CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

PDF papers
References

Hits 1 to 20 of 113

_id 62ff
authors Peckham, R. J.
year 1985
title Shading Evaluations with General Three- Dimensional Models
source Computer Aided Design. September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 305-310 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The SHADOWPACK package of computer programs has been developed to facilitate shading evaluations, for the direct component of solar radiation, with general 3D models. An interactive solid modelling program allows the user to construct and view the 3D model before saving it for further analysis and display. Other programs permit the graphical display of the shading situation throughout the year, the quantitative assessment of energy received on different faces of the model, and the display of the distribution of energy received on particular faces by means of contour plots. The use of the computer graphics approach has proved particularly convenient because of the similarity between the techniques used for graphical and numerical algorithms
keywords shading, solid modeling, evaluation, energy, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 678e
authors Aish, Robert
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Input and Visualization
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 68-84
summary The aim of this chapter is to investigate techniques by which man-computer interaction could be improved, specifically in the context of architectural applications of CAD. In this application the object being designed is often an assembly of defined components. Even if the building is not actually fabricated from such components, it is usually conceptualized in these terms. In a conventional graphics- based CAD system these components are usually represented by graphical icons which are displayed on the graphics screen and arranged by the user. The system described here consists of three- dimensional modelling elements which the user physically assembles to form his design. Unlike conventional architectural models which are static (i.e. cannot be changed by the users) and passive (i.e. cannot be read by a CAD system), this model is both 'user generated' and 'machine readable'. The user can create, edit and view the model by simple, natural modelling activities and without the need to learn complex operating commands often associated with CAD systems. In particular, the user can view the model, altering his viewpoint and focus of attention in a completely natural way. Conventional computer graphics within an associated CAD system are used to represent the detailed geometry which the different three-dimensional icons may represent. In addition, computer graphics are also used to present the output of the performance attributes of the objects being modelled. In the architectural application described in this chapter an energy- balance evaluation is displayed for a building designed using the modelling device. While this system is not intended to offer a completely free-form input facility it can be considered to be a specialist man-machine interface of particular relevance to architects or engineers.
series CAAD Futures
email Robert.Aish@bentley.com
last changed 2003/11/21 14:15

