CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 4494
authors Maher, Mary Lou
year 1985
title Hi-Rise and Beyond : Directions for Expert Systems in Design
source Computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 420-427 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This paper commences with a brief introduction to expert systems and then describes the Hi-Rise expert system for structural design in terms of scope, problem solving strategy, knowledge representation and implementation. It then discusses the potential for developing an expert system capable of innovative design and describes the possibility of developing a generic expert system framework appropriate for any structural design problem
keywords expert systems, civil engineering, structures, knowledge, representation, synthesis
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:19

_id 0551
authors Haller, Fritz
year 1985
title The Design of Buildings Which Have Complex Mechanical Infrastructure Using Expert Systems
source 1985? 24 p. : ill. Co-authored by several contributors. Includes bibliography
summary The paper presents a project whose aim is to find better methods for the design of buildings like laboratories, office buildings, schools, hospitals etc., which have complex mechanical systems. The design of the mechanical infrastructure in such buildings is as important as the design of other architectural or construction parts. The fundamental idea of the project is to integrate design problems of the mechanical system into the design of the architectural and structural concepts of the entire building. This is based on the belief that using an expert system containing computer programs for the solution of design problems can support the whole design process and that the design of buildings having complex mechanical infrastructure can be qualitatively better and more efficient than the design with traditional methods
keywords architecture, expert systems, mechanical, systems, applications, design, building, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id e02f
authors Lenart, Mihaly
year 1985
title The Design of Buildings which Have Complex Mechanical Infrastructure using Expert Systems
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 52-68
summary This paper presents a project under development at the University of Karlsruhe in which the author took part for two years. The aim of this project which was supported by the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft) is to find better methods for the design of buildings having complex mechanical systems like laboratories, office buildings, schools, hospitals. etc. The design of the mechanical infrastructure in such buildings is as important as the design of other architectural or construction parts. The fundamental idea of the project is to consider design problems of the mechanical system as part of the design of the architectural and structural concepts of the entire building. This is based on the belief that the use of an expert system containing computer programs for the solution of design problems can support the whole design procedure and that the design of buildings having complex mechanical infrastructure can be qualitatively better and more efficient than the design with traditional methods.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:50

