CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 81 to 100 of 122

_id e16a
authors Schmitt, Gerhard N.
year 1985
title Architectural Tool Building: Introduction to Pascal for Architects and Designers Using Graphics on the IBM PC and Macintosh
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 119-128
summary The growing number of architecture and design students that take introductory computing courses justify the development of courses that are tuned to the specific needs of these disciplines. The importance of graphics has to be reflected in these courses and relationships that exist between structured programming and deterministic design problems must be demonstrated. This paper describes such a course - the software and the tutorial developed for it. It is both the introduction for architecture and design students to become competent program users and the foundation and prerequisite for more advanced courses in data structures and Artificial Intelligence for architectural tool building.

series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/16 17:23

_id 6686
authors Straub, K.
year 1986
title Problems in CAD Practice
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 232-234
summary CAD's greatest promise is as a creative, interactive tool, and planning and construction will be more complex as the need to expand information grows. Our tools not only shape our products, they shape our lives. Technology can influence everyday life and also affect the structure of our society. Architecture is an information-intensive profession, and throughout the world information-intensive activities are being changed by technology. The use of computer-aided information processing in planning and construction brings about a period of dramatic change, and the dimensions of technological change will be breathtaking. In the years to come, CAD will be an expanding field in the architectural office, but how long will it be before architecture is routinely produced on a CAD system? There appear to be three issues: (1) cost; (2) time; (3) quality.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 452c
authors Vanier, D. J. and Worling, Jamie
year 1986
title Three-dimensional Visualization: A Case Study
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 92-102
summary Three-dimensional computer visualization has intrigued both building designers and computer scientists for decades. Research and conference papers present an extensive list of existing and potential uses for threedimensional geometric data for the building industry (Baer et al., 1979). Early studies on visualization include urban planning (Rogers, 1980), treeshading simulation (Schiler and Greenberg, 1980), sun studies (Anon, 1984), finite element analysis (Proulx, 1983), and facade texture rendering (Nizzolese, 1980). With the advent of better interfaces, faster computer processing speeds and better application packages, there had been interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in three-dimensional -models for energy analysis (Pittman and Greenberg, 1980), modelling with transparencies (Hebert, 1982), super-realistic rendering (Greenberg, 1984), visual impact (Bridges, 1983), interference clash checking (Trickett, 1980), and complex object visualization (Haward, 1984). The Division of Building Research is currently investigating the application of geometric modelling in the building delivery process using sophisticated software (Evans, 1985). The first stage of the project (Vanier, 1985), a feasibility study, deals with the aesthetics of the mode. It identifies two significant requirements for geometric modelling systems: the need for a comprehensive data structure and the requirement for realistic accuracies and tolerances. This chapter presents the results of the second phase of this geometric modelling project, which is the construction of 'working' and 'presentation' models for a building.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id 0a6e
authors Walters, Roger
year 1986
title CAAD: Shorter-term Gains; Longerterm Costs?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 185-196
summary Assessment of CAAD systems in use is complex: it needs careful qualifications and is often contradictory. It is suggested that little progress has been made in making sense of the impacts of computing on design and design organizations. Impacts are more diverse and complicated than has been assumed. Assessments tend to be either overtly optimistic or pessimistic, yet the need is to be realistic. Moreover, impacts have been the subject of speculation and marketing rather than systematic study. Carefully documented case studies of projects or longitudinal studies of organizational impacts remain the exception. This chapter draws upon recorded user experience reported elsewhere (Walters, 1983)' and presents an assessment of the performance in use of current production systems. It presents an end-user view and also identifies a number of outstanding design research topics It is suggested that different systems in different organizations in different settings will give rise to new impacts. A wide variety of outcomes is possible. It seems unlikely that any simple set of relationships can account for all the data that inquiry reveals. The task becomes one of identifying variables that lead to differential outcomes, as the same cause may lead to different effects (Attewell and Rule, 1984). This becomes a long-term task. Each optimistic impact may be countered by some other more pessimistic impact. Moreover, the changes brought about on design by computing are significant because both beneficial and non- beneficial impacts are present together. Impacts are held in a dynamic balance that is subject to constant evolution. This viewpoint accounts for otherwise conflicting conclusions. It is unlikely that the full range of impacts is yet known, and a wide range of impacts and outcomes already need to be taken into account. It seems that CAD alone cannot either guarantee improved design or that it inevitably leads to some diminished role for the designer. CAD can lead to either possible outcome, depending upon the particular combination of impacts present. Careful matching of systems to design organization and work environment is therefore needed. The design management role becomes crucial.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 02c6