_id cc15
authors Ansaldi, Silvia, De Floriani, Leila and Falcidieno, Bianca
year 1985
title Geometric Modeling of Solid Objects by Using a Face Adjacency Graph Representation
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 131-139 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A relational graph structure based on a boundary representation of solid objects is described. In this structure, called Face Adjacency Graph, nodes represent object faces, whereas edges and vertices are encoded into arcs and hyperarcs. Based on the face adjacency graph, the authors define a set of primitive face-oriented Euler operators, and a set of macro operators for face manipulation, which allow a compact definition and an efficient updating of solid objects. The authors briefly describe a hierarchical graph structure based on the face adjacency graph, which provides a representation of an object at different levels of detail. Thus it is consistent with the stepwise refinement process through which the object description is produced
keywords geometric modeling, graphs, objects, representation, data structures,B-rep, solid modeling, Euler operators
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 8ae8
authors Ayala, D., P. Brunet and Juan (et al)
year 1985
title Object Representation by Means of Nominimal Division Quadtrees and Octrees
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. January, 1985. vol. 4: pp. 41-59 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Quadtree representation of two-dimensional objects is performed with a tree that describes the recursive subdivision of the more complex parts of a picture until the desired resolution is reached. At the end, all the leaves of the tree are square cells that lie completely inside or outside the object. There are two great disadvantages in the use of quadtrees as a representation scheme for objects in geometric modeling system: The amount of memory required for polygonal objects is too great, and it is difficult to recompute the boundary representation of the object after some Boolean operations have been performed. In the present paper a new class of quadtrees, in which nodes may contain zero or one edge, is introduced. By using these quadtrees, storage requirements are reduced and it is possible to obtain the exact backward conversion to boundary representation. Algorithms for the generation of the quadtree, boolean operation, and recomputation of the boundary representation are presented, and their complexities in time and space are discussed. Three- dimensional algorithms working on octrees are also presented. Their use in the geometric modeling of three-dimensional polyhedral objects is discussed
keywords geometric modeling, algorithms, octree, quadtree, curves, curved surfaces, boolean operations
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2ae0
authors Bairstow, Jeffrey N.
year 1985
title Chip Design Made Easy
source high Technology. June, 1985. pp. 18-25 : ill. includes bibliography: p. 74
summary The combination of powerful engineering workstations and novel software tools is making custom chip design economical even for engineers without the specific training. The availability of new automated design technology is promoted by the changing market dynamics. The design of an integrated circuit, with hardware choices, is described
keywords business, AI, electrical engineering, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c89d
authors Bancroft, Pamela J.
year 1987
title The Integration of Computing into Architectural Education Through Computer Literate Faculty
source Integrating Computers into the Architectural Curriculum [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Raleigh (North Carolina / USA) 1987, pp. 109-120
summary This paper discusses the apparent correlation between faculty computer literacy and the success of integrating computing into architectural education. Relevant questions of a 1985 national survey which was conducted to study the historical development of faculty computer utilization are analyzed and interpreted. The survey results are then used as the basis for a series of recommendations given for increasing computer literacy among faculty in architectural schools, thus increasing the integration of computing.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2928
authors Barsky, Brian A. and De Rose, Tony D.
year 1985
title The Beta2-spline : A Special Case of the Beta-spline Curve and Surface Representation
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1985. vol. 5: pp. 46-58 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article develops a special case of the Beta-spline curve and surface technique called the Beta2-spline. While a general Beta-spline has two parameters (B1 and B2) controlling its shape, the special case presented here has only the single parameter B2. Experience has shown this to be a simple but very useful special case that is computationally more efficient than the general case. Optimized algorithms for the evaluation of the Beta2-spline basis functions and rendering of Beta2-spline curves and surfaces via subdivision are presented. This technique is proving to be quite useful in the modeling of complex shapes. The representation is sufficiently general and flexible so as to be capable of modeling irregular curved-surface objects such as automobile bodies, aircraft fuselages, ship hulls, turbine blades, and bottles
keywords B-splines, curved surfaces, computational geometry, representation, algorithms, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 2d64
authors Batori, D.S. and Kim, W.
year 1985
title Modeling Concepts for VLSI CAD Objects
source ACM Transactions on Database Systems 10 No. 3 - pp. 322-346
summary VLSI CAD applications deal with design objects that have an interface description and an implementation description. Versions of design objects have a common interface but differ in their implementations. A molecular object is a modeling construct which enables a database entity to be represented by two sets of heterogeneous records, one set describes the object's interface and the other describes its implementation. Thus a reasonable starting point for modeling design objects is to begin with the concept of molecular objects. In this paper, we identify modeling concepts that are fundamental to capturing the semantics of VLSI CAD design objects and versions in terms of molecular objects. A provisional set of user operations on design objects, consistent with these modeling concepts, is also defined. The modeling framework that we present has been found useful for investigating physical storage techniques and change notification problems in version control. REFERENCES
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 8323
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1985
title Selection -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. November, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 1121- 1127 : ill
summary This column describes selecting the K- smallest member in a set of N elements. A program for the task is derived and its running time is analyzed
keywords search, programming, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3b1
authors Berry, R. E. and Meekings, B.A.E.
year 1985
title A Style Analysis of C Programs
source communications of the ACM. January, 1985. vol. 29: pp. 80-88
summary Since programming is considered by many to be learned by experience and example, rather than instruction, the authors analyzed code produced by professional programmers. C programs comprising the UNIX operating system and its utilities were chosen. The authors have arbitrarily selected a large body of professionally produced code and subjected it to 'stylish analysis.' Each program was given a percentage 'score' for style that consists of contributions in varying degrees from various program features like module length, line length, reserved words etc
keywords languages, C, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a217
