CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 78ca
authors Friedland, P. (Ed.)
year 1985
title Special Section on Architectures for Knowledge-Based Systems
source CACM (28), 9, September
summary A fundamental shift in the preferred approach to building applied artificial intelligence (AI) systems has taken place since the late 1960s. Previous work focused on the construction of general-purpose intelligent systems; the emphasis was on powerful inference methods that could function efficiently even when the available domain-specific knowledge was relatively meager. Today the emphasis is on the role of specific and detailed knowledge, rather than on reasoning methods.The first successful application of this method, which goes by the name of knowledge-based or expert-system research, was the DENDRAL program at Stanford, a long-term collaboration between chemists and computer scientists for automating the determination of molecular structure from empirical formulas and mass spectral data. The key idea is that knowledge is power, for experts, be they human or machine, are often those who know more facts and heuristics about a domain than lesser problem solvers. The task of building an expert system, therefore, is predominantly one of teaching" a system enough of these facts and heuristics to enable it to perform competently in a particular problem-solving context. Such a collection of facts and heuristics is commonly called a knowledge base. Knowledge-based systems are still dependent on inference methods that perform reasoning on the knowledge base, but experience has shown that simple inference methods like generate and test, backward-chaining, and forward-chaining are very effective in a wide variety of problem domains when they are coupled with powerful knowledge bases. If this methodology remains preeminent, then the task of constructing knowledge bases becomes the rate-limiting factor in expert-system development. Indeed, a major portion of the applied AI research in the last decade has been directed at developing techniques and tools for knowledge representation. We are now in the third generation of such efforts. The first generation was marked by the development of enhanced AI languages like Interlisp and PROLOG. The second generation saw the development of knowledge representation tools at AI research institutions; Stanford, for instance, produced EMYCIN, The Unit System, and MRS. The third generation is now producing fully supported commercial tools like KEE and S.1. Each generation has seen a substantial decrease in the amount of time needed to build significant expert systems. Ten years ago prototype systems commonly took on the order of two years to show proof of concept; today such systems are routinely built in a few months. Three basic methodologies-frames, rules, and logic-have emerged to support the complex task of storing human knowledge in an expert system. Each of the articles in this Special Section describes and illustrates one of these methodologies. "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning," by Richard Fikes and Tom Kehler, describes an object-centered view of knowledge representation, whereby all knowldge is partitioned into discrete structures (frames) having individual properties (slots). Frames can be used to represent broad concepts, classes of objects, or individual instances or components of objects. They are joined together in an inheritance hierarchy that provides for the transmission of common properties among the frames without multiple specification of those properties. The authors use the KEE knowledge representation and manipulation tool to illustrate the characteristics of frame-based representation for a variety of domain examples. They also show how frame-based systems can be used to incorporate a range of inference methods common to both logic and rule-based systems.""Rule-Based Systems," by Frederick Hayes-Roth, chronicles the history and describes the implementation of production rules as a framework for knowledge representation. In essence, production rules use IF conditions THEN conclusions and IF conditions THEN actions structures to construct a knowledge base. The autor catalogs a wide range of applications for which this methodology has proved natural and (at least partially) successful for replicating intelligent behavior. The article also surveys some already-available computational tools for facilitating the construction of rule-based knowledge bases and discusses the inference methods (particularly backward- and forward-chaining) that are provided as part of these tools. The article concludes with a consideration of the future improvement and expansion of such tools.The third article, "Logic Programming, " by Michael Genesereth and Matthew Ginsberg, provides a tutorial introduction to the formal method of programming by description in the predicate calculus. Unlike traditional programming, which emphasizes how computations are to be performed, logic programming focuses on the what of objects and their behavior. The article illustrates the ease with which incremental additions can be made to a logic-oriented knowledge base, as well as the automatic facilities for inference (through theorem proving) and explanation that result from such formal descriptions. A practical example of diagnosis of digital device malfunctions is used to show how significantand complex problems can be represented in the formalism.A note to the reader who may infer that the AI community is being split into competing camps by these three methodologies: Although each provides advantages in certain specific domains (logic where the domain can be readily axiomatized and where complete causal models are available, rules where most of the knowledge can be conveniently expressed as experiential heuristics, and frames where complex structural descriptions are necessary to adequately describe the domain), the current view is one of synthesis rather than exclusivity. Both logic and rule-based systems commonly incorporate frame-like structures to facilitate the representation of large amounts of factual information, and frame-based systems like KEE allow both production rules and predicate calculus statements to be stored within and activated from frames to do inference. The next generation of knowledge representation tools may even help users to select appropriate methodologies for each particular class of knowledge, and then automatically integrate the various methodologies so selected into a consistent framework for knowledge. "
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 2d64
authors Batori, D.S. and Kim, W.
