CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 61 to 80 of 89

_id 4c92
authors Norman, Richard B.
year 1985
title Electronic Color in the Architectural Studio - An Alternative Strategy for Introducing the Computer as a Creative Tool in the Studio Environment
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 35-42
summary An alternative strategy is proposed for introducing the computer as a creative tool in the studio environment. It is suggested that computer graphic capabilities, focusing on color as an element of design, be incorporated into basic design studios. Techniques of color drawing on the computer are discussed, and computer modeling of color systems is recommended as a vehicle through which to introduce color theory. The effect of color on the perception of buildings is explored, illustrating how color selection can affect a building's line, form and spatial quality. These techniques enable students to develop an appreciation of the use of color in buildings, reinforcing their knowledge of basic design, and introducing them to graphic computing in a visually provocative manner. The proposal recognizes the importance of both color theory and graphic computers to an evolving architectural curriculum.

series ACADIA
email rnorman@CLEMSON.EDU
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 00ed
authors O'Leary, Dianne and Stewart, G.W.
year 1985
title Data-Flow Algorithms for Parallel Matrix Computations
source Communications of the ACM August, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 840-853. includes bibliography.
summary In this article the authors develop some algorithms and tools for solving matrix problems on parallel processing computers. Operations are synchronized through data-flow alone, which makes global synchronization unnecessary and enables the algorithms to be implemented on machines with very simple operating systems and communication protocols. As examples, an algorithm that forms the main modules for solving Liapounov matrix equations is presented. The authors compare this approach to wave front array processors and systolic arrays, and note its advantages in handling missized problems, in evaluating variations of algorithms or architectures, in moving algorithms from system to system, and in debugging parallel algorithms on sequential machines
keywords tools, algorithms, mathematics, parallel processing
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ee4b
id ee4b
authors Ozel, Filiz
year 1985
title Using CAD in Fire Safety Research
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 142-154
summary While architecture offices are increasingly using CADD systems for drafting purposes, architectural schools are pursuing projects that use the CAD data base for new applications in the analysis and evaluation of buildings. This paper summarizes two studies done at the University of Michigan, Architecture Research laboratory, where the CAD system was used to develop a fire safety code evaluation program, and an emergency egress behavior simulation.

The former one takes the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Life safety Code 101 as a basis, and generates the code compliance requirements of a given project. The ether study accepts people as information processing beings and simulates their way finding behavior under emergency conditions. Both of these studies utilize the graphic characteristics of the CAD system, producing color displays on the CRT screen, and also outputting information in tabular form which refers to the display on the screen. Both of them also have plotting options.

