CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id ed51
authors Bergeron, Philippe
year 1986
title A General Version of Crow's Shadow Volumes
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications September, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 17-28 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary In 1977 Frank Crow introduced a new class of algorithms for the generation of shadows. His technique, based on the concept of shadow volumes, assumes a polygonal database and a constrained environment. For example, polyhedrons must be closed, and polygons must be planar. This article presents a new version of Crow's algorithm, developed at the Universite de Montreal, which attempts a less constrained environment. The method has allowed the handling of both open and closed models and nonplanar polygons with the viewpoint anywhere, including any shadow volume. It does not, however, sacrifice the essential features of Crow's original version: penetration between polygons is allowed, and any number of light sources can be defined anywhere in 3D space, including the view volume and any shadow volume. The method has been used successfully in the film Tony de Peltrie and is easily incorporated into an existing scan-line, hidden-surface algorithm
keywords algorithms, shadowing, polygons, computer graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a6f1
authors Bridges, A.H.
year 1986
title Any Progress in Systematic Design?
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 5-15
summary In order to discuss this question it is necessary to reflect awhile on design methods in general. The usual categorization discusses 'generations' of design methods, but Levy (1981) proposes an alternative approach. He identifies five paradigm shifts during the course of the twentieth century which have influenced design methods debate. The first paradigm shift was achieved by 1920, when concern with industrial arts could be seen to have replaced concern with craftsmanship. The second shift, occurring in the early 1930s, resulted in the conception of a design profession. The third happened in the 1950s, when the design methods debate emerged; the fourth took place around 1970 and saw the establishment of 'design research'. Now, in the 1980s, we are going through the fifth paradigm shift, associated with the adoption of a holistic approach to design theory and with the emergence of the concept of design ideology. A major point in Levy's paper was the observation that most of these paradigm shifts were associated with radical social reforms or political upheavals. For instance, we may associate concern about public participation with the 1970s shift and the possible use (or misuse) of knowledge, information and power with the 1980s shift. What has emerged, however, from the work of colleagues engaged since the 1970s in attempting to underpin the practice of design with a coherent body of design theory is increasing evidence of the fundamental nature of a person's engagement with the design activity. This includes evidence of the existence of two distinctive modes of thought, one of which can be described as cognitive modelling and the other which can be described as rational thinking. Cognitive modelling is imagining, seeing in the mind's eye. Rational thinking is linguistic thinking, engaging in a form of internal debate. Cognitive modelling is externalized through action, and through the construction of external representations, especially drawings. Rational thinking is externalized through verbal language and, more formally, through mathematical and scientific notations. Cognitive modelling is analogic, presentational, holistic, integrative and based upon pattern recognition and pattern manipulation. Rational thinking is digital, sequential, analytical, explicatory and based upon categorization and logical inference. There is some relationship between the evidence for two distinctive modes of thought and the evidence of specialization in cerebral hemispheres (Cross, 1984). Design methods have tended to focus upon the rational aspects of design and have, therefore, neglected the cognitive aspects. By recognizing that there are peculiar 'designerly' ways of thinking combining both types of thought process used to perceive, construct and comprehend design representations mentally and then transform them into an external manifestation current work in design theory is promising at last to have some relevance to design practice.
series CAAD Futures
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id 2eb1
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1986
title Alternative Approaches Towards the Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 331-340
summary The problems of architectural education in general and CAD education in particular are discussed. The paper suggests that the computing requirements of architectural practice are different to those of architectural education and that much of the software used in schools of architecture is not used in an educationally structured way. A number of proposals for the educational use of computers are made, together with recommendations for a common computing environment.
series eCAADe
email a.h.bridges@strath.ac.uk
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id f5db
authors Brooks, F.P.
year 1986
title Walkthrough - A Dynamic Graphics System for Simulating Virtual Buildings
source Proceedings 1986 Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics. ACM: 9-22
summary As part of our graphics research into virtual worlds, we are building a tool for an architect and his client to use for rapid prototyping of buildings by visually "walking through" them in order to refine specifications. Our first prototype simulated the new UNC Computer Science building with some 8000 polygons. BSP-tree software on the Adage Ikonas gave a colored, shaded perspective view every 3-5 seconds while the user moved a cursor in real-time over floorplans shown on the Vector-General 3300. The current (third) version uses Pixel-Planes to generate 9 updates/second, view images shown 4' x 6' by projector. Active short- and long-term research questions include speed-up, stereo, a 6-DoF interface with eye-level defaults, and an interactive model-building, model-changing system.
series other
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c8a8
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1986
title A Fully Integrated Use of Available Media and of Computer Technology for Up-to-date Educational Tools in Architecture
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 129-147
summary In this paper no general or specific forecast is- made about what is going to happen in the next decade in architectural education. No extrapolation and projection in the future, through more or 1e33 sophisticated technique3, of plausible trends is attempted. Such an effort goes beyond the competence and inteffectual force of the author.
series ACADIA
email cajatic@libero.it
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 2b3c
authors Carrara, G. and Novembri, G.