year 1985
title Modeling Concepts for VLSI CAD Objects
source ACM Transactions on Database Systems 10 No. 3 - pp. 322-346
summary VLSI CAD applications deal with design objects that have an interface description and an implementation description. Versions of design objects have a common interface but differ in their implementations. A molecular object is a modeling construct which enables a database entity to be represented by two sets of heterogeneous records, one set describes the object's interface and the other describes its implementation. Thus a reasonable starting point for modeling design objects is to begin with the concept of molecular objects. In this paper, we identify modeling concepts that are fundamental to capturing the semantics of VLSI CAD design objects and versions in terms of molecular objects. A provisional set of user operations on design objects, consistent with these modeling concepts, is also defined. The modeling framework that we present has been found useful for investigating physical storage techniques and change notification problems in version control. REFERENCES
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 298e
authors Dave, Bharat and Woodbury, Robert
year 1990
title Computer Modeling: A First Course in Design Computing
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures ‘89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 61-76
summary Computation in design has long been a focus in our department. In recent years our faculty has paid particular attention to the use of computation in professional architectural education. The result is a shared vision of computers in the curriculum [Woodbury 1985] and a set of courses, some with considerable historyland others just now being initiated. We (Dave and Woodbury) have jointly developed and at various times over the last seven years have taught Computer Modeling, the most introductory of these courses. This is a required course for all the incoming freshmen students in the department. In this paper we describe Computer Modeling: its context, the issues and topics it addresses, the tasks it requires of students, and the questions and opportunities that it raises. Computer Modeling is a course about concepts, about ways of explicitly understanding design and its relation to computation. Procedural skills and algorithmic problem solving techniques are given only secondary emphasis. In essential terms, the course is about models, of design processes, of designed objects, of computation and of computational design. Its lessons are intended to communicate a structure of such models to students and through this structure to demonstrate a relationship between computation and design. It is hoped that this structure can be used as a framework, around which students can continue to develop an understanding of computers in design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id a833
authors Jong, M. de
year 1986
title A Spatial Relational Reference Model (3RM)
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 85-91
summary In this chapter we hope to provide the reader with an impression of the objective, framework and possibilities of 3RM in the construction industry. In Dutch, 3RM stands for 'Ruimtelijk Relationeel Referentie Model' (Spatial Relational Reference Model). The model could begin to be used as an information-bearer in the building industry within which the specific trade information for each of the building participants could be interrelated, including drafting symbolism, building costs, physical qualities and building regulations. In this way, the model can be used as a means to a more efficient running of the building process and enabling the integration of information, at project level, provided by various building participants. The project should be defined in the same way as is a typical architectural project, whereby the actual development as well as the project management is carried out by architects. For the time being, development is limited to integral use at the design stage, but it also offers sufficient expansion possibilities to be able to function as a new communications model throughout the complete building process. We shall first provide information as to the origin, the objective and the execution of the project. Thereafter, we shall attempt to state the theoretical information problem within the building industry and the solution to this offered through 3RM. Finally, we shall report upon the results of the first phase of the 3RM project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8e75
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Redefining the Role of Computers in Architecture : From Drafting/Modeling Tools to Knowledge- Based Design Assistants
source Computer Aided Design September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 319-328 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper argues that the modeling/drafting role computers have been assigned in architectural design should be changed, so that computers will become intelligent assistants to designers, relieving them from the need to perform the more trivial design tasks and augmenting their decision making capabilities. A conceptual framework of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system is presented, and its potential for increasing the utility of computers in the design buildings is discussed
keywords AI, architecture, design, knowledge base, intelligence, building, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4494
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1985
title Hi-Rise and Beyond : Directions for Expert Systems in Design
source Computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 420-427 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper commences with a brief introduction to expert systems and then describes the Hi-Rise expert system for structural design in terms of scope, problem solving strategy, knowledge representation and implementation. It then discusses the potential for developing an expert system capable of innovative design and describes the possibility of developing a generic expert system framework appropriate for any structural design problem
keywords expert systems, civil engineering, structures, knowledge, representation, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id cd92
authors Pavlidis, Theo and Van Wyk, Christopher J.
year 1985
title An Automatic Beautifier for Drawings and Illustrations
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 225- 230. includes bibliography
summary A method for inferring constraints that are desirable for a given (rough) drawing and then modifying the drawing to satisfy the constraints wherever possible, is described. The method has been implemented as part of an online graphics editor running under the UNIX operating system and it has undergone modifications in response to user input. Although the framework discussed is general, the current implementation is polygon-oriented. The relations examined are: approximate equality of the slope or length of sides, collinearity of sides, and vertical and horizontal alignment of points
keywords drafting, computer graphics, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a127
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Salley, George C.
