CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 147

_id c8a6
authors Hayes-Roth, Frederick
year 1985
title Rule-Based Systems
source Communications of the ACM. September, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 921-932 : ill. includes bibliography
summary An overview of rule-based systems, the best currently available means for codifying the problem-solving know-how of human experts
keywords AI, knowledge, representation, expert systems
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id cc15
authors Ansaldi, Silvia, De Floriani, Leila and Falcidieno, Bianca
year 1985
title Geometric Modeling of Solid Objects by Using a Face Adjacency Graph Representation
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 131-139 : ill. includes bibliography
summary A relational graph structure based on a boundary representation of solid objects is described. In this structure, called Face Adjacency Graph, nodes represent object faces, whereas edges and vertices are encoded into arcs and hyperarcs. Based on the face adjacency graph, the authors define a set of primitive face-oriented Euler operators, and a set of macro operators for face manipulation, which allow a compact definition and an efficient updating of solid objects. The authors briefly describe a hierarchical graph structure based on the face adjacency graph, which provides a representation of an object at different levels of detail. Thus it is consistent with the stepwise refinement process through which the object description is produced
keywords geometric modeling, graphs, objects, representation, data structures,B-rep, solid modeling, Euler operators
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id acfe
authors Archea, John
year 1985
title Architecture's Unique Position Among the Disciplines : Puzzle-Making vs. Problem Solving
source CRIT XV, The Architectural Student Journal. Summer, 1985. pp. 20-22
summary Most disciplines involved in the building process, i.e., programmers, space planners, and engineers work in what may be described as a problem solving mode. They state desired effects as explicit performance criteria before they initiate a decision process and test alternative solutions against those criteria until a fit is attained which falls within known probabilities of success. Architects, however are not problem solvers and they are not seeking explicit information when they design how buildings work. Architects are puzzle- makers, They are primarily concerned with unique design concepts. It is through the act of designing, or puzzle- making, that the architect learn what they want to accomplish and how. With regard to the making of buildings, places or experiences, the architect is a puzzle-maker surrounded by a group of problem solvers who address separate pieces of the puzzle
keywords puzzle making, design process, problem solving, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 8ae8
authors Ayala, D., P. Brunet and Juan (et al)
year 1985
title Object Representation by Means of Nominimal Division Quadtrees and Octrees
source ACM Transactions on Graphics. January, 1985. vol. 4: pp. 41-59 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Quadtree representation of two-dimensional objects is performed with a tree that describes the recursive subdivision of the more complex parts of a picture until the desired resolution is reached. At the end, all the leaves of the tree are square cells that lie completely inside or outside the object. There are two great disadvantages in the use of quadtrees as a representation scheme for objects in geometric modeling system: The amount of memory required for polygonal objects is too great, and it is difficult to recompute the boundary representation of the object after some Boolean operations have been performed. In the present paper a new class of quadtrees, in which nodes may contain zero or one edge, is introduced. By using these quadtrees, storage requirements are reduced and it is possible to obtain the exact backward conversion to boundary representation. Algorithms for the generation of the quadtree, boolean operation, and recomputation of the boundary representation are presented, and their complexities in time and space are discussed. Three- dimensional algorithms working on octrees are also presented. Their use in the geometric modeling of three-dimensional polyhedral objects is discussed
keywords geometric modeling, algorithms, octree, quadtree, curves, curved surfaces, boolean operations
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2d64
authors Batori, D.S. and Kim, W.
year 1985
title Modeling Concepts for VLSI CAD Objects
source ACM Transactions on Database Systems 10 No. 3 - pp. 322-346
summary VLSI CAD applications deal with design objects that have an interface description and an implementation description. Versions of design objects have a common interface but differ in their implementations. A molecular object is a modeling construct which enables a database entity to be represented by two sets of heterogeneous records, one set describes the object's interface and the other describes its implementation. Thus a reasonable starting point for modeling design objects is to begin with the concept of molecular objects. In this paper, we identify modeling concepts that are fundamental to capturing the semantics of VLSI CAD design objects and versions in terms of molecular objects. A provisional set of user operations on design objects, consistent with these modeling concepts, is also defined. The modeling framework that we present has been found useful for investigating physical storage techniques and change notification problems in version control. REFERENCES
series journal paper
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddssar0206
id ddssar0206
authors Bax, M.F.Th. and Trum, H.M.G.J.