_id a217
authors Bhatt, Rajesh V., Fisher, Edward L. and Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Information Retrieval Architectures For Expert System/DBMS Communication
source Industrial Engineering Fall Conference Proceedings. December, 1985. pp. 315-320. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The development of expert systems (ES) for manufacturing problems indicates a need to interact with potentially large amounts of data, much of which resides elsewhere in the ES user's organization. A large amount of information required for planning, design, and control operations can be made available through an existing database management system (DBMS). The need for an ES to access that data is critical. This paper presents two approaches to the development of ES- DBMS interfaces, both query-language based. One approach uses a procedural attachment to the ES language to obtain the required data via the DBMS query language, while the other one uses a separate interface program between the ES and the query language of the DBMS. The procedural attachment is able to acquire data from a DBMS at a faster rate than the interface program; however, the procedural attachment lacks knowledge of the DBMS schema. On the other hand, the interface program sacrifices speed but promotes flexibility, as it has the capability of selecting which DBMS to extract the required data from and allowing augmentation of schema knowledge outside of the ES. A disadvantage of the interface approach is the amount of time involved in data retrieval. The process of writing information to disk files is I/O intensive. This can be quite slow, particularly in PROLOG, the language used to implement the ES. Thus the use of such an interface is only suitable in applications such as design, where extremely fast I/O is not required
keywords design, engineering, expert systems, information, database, DBMS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id avocaad_2001_02
id avocaad_2001_02
authors Cheng-Yuan Lin, Yu-Tung Liu
year 2001
title A digital Procedure of Building Construction: A practical project
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In earlier times in which computers have not yet been developed well, there has been some researches regarding representation using conventional media (Gombrich, 1960; Arnheim, 1970). For ancient architects, the design process was described abstractly by text (Hewitt, 1985; Cable, 1983); the process evolved from unselfconscious to conscious ways (Alexander, 1964). Till the appearance of 2D drawings, these drawings could only express abstract visual thinking and visually conceptualized vocabulary (Goldschmidt, 1999). Then with the massive use of physical models in the Renaissance, the form and space of architecture was given better precision (Millon, 1994). Researches continued their attempts to identify the nature of different design tools (Eastman and Fereshe, 1994). Simon (1981) figured out that human increasingly relies on other specialists, computational agents, and materials referred to augment their cognitive abilities. This discourse was verified by recent research on conception of design and the expression using digital technologies (McCullough, 1996; Perez-Gomez and Pelletier, 1997). While other design tools did not change as much as representation (Panofsky, 1991; Koch, 1997), the involvement of computers in conventional architecture design arouses a new design thinking of digital architecture (Liu, 1996; Krawczyk, 1997; Murray, 1997; Wertheim, 1999). The notion of the link between ideas and media is emphasized throughout various fields, such as architectural education (Radford, 2000), Internet, and restoration of historical architecture (Potier et al., 2000). Information technology is also an important tool for civil engineering projects (Choi and Ibbs, 1989). Compared with conventional design media, computers avoid some errors in the process (Zaera, 1997). However, most of the application of computers to construction is restricted to simulations in building process (Halpin, 1990). It is worth studying how to employ computer technology meaningfully to bring significant changes to concept stage during the process of building construction (Madazo, 2000; Dave, 2000) and communication (Haymaker, 2000).In architectural design, concept design was achieved through drawings and models (Mitchell, 1997), while the working drawings and even shop drawings were brewed and communicated through drawings only. However, the most effective method of shaping building elements is to build models by computer (Madrazo, 1999). With the trend of 3D visualization (Johnson and Clayton, 1998) and the difference of designing between the physical environment and virtual environment (Maher et al. 2000), we intend to study the possibilities of using digital models, in addition to drawings, as a critical media in the conceptual stage of building construction process in the near future (just as the critical role that physical models played in early design process in the Renaissance). This research is combined with two practical building projects, following the progress of construction by using digital models and animations to simulate the structural layouts of the projects. We also tried to solve the complicated and even conflicting problems in the detail and piping design process through an easily accessible and precise interface. An attempt was made to delineate the hierarchy of the elements in a single structural and constructional system, and the corresponding relations among the systems. Since building construction is often complicated and even conflicting, precision needed to complete the projects can not be based merely on 2D drawings with some imagination. The purpose of this paper is to describe all the related elements according to precision and correctness, to discuss every possibility of different thinking in design of electric-mechanical engineering, to receive feedback from the construction projects in the real world, and to compare the digital models with conventional drawings.Through the application of this research, the subtle relations between the conventional drawings and digital models can be used in the area of building construction. Moreover, a theoretical model and standard process is proposed by using conventional drawings, digital models and physical buildings. By introducing the intervention of digital media in design process of working drawings and shop drawings, there is an opportune chance to use the digital media as a prominent design tool. This study extends the use of digital model and animation from design process to construction process. However, the entire construction process involves various details and exceptions, which are not discussed in this paper. These limitations should be explored in future studies.