year 1985
title Generative Engineering Databases - Toward Expert Systems
source Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, 1985. vol. 22: pp. 11-15
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention. Research in this area promises advantages for many engineering applications, particularly those which use data innovatively. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base (KB) of design constraints with a database (DB) of engineering data items to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. Thus, in addition to the designer and engineering design and analysis application programs, the database itself contributes to the design process. The KB/DB framework proposed here requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The framework also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. The goal sought is a central integrated repository of data, supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining integrity while generating new data. The resulting system permits the unaided generation of constrained data values, thereby serving as an active design assistant. This paper suggests this new conceptual framework as a means of improving engineering data representation, generation, use, and management
keywords management, optimization, synthesis, database, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a36a
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Perspectives on Knowledge in Engineering Design
source Proceedings of the International Computers in Engineering Conference. Boston, MA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, August, 1985. Vol. 2: pp. 249-253. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. Expert systems provide a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI- oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system tool, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and the use of the expert system
keywords knowledge, AI, civil engineering, expert systems, CAE, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8f9d
authors Wolchko, Matthew J.
year 1985
title Strategies Toward Architectural Knowledge Engineering
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 69-82
summary Conventional CAD-drafting systems become more powerful modeling tools with the addition of a linked attribute spreadsheet module. This affords the designer the ability to make design decisions not only in the graphic environment, but also as a consequence of quantitative design constraints made apparent in the spreadsheet. While the spreadsheet interface is easily understood by the user, it suffers from two limitations: it lacks a variety of functional capabilities that would enable it to solve more complex design tasks; also, it can only report on existing conditions in the graphic environment. A proposal is made for the enhancement of the spreadsheet's programming power, creating an interface for the selection of program modules that can solve various architectural design tasks. Due to the complexity and graphic nature of architectural design, it is suggested that both procedural and propositional programming methods be used in concert within such a system. In the following, a suitable design task (artificial illumination-reflected ceiling layout) is selected, and then decomposed into two parts: the quantitative analysis (via the application of a procedural programming algorithm), and a logical model generation using shape grammar rules in a propositional framework.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:51

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c211
authors Brown, A.G.P.
year 1986
title A Year's Experience with CATIA and CADAM
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 7-16
summary In June 1985 Liverpool University obtained the CAD packages CATIA and CADAM to run on its IBM 4341 mainframe. The following is a brief description of the investigations which have taken place in the first year of their implementation to gauge the usefulness of these packages, principalLy as CAAD teaching aids. Neither CATIA nor CADAM were initially developed as architectural design aids so a matter of initial concern was their appropriateness for teaching (and possibly research) in an architectural environment.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 07:56

_id ascaad2006_paper20
id ascaad2006_paper20
authors Chougui, Ali
year 2006
title The Digital Design Process: reflections on architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architectural design. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, Architect’s ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Another source that provides information about dealing with complexity is architectural theory. As Rowe (1987) states, architectural theory constitutes “a corpus of principles that are agreed upon and therefore worthy of emulation”. Architectural theory often is a mixed reflection on the nature of architectural design, design processes, made in descriptive and prescriptive terms (see Kruft 1985). Complexity is obviously not a new issue in architectural theory. Since it is an inherent characteristic of design problems, it has been dealt with in many different ways throughout history. Contemporary architects incorporate the computer in their design process. They produce architecture that is generated by the use of particle systems, simulation software, animation software, but also the more standard modelling tools. The architects reflect on the impact of the computer in their theories, and display changes in style by using information modelling techniques that have become versatile enough to encompass the complexity of information in the architectural design process. In this way, architectural style and theory can provide directions to further develop CAD. Most notable is the acceptance of complexity as a given fact, not as a phenomenon to oppose in systems of organization, but as a structuring principle to begin with. No matter what information modelling paradigm is used, complex and huge amounts of information need to be processed by designers. A key aspect in the combination of CAD, complexity, and architectural design is the role of the design representation. The way the design is presented and perceived during the design process is instrumental to understanding the design task. More architects are trying to reformulate this working of the representation. The intention of this paper is to present and discuss the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and to reflect in particular on the role of digital design representations in this discussion. We also try to investigate how complexity can be dealt with, by looking at architects, in particular their styles and theories. The way architects use digital media and graphic representations can be informative how units of information can be formed and used in the design process. A case study is a concrete architect’s design processes such as Peter Eisenman Rem Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke gehry, who embrace complexity and make it a focus point in their design, Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, by using computer as an indispensable instrument in their approaches.
series ASCAAD
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 23bc
authors Demko, Stephen, Hodges, Laurie and Naylor, Bruce F.