year 2002
title Faculties of Architecture
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Sixth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning - Part one: Architecture Proceedings Avegoor, the Netherlands), 2002
summary In order to be inscribed in the European Architect’s register the study program leading to the diploma ‘Architect’ has to meet the criteria of the EC Architect’s Directive (1985). The criteria are enumerated in 11 principles of Article 3 of the Directive. The Advisory Committee, established by the European Council got the task to examine such diplomas in the case some doubts are raised by other Member States. To carry out this task a matrix was designed, as an independent interpreting framework that mediates between the principles of Article 3 and the actual study program of a faculty. Such a tool was needed because of inconsistencies in the list of principles, differences between linguistic versions ofthe Directive, and quantification problems with time, devoted to the principles in the study programs. The core of the matrix, its headings, is a categorisation of the principles on a higher level of abstractionin the form of a taxonomy of domains and corresponding concepts. Filling in the matrix means that each study element of the study programs is analysed according to their content in terms of domains; thesummation of study time devoted to the various domains results in a so-called ‘profile of a faculty’. Judgement of that profile takes place by committee of peers. The domains of the taxonomy are intrinsically the same as the concepts and categories, needed for the description of an architectural design object: the faculties of architecture. This correspondence relates the taxonomy to the field of design theory and philosophy. The taxonomy is an application of Domain theory. This theory,developed by the authors since 1977, takes as a view that the architectural object only can be described fully as an integration of all types of domains. The theory supports the idea of a participatory andinterdisciplinary approach to design, which proved to be awarding both from a scientific and a social point of view. All types of domains have in common that they are measured in three dimensions: form, function and process, connecting the material aspects of the object with its social and proceduralaspects. In the taxonomy the function dimension is emphasised. It will be argued in the paper that the taxonomy is a categorisation following the pragmatistic philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce. It will bedemonstrated as well that the taxonomy is easy to handle by giving examples of its application in various countries in the last 5 years. The taxonomy proved to be an adequate tool for judgement ofstudy programs and their subsequent improvement, as constituted by the faculties of a Faculty of Architecture. The matrix is described as the result of theoretical reflection and practical application of a matrix, already in use since 1995. The major improvement of the matrix is its direct connection with Peirce’s universal categories and the self-explanatory character of its structure. The connection with Peirce’s categories gave the matrix a more universal character, which enables application in other fieldswhere the term ‘architecture’ is used as a metaphor for artefacts.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id ddss9409
id ddss9409
authors Beekman, Solange and Rikhof, Herman G.A.
year 1994
title Strategic Urban Planning in the Netherlands
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary Since the mid-1980s, several Dutch towns have initiated many urban planning and design activities for their existing area. This represented a shift in that previous urban planning projects typicallyconcerned expansion in the outskirts of the city, or urban renewal. The complex and expensive renovation of the existing housing stock rarely allowed a deep interest in urban design. Since 1985, attention shifted from the housing stock to the city as a whole. Furthermore, public andprivate actors increasingly become involved in the planning process. It became clear that a more comprehensive plan for the whole existing town or region was needed. Conventional planning instruments were considered ill-suited for this new challenge. The paper discusses promising attempts of various urban planning instruments to get a stronger but also more flexible hold on thetransformation of the urban planning area in the Netherlands. These new planning instruments have three common characteristics: (i) they give special attention to the different levels of urban management needed for different urban areas, (ii) these strategic plans provide an integral view on the urban developments, and (iii) these plans introduce a new strategy to deal with both private initiatives to transform urban sites and monitor wishes, proposals, etc. from inhabitants in the neighbourhoods. A comparative analyses of several cities indicates, however, that, in addition to these common characteristics, major differences between their strategic plans exist depending upon their historic patrimonium, economic status and planning tradition.
series DDSS
email h.g.a.rikhof@bwk.tue.nl
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id c3b1
authors Berry, R. E. and Meekings, B.A.E.