series ACADIA
email ozel@asu.edu
last changed 2004/03/23 07:43

_id 85d0
authors Peachey, Darwyn R.
year 1985
title Solid Texturing of Complex Surfaces
source SIGGRAPH '85 Conference Proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 279-286 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Texturing is an effective method of simulating surface detail at relatively low cost. Traditionally, texture functions have been defined on the two-dimensional surface coordinate systems of individual surface patches. This paper introduces the notion of 'solid texturing.' Solid texturing uses texture functions defined throughout a region of three-dimensional space. Many nonhomogeneous materials, including wood and stone, may be more realistically rendered using solid texture functions. In addition, solid texturing can easily be applied to complex surfaces which are difficult to texture using two- dimensional texture functions. The paper gives examples of solid texture functions based on Fourier synthesis, stochastic texture models, projections of two-dimensional textures, and combinations of other solid textures
keywords shading, texture mapping, solid modeling, objects, computer graphics, rendering, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 62ff
authors Peckham, R. J.
year 1985
title Shading Evaluations with General Three- Dimensional Models
source Computer Aided Design. September, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 305-310 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The SHADOWPACK package of computer programs has been developed to facilitate shading evaluations, for the direct component of solar radiation, with general 3D models. An interactive solid modelling program allows the user to construct and view the 3D model before saving it for further analysis and display. Other programs permit the graphical display of the shading situation throughout the year, the quantitative assessment of energy received on different faces of the model, and the display of the distribution of energy received on particular faces by means of contour plots. The use of the computer graphics approach has proved particularly convenient because of the similarity between the techniques used for graphical and numerical algorithms
keywords shading, solid modeling, evaluation, energy, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e115
authors Pipes, Alan (Ed.)
year 1986
title Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, 245 p.
summary Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures was conceived late one evening in the bar of the Metropole Hotel in Brighton, UK. Those present - veterans of a hundred and one CAD conferences - were bemoaning the degree to which big business was taking over the conference scene: exhibiting was replacing conferring, selling was replacing thinking, products were replacing ideas. Wouldn't it be nice, we agreed, to get back to an 'academic' conference which would take stock of current developments in CAAD and attempt to anticipate the direction of future developments and their impact on architectural practice, on the building industry and on the quality of the built environment? Four major themes are explored in CAAD Futures: (1) Systematic design; (2) Drawing and visualization; (3) Artificial intelligence and knowledge engineering; (4) Implications for practice. // Stimulus papers on these four themes were circulated prior to the Conference, and the conference papers themselves elaborated the issues raised in the stimulus papers in such a way as to encourage discussion. The resulting book, we believe, will be a major reference text for students, researchers and practitioners.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id a65f
authors Primrose, P.L., Creamer, G.D. and Leonard, R.
year 1985
title Identifying and Quantifying the Company-Wide Benefits of CAD Within the Structure of a Comprehensive Investment Program
source Computer Aided Design. Butterworth & Co. Pub., February, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 3-8 : ill. flow charts
summary This paper discusses the costs and benefits associated with introducing CAD. It is shown that by suitably defining the terms involved, all the so-called 'intangible benefits' can be quantified and used within a rigorous financial evaluation. Because 45 specific factors must be considered if a genuine investment appraisal of CAD is to be performed, a computer program has been specifically written to overcome the difficulties normally associated with the DCF evaluation of major projects. The results from the program demonstrate that not only are the benefits of CAD company-wide, but that when these benefits are quantified, the economic case for CAD is greatly strengthened. The problem of CAD systems being regarded as nothing more than a 'drawing office tool to make draftsmen redundant' is overcome. In particular, the use of the program within a number of major companies reveals that CAD systems not only give a much greater potential return on investment than has been suggested by previous authors, but that the greatest benefits accrue in areas outside the drawing office. This is illustrated by a case study
keywords CAD, evaluation, business, cost, practice, economics
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8298
authors Quadrel, Richard W. and Chassin, David P.
year 1985
title Energy Graphics: A Progress Report on the Development of Architectural Courseware
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 129-141
summary Energy Graphics is a technique for determining the energy performance of buildings at the conceptual stage of the architectural design process. Unlike many energy analysis programs, which only produce results after ail of the building information has been supplied, Energy Graphics works with the designer in understanding how early decisions about building form and configuration affect energy use.

The Energy Graphics technique is currently being "computerized" on a Sun 2/120 graphics workstation, under a grant by the Inter-University Consortium for Educational Computing. The resulting software will be used in the architectural design curriculum so that students will be able to receive an immediate energy evaluation of their design explorations.

For use in the studios, the software must include a powerful graphics interface that allows students to "sketch" their design concepts interactively. The computer will then interpret these sketches as building information, organize them into an integrated database, perform the energy calculations, and inform the student of the results in a graphic format. One of the project's major goals is to provide this graphics interface in the same way that architects think about drawing, and not simply to imitate current computer "drafting" systems.

The goals of the project can only be met by developing the software on a powerful workstation system, which provides fast processing time, large memory, multitasking capabilities and high-resolution graphics. This progress report describes our efforts to date on the development of this important software.