authors Wheeler, B.J.Q
year 1986
title A Unified Model for Building
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 200-231
summary It is commonly recognized that the time-honoured procedure for preparing an architectural design for building on site is inefficient. Each member of a team of consultant professionals makes an independently documented contribution. For a typical project involving an architect and structural, electrical, mechanical and public services engineers there will be at least five separate sets of general- arrangement drawings, each forming a model of the building, primarily illustrating one discipline but often having to include elements of others in order to make the drawing readable. For example, an air-conditioning duct-work layout is more easily understood when superimposed on the room layout it serves which the engineer is not responsible for but has to understand. Both during their parallel evolution and later, when changes have to be made during the detailed design and production drawing stages, it is difficult and time consuming to keep all versions coordinated. Complete coordination is rarely achieved in time, and conflicts between one discipline and another have to be rectified when encountered on site with resulting contractual implications. Add the interior designer, the landscape architect and other specialized consultants at one end of the list and contractors' shop drawings relating to the work of all the consultants at the other, and the number of different versions of the same thing grows, escalating the concomitant task of coordination. The potential for disputes over what is the current status of the design is enormous, first, amongst the consultants and second, between the consultants and the contractor. When amendments are made by one party, delay and confusion tend to follow during the period it takes the other parties to update their versions to include them. The idea of solving this problem by using a common computer-based model which all members of the project team can directly contribute to is surely a universally assumed goal amongst all those involved in computer-aided building production. The architect produces a root drawing or model, the 'Architect's base plan', to which the other consultants have read-only access and on top of which they can add their own write-protected files. Every time they access the model to write in the outcome of their work on the project they see the current version of the 'Architect's base plan' and can thus respond immediately to recent changes and avoid wasting time on redundant work. The architect meanwhile adds uniquely architectural material in his own overlaid files and maintains the root model as everybody's work requires. The traditional working pattern is maintained while all the participants have the ability to see their colleagues, work but only make changes to those parts for which they are responsible.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 8f9d
authors Wolchko, Matthew J.
year 1985
title Strategies Toward Architectural Knowledge Engineering
source ACADIA Workshop 85 [ACADIA Conference Proceedings] Tempe (Arizona / USA) 2-3 November 1985, pp. 69-82
summary Conventional CAD-drafting systems become more powerful modeling tools with the addition of a linked attribute spreadsheet module. This affords the designer the ability to make design decisions not only in the graphic environment, but also as a consequence of quantitative design constraints made apparent in the spreadsheet. While the spreadsheet interface is easily understood by the user, it suffers from two limitations: it lacks a variety of functional capabilities that would enable it to solve more complex design tasks; also, it can only report on existing conditions in the graphic environment. A proposal is made for the enhancement of the spreadsheet's programming power, creating an interface for the selection of program modules that can solve various architectural design tasks. Due to the complexity and graphic nature of architectural design, it is suggested that both procedural and propositional programming methods be used in concert within such a system. In the following, a suitable design task (artificial illumination-reflected ceiling layout) is selected, and then decomposed into two parts: the quantitative analysis (via the application of a procedural programming algorithm), and a logical model generation using shape grammar rules in a propositional framework.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/01/01 17:51

_id a237
authors Zelissen, C.
year 1986
title Report of a CAAD-Course: Curriculum, Results and Revision
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 146-153
summary In 1985 the college of Technology Heerlen started in cooperation with the Academy of Architecture Maastricht a course CAAD on behalf of graduates of both institutes. In this contribution attention is paid to the preparation and frame. The course in 1985 was a great success. After a profound revision the course has started again this year. A report of the experiences by the course developer/co-ordinator.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:10