series AVOCAAD
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 78ca
authors Friedland, P. (Ed.)
year 1985
title Special Section on Architectures for Knowledge-Based Systems
source CACM (28), 9, September
summary A fundamental shift in the preferred approach to building applied artificial intelligence (AI) systems has taken place since the late 1960s. Previous work focused on the construction of general-purpose intelligent systems; the emphasis was on powerful inference methods that could function efficiently even when the available domain-specific knowledge was relatively meager. Today the emphasis is on the role of specific and detailed knowledge, rather than on reasoning methods.The first successful application of this method, which goes by the name of knowledge-based or expert-system research, was the DENDRAL program at Stanford, a long-term collaboration between chemists and computer scientists for automating the determination of molecular structure from empirical formulas and mass spectral data. The key idea is that knowledge is power, for experts, be they human or machine, are often those who know more facts and heuristics about a domain than lesser problem solvers. The task of building an expert system, therefore, is predominantly one of teaching" a system enough of these facts and heuristics to enable it to perform competently in a particular problem-solving context. Such a collection of facts and heuristics is commonly called a knowledge base. Knowledge-based systems are still dependent on inference methods that perform reasoning on the knowledge base, but experience has shown that simple inference methods like generate and test, backward-chaining, and forward-chaining are very effective in a wide variety of problem domains when they are coupled with powerful knowledge bases. If this methodology remains preeminent, then the task of constructing knowledge bases becomes the rate-limiting factor in expert-system development. Indeed, a major portion of the applied AI research in the last decade has been directed at developing techniques and tools for knowledge representation. We are now in the third generation of such efforts. The first generation was marked by the development of enhanced AI languages like Interlisp and PROLOG. The second generation saw the development of knowledge representation tools at AI research institutions; Stanford, for instance, produced EMYCIN, The Unit System, and MRS. The third generation is now producing fully supported commercial tools like KEE and S.1. Each generation has seen a substantial decrease in the amount of time needed to build significant expert systems. Ten years ago prototype systems commonly took on the order of two years to show proof of concept; today such systems are routinely built in a few months. Three basic methodologies-frames, rules, and logic-have emerged to support the complex task of storing human knowledge in an expert system. Each of the articles in this Special Section describes and illustrates one of these methodologies. "The Role of Frame-Based Representation in Reasoning," by Richard Fikes and Tom Kehler, describes an object-centered view of knowledge representation, whereby all knowldge is partitioned into discrete structures (frames) having individual properties (slots). Frames can be used to represent broad concepts, classes of objects, or individual instances or components of objects. They are joined together in an inheritance hierarchy that provides for the transmission of common properties among the frames without multiple specification of those properties. The authors use the KEE knowledge representation and manipulation tool to illustrate the characteristics of frame-based representation for a variety of domain examples. They also show how frame-based systems can be used to incorporate a range of inference methods common to both logic and rule-based systems.""Rule-Based Systems," by Frederick Hayes-Roth, chronicles the history and describes the implementation of production rules as a framework for knowledge representation. In essence, production rules use IF conditions THEN conclusions and IF conditions THEN actions structures to construct a knowledge base. The autor catalogs a wide range of applications for which this methodology has proved natural and (at least partially) successful for replicating intelligent behavior. The article also surveys some already-available computational tools for facilitating the construction of rule-based knowledge bases and discusses the inference methods (particularly backward- and forward-chaining) that are provided as part of these tools. The article concludes with a consideration of the future improvement and expansion of such tools.The third article, "Logic Programming, " by Michael Genesereth and Matthew Ginsberg, provides a tutorial introduction to the formal method of programming by description in the predicate calculus. Unlike traditional programming, which emphasizes how computations are to be performed, logic programming focuses on the what of objects and their behavior. The article illustrates the ease with which incremental additions can be made to a logic-oriented knowledge base, as well as the automatic facilities for inference (through theorem proving) and explanation that result from such formal descriptions. A practical example of diagnosis of digital device malfunctions is used to show how significantand complex problems can be represented in the formalism.A note to the reader who may infer that the AI community is being split into competing camps by these three methodologies: Although each provides advantages in certain specific domains (logic where the domain can be readily axiomatized and where complete causal models are available, rules where most of the knowledge can be conveniently expressed as experiential heuristics, and frames where complex structural descriptions are necessary to adequately describe the domain), the current view is one of synthesis rather than exclusivity. Both logic and rule-based systems commonly incorporate frame-like structures to facilitate the representation of large amounts of factual information, and frame-based systems like KEE allow both production rules and predicate calculus statements to be stored within and activated from frames to do inference. The next generation of knowledge representation tools may even help users to select appropriate methodologies for each particular class of knowledge, and then automatically integrate the various methodologies so selected into a consistent framework for knowledge. "
series journal paper
last changed 2003/04/23 13:14