series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:55

_id 6ed3
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Storaasli, Olaf O.
year 1985
title The Role of Computing in Engineering Education
source Toward Expert Systems, Computers and Structures. Pergamon Press, July, 1985. vol. 20: pp. 11-15. Also published in: Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics edited by A. K. Noor and R. J. Hayduk
summary Pergamon Press, 1985. --- Also Published in : Proceedings of the Symposium on Advances and Trends in Structures and Dynamics, Pergamon Press, George Washington University and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. pp. 11-15, Oct.1984. The rapid advances occurring in interactive micro-computing and computer science have provided the engineer with a powerful means of processing, storing, retrieving, and displaying data. The effective use of computer technology in engineering processes and applications is recognized by many as the key to increased individual, company, and national productivity. The implications of this observation for the academic community are clear: we must prepare our students to use computer methods and applications as part of their fundamental education. The proper tradeoff between engineering fundamentals and computer science principles and practices is changing with many of the concepts of engineering now being packaged in algorithms or on computer chips. The components of an education should include operating system fundamentals, data structures, program control and organization, algorithms, and computer architectures. It is critically important for engineering students to receive an education that teaches them these fundamentals. This paper suggests that to convey the essentials of computer science to future engineers requires, in part, the addition of computer courses to the engineering curriculum. It also requires a strengthening of the computing content of many other courses so that students come to treat the computer as a fundamental component of their work. This is a major undertaking, but new engineers graduating with advanced computing knowledge will provide potentially significant future innovations in the engineering profession
keywords CAE, education, civil engineering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 206caadria2004
id 206caadria2004
authors Ricardo Sosa and John S. Gero
year 2004
title Diffusion of Design Ideas: Gatekeeping Effects
source CAADRIA 2004 [Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / ISBN 89-7141-648-3] Seoul Korea 28-30 April 2004, pp. 287-302
summary Designers and design managers are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of the complexities of creativity and innovation (Langdon and Rothwell 1985). These two phenomena can be seen as complementary dimensions of a differentiation cycle where design plays a key value-adding role that gradually reduces through commoditisation. However, there is a lack of relevant evidence to explain the link between creativity and innovation. Creativity is increasingly considered as occurring in the interaction between the individual generator of an idea and a group of evaluators (Sawyer et al 2003). However, most studies have regarded the generation of a solution -and not its social impact- as the outcome of the creative process (Runco and Pritzker 1999). Accordingly, computational modelling of creativity has been mainly conducted in a social void (Boden 1999).
series CAADRIA
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2004/05/20 16:46

_id a0d4
id a0d4
authors Rosa Enrich, Andrea Carnicero, Gustavo Fornari & Pedro Orazzi
year 2004
title ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF MATHEMATICAL LEARNING STRUCTURES
source Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference of Mathematics & Design, Spetial Edition of the Journal of Mathematics & Design, Volume 4, No.1, pp. 13-21.
summary Abstract: A series of practical tasks have been done under the general name of “Surfaces in invisible cities”. Each task was based on a story taken from the book The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino. The research carried out allows to design a pedagogical project which makes evident , generates and connects several intentions, motivations and learning structures. It proposes the use of multi- level languages and readings. Therefore, each task takes more time than that of the proposed mathematical class. Its implementation generates a broader view than that seen at the time of design.

From the detailed analysis of the results obtained, the following diverse pedagogical aspects of this work project arise: a. The use of several multiple intelligence: Howard Gardner (1985) found that a man has several distinct intelligence types among which Logical-Mathematical; Spatial; Linguistic -oriented; Musical; Intra-personal; Kinesthetic-Corporal; Interpersonal stand out. Only those types used in the task will be analyzed, making a brief description of each type. b. The architectonic-city planning aspects: architectonic-city planning interpretation of the space imagined after reading the text, with the purpose of identifying figures, shapes, volumes and colors which are expressed via an analogous space. They consist of visual, architectonic and territorial speculations without a rigorous spatial theory and it is pretended that they possess a technical precision at mathematical concept level. c. The mathematical contents: a study of the conical and square shapes present in the designs done and used in a creative manner in students’ compositions following the reading of the story chosen is carried out. An analysis of shapes is performed and mathematical problems are posed within the design context.

Traditional sketching methods have been used in task solving and the possibilities offered by the virtual tools are analyzed.