year 1985
title A Style Analysis of C Programs
source communications of the ACM. January, 1985. vol. 29: pp. 80-88
summary Since programming is considered by many to be learned by experience and example, rather than instruction, the authors analyzed code produced by professional programmers. C programs comprising the UNIX operating system and its utilities were chosen. The authors have arbitrarily selected a large body of professionally produced code and subjected it to 'stylish analysis.' Each program was given a percentage 'score' for style that consists of contributions in varying degrees from various program features like module length, line length, reserved words etc
keywords languages, C, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c088
authors Biermann, Alan W., Rodman, Robert D. and Rubin, David C. (et al)
year 1985
title Natural Language with Discrete Speech as a Mode for Human- to-Machine Communication
source Communications of the ACM June, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 628-636 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A voice interactive natural language system, which allows users to solve problems with spoken English commands, has been constructed. The system utilizes a commercially available discrete speech recognizer which requires that each word be followed by approximately a 300 millisecond pause. In a test of the system, subjects were able to learn its use after about two hours of training. The system correctly processed about 77 percent of the over 6000 input sentences spoken in problem-solving sessions. Subjects spoke at the rate of about three sentences per minute and were able to effectively use the system to complete the given tasks. Subjects found the system relatively easy to learn and use, and gave a generally positive report of their experience
keywords user interface, natural languages, speech recognition, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c211
authors Brown, A.G.P.
year 1986
title A Year's Experience with CATIA and CADAM
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 7-16
summary In June 1985 Liverpool University obtained the CAD packages CATIA and CADAM to run on its IBM 4341 mainframe. The following is a brief description of the investigations which have taken place in the first year of their implementation to gauge the usefulness of these packages, principalLy as CAAD teaching aids. Neither CATIA nor CADAM were initially developed as architectural design aids so a matter of initial concern was their appropriateness for teaching (and possibly research) in an architectural environment.
series eCAADe
email andygpb@liv.ac.uk
last changed 1998/08/18 07:56

_id ca88
authors Buzbee, B.L. and Sharp, D.H.
year 1985
title Perspectives on Supercomputing
source Science. February, 1985. vol. 227: pp. 591-597 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article provides a brief look at the current status of supercomputers and supercomputing in the United States. It addresses a variety of applications of supercomputers and the characteristics of a large modern supercomputing facility, the radical changes in the design of supercomputers that are impending, and the conditions that are necessary for a conducive climate for the further development and application of supercomputers
keywords parallel processing, hardware, business
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id e4bc
authors Cass, Christopher
year 1985
title Creativity and Automation: Thoughtful Training Guarantees Room for Both
source computer Graphics World. November, 1985. vol. 8: pp. 33-34, 36 : col. ill
summary To avoid losing and ignoring the conceptual and functional importance of traditional design and modeling skills, firms should control the use of new technology in such a way that traditional organizational benefits are retained. Problems and suggestions were presented for the training programs given to those who already possess design skills in order to enhance creativity
keywords creativity, training, automation, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id ascaad2006_paper20
id ascaad2006_paper20
authors Chougui, Ali
year 2006
title The Digital Design Process: reflections on architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD
source Computing in Architecture / Re-Thinking the Discourse: The Second International Conference of the Arab Society for Computer Aided Architectural Design (ASCAAD 2006), 25-27 April 2006, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates
summary These instructions are intended to guide contributors to the Second Architecture is presently engaged in an impatient search for solutions to critical questions about the nature and the identity of the discipline, and digital technology is a key agent for prevailing innovations in architectural design. The problem of complexity underlies all design problems. With the advent of CAD however, Architect’s ability to truly represent complexity has increased considerably. Another source that provides information about dealing with complexity is architectural theory. As Rowe (1987) states, architectural theory constitutes “a corpus of principles that are agreed upon and therefore worthy of emulation”. Architectural theory often is a mixed reflection on the nature of architectural design, design processes, made in descriptive and prescriptive terms (see Kruft 1985). Complexity is obviously not a new issue in architectural theory. Since it is an inherent characteristic of design problems, it has been dealt with in many different ways throughout history. Contemporary architects incorporate the computer in their design process. They produce architecture that is generated by the use of particle systems, simulation software, animation software, but also the more standard modelling tools. The architects reflect on the impact of the computer in their theories, and display changes in style by using information modelling techniques that have become versatile enough to encompass the complexity of information in the architectural design process. In this way, architectural style and theory can provide directions to further develop CAD. Most notable is the acceptance of complexity as a given fact, not as a phenomenon to oppose in systems of organization, but as a structuring principle to begin with. No matter what information modelling paradigm is used, complex and huge amounts of information need to be processed by designers. A key aspect in the combination of CAD, complexity, and architectural design is the role of the design representation. The way the design is presented and perceived during the design process is instrumental to understanding the design task. More architects are trying to reformulate this working of the representation. The intention of this paper is to present and discuss the current state of the art in architectural design positions on complexity and CAAD, and to reflect in particular on the role of digital design representations in this discussion. We also try to investigate how complexity can be dealt with, by looking at architects, in particular their styles and theories. The way architects use digital media and graphic representations can be informative how units of information can be formed and used in the design process. A case study is a concrete architect’s design processes such as Peter Eisenman Rem Koolhaas, van Berkel, Lynn, and Franke gehry, who embrace complexity and make it a focus point in their design, Rather than viewing it as problematic issue, by using computer as an indispensable instrument in their approaches.