_id 07c6
authors Kalay, Y.E., Harfmann, A.C. and Swerdloff, L.M.
year 1985
title ALEX: A Knowledge-Based Architectural Design System
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 96-108
summary A methodology for the development of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system and its experimental application in the domain of single family house design are presented.

The methodology involves integrating within a unified design environment, tools and techniques that have been independently developed in various disciplines (including knowledge representation, information management, geometric modeling, human,machine interface, and architectural design). By assuming the role of active design partners, the resulting systems are expected to increase the productivity of designers, improve the quality of their products, and reduce cost and lead time of the design process as a whole.

ALEX (Architecture Learning Expert), a particular application of this methodology, is a prototype knowledge-based CAD system in the domain of single family house design. It employs user-interactive, goal directed heuristic search strategies in a solution space that consists of a network of objects. Message-based change propagation techniques, guided by domain-specific knowledge, are used to ensure database integrity and well-formedness.

The significance of the methodology and its application is threefold: it furthers our knowledge of the architectural design process, explores the utilization of knowledge engineering methods in design, and serves as a prototype for developing the next generation of computer-aided architectural design systems.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 0e0a
authors Kalay, Yehuda E., Harfmann, Anton C. and Swerdloff, Lucien M.
year 1985
title An Expert System Approach to Computer-Aided Participatory Architectural Design
source February, 1985. 16 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary Increased satisfaction of the built environment can be achieved by more effective communication between the people who use that environment and the designers who form it. Participatory design is a method which educates and involves the users in the actual design process so that such a communication becomes possible. Methods that have so far been developed for participatory design have proven to be too limited, due mainly to the large time demands they place on architects. An effective participatory design method can be achieved by the use of a knowledge-based expert system which is capable of providing an educational design experience to the user. The development and implementation of such a system, specifically for the design of single family homes, is the focus of this paper
keywords expert systems, CAD, architecture, design process
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8e75
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Redefining the Role of Computers in Architecture : From Drafting/Modeling Tools to Knowledge- Based Design Assistants
source Computer Aided Design September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 319-328 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This paper argues that the modeling/drafting role computers have been assigned in architectural design should be changed, so that computers will become intelligent assistants to designers, relieving them from the need to perform the more trivial design tasks and augmenting their decision making capabilities. A conceptual framework of a knowledge-based computer-aided design system is presented, and its potential for increasing the utility of computers in the design buildings is discussed
keywords AI, architecture, design, knowledge base, intelligence, building, CAD
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6db4
authors Karakatsanis, Andreas Georgiou
year 1985
title Floder: A Floor Designer Expert System
source Department of Civil Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh PA
summary The use of computers in structural design for the last two decades has been limited to algorithmic and procedural tasks. The use of expert system environments facilitates the implementation of conceptual tasks in computer programs. The goal of this study is to develop an expert system for the structural design of floor framings. FLODER, the resulting expert system, generates, analyzes, and evaluates floor framings for a given architectural plan. Framing generation consists of determination of the locations of structural elements in the architectural plan. Analysis involves an approximation of the dimensions of the slabs. Evaluation numerically ranks all generated framings using heuristic features for the alternatives. FLODER is implemented in OPS5 and LISP. The primary representations used are OPS5 production rules for the knowledge-base, and OPS5 working memory elements, for the context. Tasks amenable to algorithmic approaches are implemented in LISP. FLODER, even in its present state, can be viewed as a useful assistant to a designer. It can rapidly generate and evaluate alternative framings for a given architectural plan and thus increase the work productivity of its users [includes bibliography].
keywords Knowledge Base, Systems, Design, Architecture, Civil Engineering, Representation, Expert Systems, Floor Plans, Synthesis, Structures
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:27