Emphasis has been put on the vertical and horizontal interchanges in the Chair, generating changes in knowledge transmission perspectives, thus allowing the sharing of contents, abilities and resources. The architectonic work imagined and created by the students will focus on these different working lines creating a harmonious and significant whole. The work is the result of multiple connections and creative proposals.

keywords city, geometry, multiple intelligence
series other
type normal paper
email enrich@infovia.com.ar
last changed 2005/04/07 10:46

_id 20a8
authors Ruffle, Simon
year 1986
title How Can CAD Provide for the Changing Role of the Architect?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 197-199
summary At the RIBA Conference of 1981 entitled 'New Opportunities', and more recently at the 1984 ACA Annual Conference on 'Architects in Competition' there has been talk of marketing, new areas of practice, recapturing areas of practice lost to other professions, more accountability to client and public 'the decline of the mystique of the professional'. It is these issues, rather than technical advances in software and hardware, that will be the prime movers in getting computers into widespread practice in the future. In this chapter we will examine how changing attitudes in the profession might affect three practical issues in computing with which the author has been preoccupied in the past year. We will conclude by considering how, in future, early design stage computing may need to be linked to architectural theory, and, as this is a conference where we are encouraged to be outspoken, we will raise the issue of a computer-based theory of architecture.
series CAAD Futures
email sjr56@cam.ac.uk
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 2c11
authors Ryan, Daniel L.
year 1985
title Computer-Aided Graphics and Design
source vii, 398 p. : ill. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1985. 2nd. ed revised and expanded.: includes bibliography and index
summary The emphasis is on computer graphic usage in engineering problem solving rather then on creating software. The book provides information on programs, systems and applications in the context of an engineering curriculum
keywords computer graphics, CAD, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a18b
authors Samet, Hanan and Webber, Robert E.
year 1985
title Storing a Collection of Polygons Using Quadtrees
source ACM Transactions on Graphics July, 1985. vol. 4: pp. 182-222 : some ill. includes bibliography.
summary An adaptation of the quadtree data structure that represents polygonal maps (i.e., collections of polygons, possibly containing holes) is described in a manner that is also useful for the manipulation of arbitrary collections of straight line segments. The goal is to store these maps without the loss of information that results from digitization, and to obtain a worst-case execution time that is not overly sensitive to the positioning of the map. Regular decomposition variant of the region quadtree is usedÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ to organize the vertices and edges of the maps. A number of related data organizations are proposed in an iterative manner until a method is obtained that meets the stated goals. The result is termed a PM (Polygonal Map) quadtree and is based on a regular decomposition Point Space quadtree (PS quadtree) that stores additional information about the edges at its terminal nodes. Algorithms are given for inserting and deleting line segments from a PM quadtree. Use of the PM quadtree to perform point location, dynamic line insertion, and map overlay is discussed. An empirical comparison of the PM quadtree with other quadtree-based representations for polygonal maps is also provided
keywords data structures, quadtree, polygons, representation, point inclusion, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id e757
authors Schijf, R.
year 1988
title Strategies For CAAD Education - The Singapore Way
source CAAD futures ‘87 [Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-444-42916-6] Eindhoven (The Netherlands), 20-22 May 1987, pp. 23-46
summary For over one year (1985/86) the author was as senior lecturer instrumental in developing and initiating a CAAD-curriculum at the Singapore School of Architecture. The paper describes the circumstances surrounding the acquisition of the Schools' large CAD-system, the CAAD-curriculum proposals, and the first pilot courses. On the basis of this preliminary experience some observations for CAAD-teaching are made, which are related to more universal strategies for CAAD-education.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 46b0
authors Schijf, Rik
year 1986
title CAD in the Netherlands: Integrated CAD
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 176-184
summary One of the things in which a small country can excel is its number of architects' offices per inhabitant. In the Netherlands this is approximately one in 6500, or twice the UK density (CBS, 1984; CICA, 1982). Of the 2150 Dutch offices, 88 per cent employ less than 10 people, which compares rather well with the British Situation. For the Netherlands it is interesting that its boom in CAD, on average an annual doubling or tripling for the next few years, is likely to coincide with a revolution in CAD itself. There is no doubt that very soon the personal and larger CAD systems will clash at supermicro-level.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id c5a8
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N. (Ed.)
year 1991
title CAAD Futures '91 [Conference Proceedings]
source International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design 1989/ ISBN 3-528-08821-4 / Zürich (Switzerland), July 1991, 594 p.
summary Computer Aided Architectural Design (CAAD) is the art of design and computation. Since the establishment of the CAAD futures organization in 1985, experts meet every two years to explore the state-of-the-art and postulate on future development in Computer Aided Architectural Design. The fourth international CAAD futures conference took place in July 1991 in Zürich at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), organized by the Chair for CAAD. More than 220 participants from 25 countries attended the conference. Presentation topics were education, research, and application. The mission of CAAD futures '91 was to provide an international forum for the dissemination and discussion of future oriented developments and new experiences in the field of Computer Aided Architectural Design. This book is one result of the conference and is divided into three sections: Education, Research and Application. This international overview of the 1991 state-of-the- art in Computer Aided Architectural Design will serve as a reference for design teachers, researchers, and application developers interested in CAAD.
series CAAD Futures
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id e16a
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1985
title Architectural Tool Building: Introduction to Pascal for Architects and Designers Using Graphics on the IBM PC and Macintosh
source ACADIA Workshop ‘85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 119-128
summary The growing number of architecture and design students that take introductory computing courses justify the development of courses that are tuned to the specific needs of these disciplines. The importance of graphics has to be reflected in these courses and relationships that exist between structured programming and deterministic design problems must be demonstrated. This paper describes such a course - the software and the tutorial developed for it. It is both the introduction for architecture and design students to become competent program users and the foundation and prerequisite for more advanced courses in data structures and Artificial Intelligence for architectural tool building.