series ASCAAD
email ali_chougui@yahoo.fr
last changed 2007/04/08 17:47

_id 2a27
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1985
title Integrated Systems Results of the W78 Survey
source CIB W78 Integrated CAD Symposium. September, 1985. 12 p
summary The International Council for Building research studies and documentation (CIB) working commission W78 Integrated Computer-Aided Design conducted a study to develop a catalog of integrated computer-aided design systems addressing development of integrated computer-aided building design systems. The study encompassed two phases: Survey of existing systems and on-going development projects and summary of result. This paper includes a reproduced questionnaire and results
keywords integration, systems, building, CAD
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 0faa
authors Duelund Mortensen, Peder
year 1991
title THE FULL-SCALE MODEL WORKSHOP
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 10-11
summary The workshop is an institution, available for use by the public and established at the Laboratory of Housing in the Art Academy's school of Architecture for a 3 year trial period beginning April 1985. This resumé contains brief descriptions of a variety of representative model projects and an overview of all projects carried out so far, including the pilot projects from 1983 and planned projects to and including January 1987. The Full Scale Model Workshop builds full size models of buildings, rooms and parts of buildings. The purpose of the Full Scale Model Workshop is to promote communication among building's users. The workshop is a tool in an attempt to build bridges between theory and practice in research, experimentation and communication of research results. New ideas and experiments of various sorts can be tried out cheaply, quickly and efficiently through the building of full scale models. Changes can be done on the spot as a planned part of the project and on the basis of ideas and experiments achieved through the model work itself. Buildings and their space can thus be communicated directly to all involved persons, regardless of technical background or training in evaluation of building projects.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
more http://info.tuwien.ac.at/efa
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id 29ff
authors Farouki, Rida T. and Hinds, John K.
year 1985
title A Hierarchy of Geometric Forms
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. May, 1985. vol. 5: pp. 51-78 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This article describes a unified approach to geometric modeling based on the mathematics of parametric polynomial functions. Such a unified scheme for geometric representation and computation provides a natural base for a geometric modeler of considerable versatility and robustness
keywords geometric modeling, parametrization, representation, curves, curved surfaces, B-splines
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6947
authors Foxley, Eric, McGettrick, A. D. and van Leeuwen, J. (consulting editors)
year 1985
title UNIX for Super Users
source xiv, 213 p. Wokingham, England: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1985. includes index -- (International Computer Science Series)
summary For the person responsible for managing a UNIX system. A description of key management functions like : Bringing up the system and taking it down, creation of new login names, maintenance of file-store security, monitoring user resource usage, and machine performance considerations. Outlines of shell scripts and C programs for various system management function are given. All major versions, at the time, of UNIX and its derivatives are covered
keywords UNIX, operating systems
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e191
authors Fuchs, Henry, Goldfeather, Jack and Hultquist, Jeff P.
year 1985
title Fast Spheres, Shadows, Textures, Transparencies, and Image Enhancements in Pixel-Planes
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 111-120 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Pixel-planes is a logic-enhanced memory system for raster graphics and imaging. Although each pixel-memory is enhanced with a one-bit ALU, the system's real power comes from a tree of one-bit address that can evaluate linear expressions Ax + By + C for every pixel (x,y) simultaneously, as fast as the ALUs and the memory circuits can accept the results. The development of a variety of algorithms that exploit this fast linear expression evaluation capability has started. The paper reports some of those results. Illustrated in this paper is a sample image from a small working prototype of the Pixel- planes hardware and a variety of images from simulations of a full-scale system. Timing estimates indicate that 30,000 smooth shaded triangles can be generated per second, or 21, 000 smooth-shaded and shadowed triangles can be generated per second, or over 25,000 shaded spheres can be generated per second. Image-enhancement by adaptive histogram equalization can be performed within 4 seconds on a 512 x 512 image
keywords shadowing, image processing, algorithms, polygons, clipping, computer graphics, technology, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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