_id a36a
authors Rasdorf, William J.
year 1985
title Perspectives on Knowledge in Engineering Design
source Proceedings of the International Computers in Engineering Conference. Boston, MA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, August, 1985. Vol. 2: pp. 249-253. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Of all the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI), expert systems show some of the most significant promise for engineering applications. Expert systems provide a framework for acquiring, representing, and using knowledge about a particular application's domain. The role of knowledge in engineering design merits closer attention so that AI- oriented computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems can be developed and maintained systematically. Because 'knowledge' in engineering applications is loosely defined, it is necessary to identify knowledge types and the correlations between them before widespread engineering design applications can be achieved. The types of domain knowledge; facts, procedures, judgments, and control; differ from the classes of that knowledge; creative, innovative, and routine. Feasible tasks for expert systems can be determined based on these types and classes of knowledge. Interpretive tasks require reasoning about a task in light of the knowledge available, while generative tasks create potential solutions to be tested against constraints. Only after classifying the domain by type and level can the engineer select an appropriate knowledge-engineering tool for the domain being considered. The critical features to be weighed after problem classification are knowledge representation techniques, control strategies, interface requirements, compatibility with traditional systems, and economic considerations. After considering all of these factors in the selection of the expert system tool, the engineer can then proceed with the acquisition of knowledge and the construction and the use of the expert system
keywords knowledge, AI, civil engineering, expert systems, CAE, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ddss9408
id ddss9408
authors Bax, Thijs and Trum, Henk
year 1994
title A Taxonomy of Architecture: Core of a Theory of Design
source Second Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture & Urban Planning (Vaals, the Netherlands), August 15-19, 1994
summary The authors developed a taxonomy of concepts in architectural design. It was accepted by the Advisory Committee for education in the field of architecture, a committee advising the European Commission and Member States, as a reference for their task to harmonize architectural education in Europe. The taxonomy is based on Domain theory, a theory developed by the authors, based on General Systems Theory and the notion of structure according to French Structuralism, takes a participatory viewpoint for the integration of knowledge and interests by parties in the architectural design process. The paper discusses recent developments of the taxonomy, firstly as a result of a confrontation with similar endeavours to structure the field of architectural design, secondly as a result of applications of education and architectural design practice, and thirdly as a result of theapplication of some views derived from the philosophical work from Charles Benjamin Peirce. Developments concern the structural form of the taxonomy comprising basic concepts and levelbound scale concepts, and the specification of the content of the fields which these concepts represent. The confrontation with similar endeavours concerns mainly the work of an ARCUK workingparty, chaired by Tom Marcus, based on the European Directive from 1985. The application concerns experiences with a taxonomy-based enquiry in order to represent the profile of educational programmes of schools and faculties of architecture in Europe in qualitative and quantitative terms. This enquiry was carried out in order to achieve a basis for comparison and judgement, and a basis for future guidelines including quantitative aspects. Views of Peirce, more specifically his views on triarchy as a way of ordering and structuring processes of thinking,provide keys for a re-definition of concepts as building stones of the taxonomy in terms of the form-function-process-triad, which strengthens the coherence of the taxonomy, allowing for a more regular representation in the form of a hierarchical ordered matrix.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id cbd0
authors Brown, David C.
year 1985
title Failure Handling in a Design Expert System
source computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 436-442 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with how to handle the failures that occur during design problem-solving. Failure handlers and redesigners are introduced. Failure recovery action and the knowledge involved is presented for each agent. The role of suggestions and redesign strategies is discussed. The handling of plan failures is also presented. The paper concludes by surveying other methods of failure handling from the literature
keywords expert systems, problem solving, mechanical engineering, planning,constraints, design, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 6de2
authors Burnett, J. Jeffrey
year 1985
title A Prototype Voice Operated Computer Aided Design Workstation Intended for High Productivity Commercial & Educational Use
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 83-95
summary The recent availability of easy to use, tow cost voice recognition input devices combined with increasingly sophisticated mini and micro-computer based Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems offer numerous possibilities for quadriplegics to enter (or re-enter) the job market as draft-persons and design professionals. Serious productivity potential needs much more study, however, preliminary benchmarks indicate that it would be reasonable to expect ratios of .9 to 1.4 over manual drafting using the configuration described.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:52