authors Bhatt, Rajesh V., Fisher, Edward L. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Information Retrieval Architectures For Expert System/DBMS Communication
source Industrial Engineering Fall Conference Proceedings. December, 1985. pp. 315-320. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The development of expert systems (ES) for manufacturing problems indicates a need to interact with potentially large amounts of data, much of which resides elsewhere in the ES user's organization. A large amount of information required for planning, design, and control operations can be made available through an existing database management system (DBMS). The need for an ES to access that data is critical. This paper presents two approaches to the development of ES- DBMS interfaces, both query-language based. One approach uses a procedural attachment to the ES language to obtain the required data via the DBMS query language, while the other one uses a separate interface program between the ES and the query language of the DBMS. The procedural attachment is able to acquire data from a DBMS at a faster rate than the interface program; however, the procedural attachment lacks knowledge of the DBMS schema. On the other hand, the interface program sacrifices speed but promotes flexibility, as it has the capability of selecting which DBMS to extract the required data from and allowing augmentation of schema knowledge outside of the ES. A disadvantage of the interface approach is the amount of time involved in data retrieval. The process of writing information to disk files is I/O intensive. This can be quite slow, particularly in PROLOG, the language used to implement the ES. Thus the use of such an interface is only suitable in applications such as design, where extremely fast I/O is not required
keywords design, engineering, expert systems, information, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c088
authors Biermann, Alan W., Rodman, Robert D. and Rubin, David C. (et al)
year 1985
title Natural Language with Discrete Speech as a Mode for Human- to-Machine Communication
source Communications of the ACM June, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 628-636 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A voice interactive natural language system, which allows users to solve problems with spoken English commands, has been constructed. The system utilizes a commercially available discrete speech recognizer which requires that each word be followed by approximately a 300 millisecond pause. In a test of the system, subjects were able to learn its use after about two hours of training. The system correctly processed about 77 percent of the over 6000 input sentences spoken in problem-solving sessions. Subjects spoke at the rate of about three sentences per minute and were able to effectively use the system to complete the given tasks. Subjects found the system relatively easy to learn and use, and gave a generally positive report of their experience
keywords user interface, natural languages, speech recognition, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 644f
authors Bijl, Aart
year 1986
title Designing with Words and Pictures in a Logic Modelling Environment
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 128-145
summary At EdCAAD we are interested in design as something people do. Designed artefacts, the products of designing, are interesting only in so far as they tell us something about design. An extreme expression of this position is to say that the world of design is the thoughts in the heads of designers, plus the skills of designers in externalizing their thoughts; design artifacts, once perceived and accepted in the worlds of other people, are no longer part of the world of design. We can describe design, briefly, as a process of synthesis. Design has to achieve a fusion between parts to create new parts, so that the products are recognized, as having a right and proper place in the world of people. Parts should be understood as referring to anything - physical objects, abstract ideas, aspirations. These parts occur in some design environment from which parts are extracted, designed upon and results replaced; in the example of buildings, the environment is people and results have to be judged by reference to that environment. It is characteristic of design that both the process and the product are not subject to explicit and complete criteria. This view of design differs sharply from the more orthodox understanding of scientific and technological endeavours which rely predominantly on a process of analysis. In the latter case, the approach is to decompose a problem into parts until individual parts are recognized as being amenable to known operations and results are reassembled into a solution. This process has a peripheral role in design when evaluating selected aspects of tentative design proposals, but the absence of well-defined and widely recognized criteria for design excludes it from the main stream of analytical developments.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 66b3
authors Bollinger, Elizabeth
year 1985
title Integrating CADD into the AEC Process - A Case Study
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 13-24
summary A research grant was awarded to the Graduate School of Architecture at the University of Houston by Nash Phillips/Copus, a large homebuilding corporation, to study the integration of computer aided design into the entire building process. A computer aided design system had been utilized by the firm's department of architecture and planning for several months. A team of University faculty and graduate students studied the organization of the firm with respect to functions that could be automated. Its determination was that by utilizing an integrated data base, with information to be extracted from the computer generated drawings, the entire process of bidding and building a structure could be made more efficient and cost effective. The research team developed a system in which cost estimating could be done directly from the drawings. As drawings were modified, new reports could be automatically generated. More design solutions could be studied from the impact of cost as well as aesthetics. Additionally, once plans were drawn, a program written by students would automatically generate elevations of wall panels to be sent to the construction department for its use, and which would also generate material reports. The team also studied techniques of computer modelling for usage by the architectural planning department in client presentations.
series ACADIA
email EBollinger@uh.edu
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 4532
authors Bono, Peter R.
year 1985
title A Survey of Graphics Standards and Their Role in Information Interchange
source IEEE Computer. October, 1985. vol. 18: pp. 63-75 : ill. ; tables. includes bibliography
summary The survey describes each graphic standard and explains the interrelationships among the standards. The role and commercial impact of PCs serving as workstations in a distributed, network, multimedia environment is emphasized. It is shown that current graphics standardization activity focused on three principal areas: the application interface, the device interface, and picture exchange. The operator interface and hardware interfaces will be expected to be the subjects for standardization in the future. In addition, picture exchange will be replaced by information exchange, where information includes text, image, and voice components merged with graphics to create an integrated whole
keywords computer graphics, standards, GKS, communication
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

For more results click below:

this is page 0show page 1show page 2show page 3show page 4show page 5HOMELOGIN (you are user _anon_135650 from group guest) CUMINCAD Papers Powered by SciX Open Publishing Services 1.002