_id 6735
authors Gardner, Howard
year 1985
title The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution
source xv, 423 p. New York: Basic Books, 1985. includes bibliography: p.393-408 and indexes
summary An interdisciplinary effort of cognitive science through conceptual tools to solve the problem of the nature of knowledge and how it is represented in the mind
keywords AI, cognition, research, science, psychology
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id a48a
authors Kalay, Yehuda E. and Shibley, Robert G.
year 1985
title Computer-Aided Design Research and Technology Transfer : Report of the SUNY-AB Symposium
source Buffalo: November, 1985. pp. 1-16
summary To explore modes of creative relationship between the university, government, industry and professional practice for the purpose of computer-aided design (CAD) research, development, and education in the disciplines that relate to design, construction and management of building, the School of Architecture and Planning of the State University of New York Buffalo, in cooperation with the Maedl Group of Buffalo New York, have assembled a panel of experts to deliberate and to explore how the transfer of CAD technology from research laboratories to architectural and engineering practices can best be accomplished. Institutionally the panel consisted of representatives of the university researchers and educators, private research and development corporations, a governmental agency that supports basic research and technology transfer, and the professional community who will ultimately use the produce
keywords architecture, technology transfer, CAD, research, practice, education
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 236f
authors Mortenson, Michael E.
year 1985
title Geometric Modeling
source xvi, 763 p. : ill New York: John Wiley & sons, 1985. includes bibliography: p. 713-729 and index.
summary Presents the nature, development and application of the basic concepts of geometric modeling. It consists of three parts: parametric geometry, solid modeling, and applications, all with exercises
keywords computational geometry, geometric modeling, parametrization, solid modeling, CAD, CAM, systems, applications
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id e8ec
authors Weber, Benz
year 1991
source Proceedings of the 3rd European Full-Scale Modelling Conference / ISBN 91-7740044-5 / Lund (Sweden) 13-16 September 1990, pp. 12-19
summary The team from the LEA at Lausanne was not actually involved in the construction of the laboratory itself. During the past five years we have been discovering the qualities and limitations of the lab step by step through the experiments we performed. The method in which we use it is quite different from that of its creators. Since 1985 the external services has been limited to clients coming to the laboratory alone. We help them only with basic instructions for the use of the equipment. Most of these experiments are motivated by the excellent possibilities to discuss the design of a new hospital or home for elderly with the people directly affected by it, such as patients, nurses, doctors and specialists for the technical equipment. The main issues discussed in these meetings are of the dimensions and functional organisation of the spaces. The entire process for a normal room including construction, discussions and dismantling of the full-scale model is between three and five days. Today these types of experiments are occupying the lab only about twenty days a year.
keywords Full-scale Modeling, Model Simulation, Real Environments
series other
type normal paper
last changed 2004/05/04 13:23