_id 4e29
authors Gero, John S. and Coyne, Richard D.
year 1985
title Logic Programming As a Means of Representing Semantics in Design Languages
source Environment and Planning B. 1985. vol. 12: pp. 351-369 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Logic programming is discussed as a method for representing aspects of design language: Descriptions of designs domain knowledge, transformation rules, design grammar and control mechanisms necessary to implement rules. The applicability of logic programming to the representation of semantics in design is also explored. Control at the semantic level provides a means of directing the automated generation of designs. Examples are drawn from a rule-based design system written in the logic programming language PROLOG
keywords PROLOG, logic, programming, design, shape grammars, semantics, languages, representation
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id c898
authors Gero, John S.
year 1986
title An Overview of Knowledge Engineering and its Relevance to CAAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 107-119
summary Computer-aided architectural design (CAAD) has come to mean a number of often disparate activities. These can be placed into one of two categories: using the computer as a drafting and, to a lesser extent, modelling system; and using it as a design medium. The distinction between the two categories is often blurred. Using the computer as a drafting and modelling tool relies on computing notions concerned with representing objects and structures numerically and with ideas of computer programs as procedural algorithms. Similar notions underly the use of computers as a design medium. We shall return to these later. Clearly, all computer programs contain knowledge, whether methodological knowledge about processes or knowledge about structural relationships in models or databases. However, this knowledge is so intertwined with the procedural representation within the program that it can no longer be seen or found. Architecture is concerned with much more than numerical descriptions of buildings. It is concerned with concepts, ideas, judgement and experience. All these appear to be outside the realm of traditional computing. Yet architects discoursing use models of buildings largely unrelated to either numerical descriptions or procedural representations. They make use of knowledge - about objects, events and processes - and make nonprocedural (declarative) statements that can only be described symbolically. The limits of traditional computing are the limits of traditional computer-aided design systems, namely, that it is unable directly to represent and manipulate declarative, nonalgorithmic, knowledge or to perform symbolic reasoning. Developments in artificial intelligence have opened up ways of increasing the applicability of computers by acquiring and representing knowledge in computable forms. These approaches supplement rather than supplant existing uses of computers. They begin to allow the explicit representations of human knowledge. The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to this field and describes, through applications, its relevance to computer- aided architectural design.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 4f6f
authors Kalay, Yehuda E.
year 1985
title Knowledge-Based Computer-Aided Design to Assist Designers of Physical Artifacts
source 1985. [15] p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary The objectives of this project are to increase the productivity of physical designers, and to improve the quality of designed artifacts and environments. The means for achieving these objectives include the development, implementation and verification of a broad-based methodology to be used for building context-sensitive computer-aided design systems to facilitate the design and fabrication of physical artifacts. Such systems will extend computer aides for design over the earliest phases of the design process and thus facilitate design-capture in addition to the common design-communication utilities they currently provide. They will thus constitute intelligent design assistants that will relieve the designer from the necessity to deal with some design details, as well as the need to explicitly manage the consistency of the design database. The project employs principles developed by Artificial Intelligence methods that are used in non-deterministic problem solving processes that represent data and knowledge in distributed networks. Principles such as object-centered data factorization and message-based change propagation techniques are implemented in an existing architectural computer-aided design system and field-tested in a practicing Architectural/Engineering office
keywords CAD, knowledge base, design methods, design process, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 687b
authors Lansdown, John
year 1986
title Requirements for Knowledge-based Systems in Design
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 120-127
summary Even from the comparatively small amount of work that has been done in this area it is already clear that expert systems can be of value in many architectural applications. This is particularly so in those applications involving what broadly can be called, 'classification' (such as fault diagnosis, testing for conformity with regulations and so on). What we want to look at in this chapter are some of the developments in knowledge-based systems (KBS) which will be needed in order to make them more useful in a broader application area and, especially, in creative design. At the heart of these developments will be two things: (1), more appropriate methods of representing knowledge which are as accessible to humans as they are to computers; and (2), better ways of ensuring that this knowledge can be brought to bear exactly where and when it is needed. Knowledge engineers usually call these elements, respectively, 'knowledge representation' and 'control'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8298
authors Quadrel, Richard W. and Chassin, David P.
year 1985
title Energy Graphics: A Progress Report on the Development of Architectural Courseware
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 129-141
summary Energy Graphics is a technique for determining the energy performance of buildings at the conceptual stage of the architectural design process. Unlike many energy analysis programs, which only produce results after ail of the building information has been supplied, Energy Graphics works with the designer in understanding how early decisions about building form and configuration affect energy use.

The Energy Graphics technique is currently being "computerized" on a Sun 2/120 graphics workstation, under a grant by the Inter-University Consortium for Educational Computing. The resulting software will be used in the architectural design curriculum so that students will be able to receive an immediate energy evaluation of their design explorations.

For use in the studios, the software must include a powerful graphics interface that allows students to "sketch" their design concepts interactively. The computer will then interpret these sketches as building information, organize them into an integrated database, perform the energy calculations, and inform the student of the results in a graphic format. One of the project's major goals is to provide this graphics interface in the same way that architects think about drawing, and not simply to imitate current computer "drafting" systems.

The goals of the project can only be met by developing the software on a powerful workstation system, which provides fast processing time, large memory, multitasking capabilities and high-resolution graphics. This progress report describes our efforts to date on the development of this important software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:55

_id a127
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Salley, George C.
year 1985
title Generative Engineering Databases - Toward Expert Systems
source Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, 1985. vol. 22: pp. 11-15
summary CADLINE has abstract only. Engineering data management, incorporating concepts of optimization with data representation, is receiving increasing attention. Research in this area promises advantages for many engineering applications, particularly those which use data innovatively. This paper presents a framework for a comprehensive, relational database management system that combines a knowledge base (KB) of design constraints with a database (DB) of engineering data items to achieve a 'generative database' - one which automatically generates new engineering design data according to the design constraints stored in the knowledge base. Thus, in addition to the designer and engineering design and analysis application programs, the database itself contributes to the design process. The KB/DB framework proposed here requires a database that is able to store all of the data normally associated with engineering design and to accurately represent the interactions between constraints and the stored data while guaranteeing its integrity. The framework also requires a knowledge base that is able to store all the constraints imposed upon the engineering design process. The goal sought is a central integrated repository of data, supporting interfaces to a wide variety of application programs and supporting processing capabilities for maintaining integrity while generating new data. The resulting system permits the unaided generation of constrained data values, thereby serving as an active design assistant. This paper suggests this new conceptual framework as a means of improving engineering data representation, generation, use, and management
keywords management, optimization, synthesis, database, expert systems, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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