series ACADIA
email gerhard.schmitt@sl.ethz.ch
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 020d
authors Shaviv, Edna
year 1986
title Layout Design Problems: Systematic Approaches
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 28-52
summary The complexity of the layout design problems known as the 'spatial allocation problems' gave rise to several approaches, which can be generally classified into two main streams. The first attempts to use the computer to generate solutions of the building layout, while in the second, computers are used only to evaluate manually generated solutions. In both classes the generation or evaluation of the layout are performed systematically. Computer algorithms for 'spatial allocation problems' first appeared more than twenty-five years ago (Koopmans, 1957). From 1957 to 1970 over thirty different programs were developed for generating the floor plan layout automatically, as is summarized in CAP-Computer Architecture Program, Vol. 2 (Stewart et al., 1970). It seems that any architect who entered the area of CAAD felt that it was his responsibility to find a solution to this prime architectural problem. Most of the programs were developed for batch processing, and were run on a mainframe without any sophisticated input/output devices. It is interesting to mention that, because of the lack of these sophisticated input/output devices, early researchers used the approach of automatic generation of optimal or quasioptimal layout solution under given constraints. Gradually, we find a recession and slowdown in the development of computer programs for generation of layout solutions. With the improvement of interactive input/output devices and user interfaces, the inclination today is to develop integrated systems in which the architectural solution is obtained manually by the architect and is introduced to the computer for the appraisal of the designer's layout solution (Maver, 1977). The manmachine integrative systems could work well, but it seems that in most of the integrated systems today, and in the commercial ones in particular, there is no route to any appraisal technique of the layout problem. Without any evaluation techniques in commercial integrated systems it seems that the geometrical database exists Just to create working drawings and sometimes also perspectives.
series CAAD Futures
email arredna@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 6686
authors Straub, K.
year 1986
title Problems in CAD Practice
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 232-234
summary CAD's greatest promise is as a creative, interactive tool, and planning and construction will be more complex as the need to expand information grows. Our tools not only shape our products, they shape our lives. Technology can influence everyday life and also affect the structure of our society. Architecture is an information-intensive profession, and throughout the world information-intensive activities are being changed by technology. The use of computer-aided information processing in planning and construction brings about a period of dramatic change, and the dimensions of technological change will be breathtaking. In the years to come, CAD will be an expanding field in the architectural office, but how long will it be before architecture is routinely produced on a CAD system? There appear to be three issues: (1) cost; (2) time; (3) quality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

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