_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id 2928
authors Barsky, Brian A. and De Rose, Tony D.
year 1985
title The Beta2-spline : A Special Case of the Beta-spline Curve and Surface Representation
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1985. vol. 5: pp. 46-58 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary This article develops a special case of the Beta-spline curve and surface technique called the Beta2-spline. While a general Beta-spline has two parameters (B1 and B2) controlling its shape, the special case presented here has only the single parameter B2. Experience has shown this to be a simple but very useful special case that is computationally more efficient than the general case. Optimized algorithms for the evaluation of the Beta2-spline basis functions and rendering of Beta2-spline curves and surfaces via subdivision are presented. This technique is proving to be quite useful in the modeling of complex shapes. The representation is sufficiently general and flexible so as to be capable of modeling irregular curved-surface objects such as automobile bodies, aircraft fuselages, ship hulls, turbine blades, and bottles
keywords B-splines, curved surfaces, computational geometry, representation, algorithms, computer graphics, rendering
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id c50a
authors Bartschi, Martin
year 1985
title An Overview of Information Retrieval Subjects
source IEEE Computer. May, 1985. vol. 18: pp. 67-84 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The aim of an information retrieval system is to find information items relevant to an information need. As relevance is a kind of similarity relation between the concepts represented by the information item and those represented by the formulation of the information need, it is not astonishing to discover that the class of possible query forms -formulations of the information needs - is the same as the class of possible representations of information items. This article overviews current research problems in information structure and query evaluation
keywords database, information, queries, systems
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 8323
authors Bentley, Jon L.
year 1985
title Selection -- Programming Pearls
source communications of the ACM. November, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 1121- 1127 : ill
summary This column describes selecting the K- smallest member in a set of N elements. A program for the task is derived and its running time is analyzed
keywords search, programming, algorithms, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3b1
authors Berry, R. E. and Meekings, B.A.E.
year 1985
title A Style Analysis of C Programs
source communications of the ACM. January, 1985. vol. 29: pp. 80-88
summary Since programming is considered by many to be learned by experience and example, rather than instruction, the authors analyzed code produced by professional programmers. C programs comprising the UNIX operating system and its utilities were chosen. The authors have arbitrarily selected a large body of professionally produced code and subjected it to 'stylish analysis.' Each program was given a percentage 'score' for style that consists of contributions in varying degrees from various program features like module length, line length, reserved words etc
keywords languages, C, programming, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c088
authors Biermann, Alan W., Rodman, Robert D. and Rubin, David C. (et al)
year 1985
title Natural Language with Discrete Speech as a Mode for Human- to-Machine Communication
source Communications of the ACM June, 1985. vol. 28: pp. 628-636 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A voice interactive natural language system, which allows users to solve problems with spoken English commands, has been constructed. The system utilizes a commercially available discrete speech recognizer which requires that each word be followed by approximately a 300 millisecond pause. In a test of the system, subjects were able to learn its use after about two hours of training. The system correctly processed about 77 percent of the over 6000 input sentences spoken in problem-solving sessions. Subjects spoke at the rate of about three sentences per minute and were able to effectively use the system to complete the given tasks. Subjects found the system relatively easy to learn and use, and gave a generally positive report of their experience
keywords user interface, natural languages, speech recognition, AI
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id cbd0
authors Brown, David C.
year 1985
title Failure Handling in a Design Expert System
source computer Aided Design. November, 1985. vol. 17: pp. 436-442 : ill. Includes bibliography
summary This paper is concerned with how to handle the failures that occur during design problem-solving. Failure handlers and redesigners are introduced. Failure recovery action and the knowledge involved is presented for each agent. The role of suggestions and redesign strategies is discussed. The handling of plan failures is also presented. The paper concludes by surveying other methods of failure handling from the literature
keywords expert systems, problem solving, mechanical engineering, planning,constraints, design, techniques
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8a90
authors Buchmann, Alejandro P. and Gerzso, Miguel J.
year 1985
title Handling Heterogeneously Formatted Data in an Object Oriented Database Environment
source NCGA - National Computer Graphics Association Conference Proceedings. 1985. vol. 3: pp. 645-655 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper discussed the problems associated with handling heterogeneously formatted data and the interfacing of the subsystems of a CAD system that intervene in the handling of these data: the database management system, the graphic display system and application programs. Object-oriented languages with message passing capabilities were offered as a feasible solution which was illustrated through examples in the language TM
keywords CAD, systems, languages, computer graphics, database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id c341
authors Cohen, Michael F. and Greenberg, Donald P.
year 1985
title The Hemi-Cube: A Radiosity Solution for Complex Environments
source SIGGRAPH '85 conference proceedings. July, 1985. vol. 19 ; no. 3: pp. 31-39 : ill. (some col.). includes bibliography
summary This paper presents a comprehensive method to calculate object to object diffuse reflections within complex environments containing hidden surfaces and shadows. In essence, each object in the environment is treated as a secondary light source. The method provides an accurate representation of the 'diffuse' and 'ambient' terms found in typical image synthesis algorithms. The phenomena of 'color bleeding' from one surface to another, shading within shadow envelopes, and penumbras along shadow boundaries are accurately reproduced. Additional advantages result because computations are independent of viewer position. This allows the efficient rendering of multiple views of the same scene for dynamic sequences. Light sources can be modulated and object reflectivities can be changed, with minimal extra computation. The procedures extend the radiosity method beyond the bounds previously imposed
keywords hidden surfaces, shadowing, computer graphics, geometric modeling, radiosity
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

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