year 1985
title Construction of Fractal Objects with Iterated Function Systems
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 271-278 : ill. col. includes bibliography
summary In computer graphics, geometric modeling of complex objects is a difficult process. An important class of complex objects arise from natural phenomena: trees, plants, clouds, mountains, etc. Researchers are investigating a variety of techniques for extending modeling capabilities to include these as well as other classes. One mathematical concept that appears to have significant potential for this is fractals. Much interest currently exists in the general scientific community in using fractals as a model of complex natural phenomena. However, only a few methods for generating fractal sets are known. We have been involved in the development of a new approach to computing fractals. Any set of linear maps (affine transformations) and an associated set of probabilities determines an Iterated Function System (IFS). Each IFS has a unique 'attractor' which is typically a fractal set (object). Specification of only a few maps can produce very complicated objects. Design of fractal objects is made relatively simple and intuitive by the discovery of an important mathematical property relating the fractal sets to the IFS. The method also provides the possibility of solving the inverse problem, given the geometry of an object, determine an IFS that will (approximately) generate that geometry. This paper presents the application of the theory of IFS to geometric modeling
keywords computer graphics, geometric modeling, fractals, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id 25de
authors Ervamaa, Pekka
year 1993
title Integrated Visualization
source Endoscopy as a Tool in Architecture [Proceedings of the 1st European Architectural Endoscopy Association Conference / ISBN 951-722-069-3] Tampere (Finland), 25-28 August 1993, pp. 157-160
summary The Video and Multimedia studio at VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland, started with endoscopy photography of scale models. Video recordings has been made since 1985 and computer graphic since 1989. New visualization methods and techniques has been taken into use as a part of research projects, but mainly we have been working with clients commissions only. Theoretical background for the visualizations is strong. Research professor Hilkka Lehtonen has published several papers concerning the theory of visualization in urban planning. This studio is the only professional level video unit at Technical Research Centre, which is a large polytechnic research unit. We produce video tapes for many other research units. All kind of integrated methods of visualization are useful in these video productions, too.
keywords Architectural Endoscopy
series EAEA
last changed 2005/09/09 08:43

_id a864
authors Love, James A.
year 1985
title CAAD: The Interactive Effect in Technical Education
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 1-12
summary The factors that determine the value of CAAD tools in technical education are investigated. Pedagogical theory on problem solving is reviewed, and its relationship to the design process as described by Mitchell is discussed. The goals of design practice and design education are compared. Consideration of the nature of the architectural design process and the impact of CAAD leads to the conclusion that cognitive skills, as defined by Gagne, are of increasing importance. Pre-CAAD approaches to technical instruction are discussed. The opportunities represented by CAAD in terms of more relevant, effective, and rewarding learning experiences are noted. Features that make CAAD tools effective for instruction are considered, and the need for specialized instructional software is pointed out. Additional benefits of CAAD usage, including greater effectiveness of instructional staff and substitution for laboratory hardware are noted.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/07/28 12:31

_id 244d
authors Monedero, J., Casaus, A. and Coll, J.
year 1992
title From Barcelona. Chronicle and Provisional Evaluation of a New Course on Architectural Solid Modelling by Computerized Means
source CAAD Instruction: The New Teaching of an Architect? [eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Barcelona (Spain) 12-14 November 1992, pp. 351-362
summary The first step made at the ETSAB in the computer field goes back to 1965, when professors Margarit and Buxade acquired an IBM computer, an electromechanical machine which used perforated cards and which was used to produce an innovative method of structural calculation. This method was incorporated in the academic courses and, at that time, this repeated question "should students learn programming?" was readily answered: the exercises required some knowledge of Fortran and every student needed this knowledge to do the exercises. This method, well known in Europe at that time, also provided a service for professional practice and marked the beginning of what is now the CC (Centro de Calculo) of our school. In 1980 the School bought a PDP1134, a computer which had 256 Kb of RAM, two disks of 5 Mb and one of lO Mb, and a multiplexor of 8 lines. Some time later the general politics of the UPC changed their course and this was related to the purchase of a VAX which is still the base of the CC and carries most of the administrative burden of the school. 1985 has probably been the first year in which we can talk of a general policy of the school directed towards computers. A report has been made that year, which includes an inquest adressed to the six Departments of the School (Graphic Expression, Projects, Structures, Construction, Composition and Urbanism) and that contains interesting data. According to the report, there were four departments which used computers in their current courses, while the two others (Projects and Composition) did not use them at all. The main user was the Department of Structures while the incidence of the remaining three was rather sporadic. The kind of problems detected in this report are very typical: lack of resources for hardware and software and for maintenance of the few computers that the school had at that moment; a demand (posed by the students) greatly exceeding the supply (computers and teachers). The main problem appeared to be the lack of computer graphic devices and proper software.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 14:29

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