An expert system shell written in Prolog has been implemented and examples of the use of the system with the Australian Model Uniform Building Code are presented to demonstrate its capabilities. Some ideas about the future development of a comprehensive expert system and its environment are presented
keywords expert systems, PROLOG, design, codes
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a18b
authors Samet, Hanan and Webber, Robert E.
year 1985
title Storing a Collection of Polygons Using Quadtrees
source ACM Transactions on Graphics July, 1985. vol. 4: pp. 182-222 : some ill. includes bibliography.
summary An adaptation of the quadtree data structure that represents polygonal maps (i.e., collections of polygons, possibly containing holes) is described in a manner that is also useful for the manipulation of arbitrary collections of straight line segments. The goal is to store these maps without the loss of information that results from digitization, and to obtain a worst-case execution time that is not overly sensitive to the positioning of the map. Regular decomposition variant of the region quadtree is usedÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŚ to organize the vertices and edges of the maps. A number of related data organizations are proposed in an iterative manner until a method is obtained that meets the stated goals. The result is termed a PM (Polygonal Map) quadtree and is based on a regular decomposition Point Space quadtree (PS quadtree) that stores additional information about the edges at its terminal nodes. Algorithms are given for inserting and deleting line segments from a PM quadtree. Use of the PM quadtree to perform point location, dynamic line insertion, and map overlay is discussed. An empirical comparison of the PM quadtree with other quadtree-based representations for polygonal maps is also provided
keywords data structures, quadtree, polygons, representation, point inclusion, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 46b0
authors Schijf, Rik
year 1986
title CAD in the Netherlands: Integrated CAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 176-184
summary One of the things in which a small country can excel is its number of architects' offices per inhabitant. In the Netherlands this is approximately one in 6500, or twice the UK density (CBS, 1984; CICA, 1982). Of the 2150 Dutch offices, 88 per cent employ less than 10 people, which compares rather well with the British Situation. For the Netherlands it is interesting that its boom in CAD, on average an annual doubling or tripling for the next few years, is likely to coincide with a revolution in CAD itself. There is no doubt that very soon the personal and larger CAD systems will clash at supermicro-level.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e8ec
authors Weber, Benz
year 1991
title LEARNING FROM THE FULL-SCALE LABORATORY
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 12-19
summary The team from the LEA at Lausanne was not actually involved in the construction of the laboratory itself. During the past five years we have been discovering the qualities and limitations of the lab step by step through the experiments we performed. The method in which we use it is quite different from that of its creators. Since 1985 the external services has been limited to clients coming to the laboratory alone. We help them only with basic instructions for the use of the equipment. Most of these experiments are motivated by the excellent possibilities to discuss the design of a new hospital or home for elderly with the people directly affected by it, such as patients, nurses, doctors and specialists for the technical equipment. The main issues discussed in these meetings are of the dimensions and functional organisation of the spaces. The entire process for a normal room including construction, discussions and dismantling of the full-scale model is between three and five days. Today these types of experiments are occupying the lab only about twenty days a year.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

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