year 1986
title KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 202-212
summary The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 876b
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Structuring a Learning Building Design System
source Advancing Building Technology, CIB International Congress (10th : 1986 : Washington D. C.). 9 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary It is now vital to aim at formulating computer system modules that possess a high ability to adapt their behavior to fundamental human values and a complex and unstandardized (not uniform) building process but at the same time put constraints on them so that we don't end up with a confusion of computerized routines hard to access, control and understand. In the paper formulations are made of basic artifact skeletons outgoing from the properties to give integrated CAD systems and to those rules by which the growth of the systems are governed. System learning domains including conceptual modelling tools are presented aiming at supporting professional skill, creativity and integration between process actors. The basis for system implementation is frames, descriptive language (PROLOG) and relational databases with regard taken to future possibilities to parallel processing
keywords modeling, learning, integration, database, AI, design, systems, frames
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id c27d
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R.F. and Glavin, T.J. (et al)
year 1986
title ROOS1 -- Version One of a Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts
source 17 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 1986
summary ROOS1 is a generative expert system for the design of building layouts. The system is intended to complement human designers' performance through (a) its ability to systematically search for alternative solutions with promising trade-offs; and (b) its ability to take a broad range of design concerns into account. Work on the system provides insights into the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques to space planning and building design in general. The system is based on a general generate-and-test paradigm. Its main components are a generator, a tester and a control strategy (which is to be expanded later into a genuine planner). The generator is restricted to the allocation of rectangles. The spatial relations above, below, to the left and the right are defined for pairs of objects in a layout and serve as basic design variables which define differences between solutions and govern the enumeration of alternatives. Within the class of layouts it is able to produce, the generator is completely general and able to generate all realizable sets of spatial relations for a given number of objects. In contrast, the tester is domain-specific and incorporates knowledge about the quality of layouts in a specific domain. The system can be applied to various domains by running it with the appropriate tester and, possibly, the appropriate control strategy. The control strategy itself mediates between planner and tester and, when expanded into a planner, is able to streamline the search for alternatives. The system will go through a sequence of versions with increasing complexity. Each version will have a conceptually clean and clear architecture, and it is the authors' intention to evaluate each architecture explicitly in terms of its promises and limitations with respect to various domains. The first of these versions is described in the present paper
keywords enumeration, combinatorics, layout, floor plans, design, methods, architecture, expert systems, planning
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 578f
id 578f
authors Flemming, Ulrich and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1986
title The Computer in the Design Studio. Ideas and Exercises that Go Beyond Automated Drafting
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 55-78
summary The present use of computers in the design studio focusses on automating routine tasks and on increasing drawing productivity. We assume that the impact of computers in design can be more profound and present a series of exercises for two contrasting design studios that build on our teaching and computing experience. 'Me first studio uses the computer as a design evaluation tool. The second studio demonstrates the use of computers for simple design generation tasks. In both cases, a very general and important educational objective is pursued, and computers become an integral part of the exercise.
series ACADIA
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2004/03/18 08:51

_id ecc2
authors Gero, John S. and Balachandran, M. B.
year 1986
title Knowledge and Design Decision Processes
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 343- 352
summary This paper describes how knowledge engineering techniques can be employed within optimization design decision processes. It commences with a brief discussion about multicriteria design optimization prior to elaborating the use of knowledge within this decision process. Four areas are briefly described-- knowledge as a control mechanism in the generation of the Pareto optimal set, knowledge needed to select alternate generation processes, knowledge which can be induced from the Pareto optimal set, and knowledge needed to recognize optimization models. A system which implements these concepts is presented
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, optimization, decision making, multicriteria
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 896b
authors Haider, Jawaid
year 1986
title A Conceptual Framework for Communication -Instruction in Architectural Design
source Pennsylvania State University
summary Existing design models, it is generally acknowledged, are inadequate to deal with the complexity of contemporary situations; and an assessment of self-conscious design manifests a slow development in the power and scope of conceptualizing. The quality of knowledge and conceptual tools available to the designer largely determine his ability to conceive and accomplish; conversely, the limitations of method are reflected in design solutions. Some emerging social problem-solving paradigms, which seek to construct a cognitive psychology of problem solving, have a direct relevance to architectural design. Notwithstanding the traditional criticism and scepticism, problem solving is predicated by task environment and problem space as these have a significant impact on design synthesis. Despite a rigorous search for theoretical perspectives and methods, the concern for the quality of the physical environment persists unabated. Historically, architecture has depended on other disciplines for its theoretical insight; but the application of borrowed theories without a viable framework for translation has often resulted in misinterpretation. Aggravating the problem is the art-science controversy which has consequences for architectural practice and education. What is required is a unified approach encompassing the scientific and artistic modes of inquiry. But a unified perspective, involving vast and disparate areas of human knowledge, demands a conceptual framework for integrative learning. The proposed model of this study provides such a framework and calls for a re-examination of the conventional boundaries of design disciplines. It advocates an interdisciplinary approach and recognizes the design process as inherently a learning process; this shifts the emphasis from product to process and allows students to plan and assess their own design/learning experience. While the study focuses on substantive issues, it identifies a strategy for integrative learning applicable within the existing context of design education. Despite its untested nature, the proposed model can become a vehicle for stimulating coordination of all facets of human knowledge and experience toward creative design synthesis. It inculcates a sense of critical assessment of generative ideas by presenting a conceptually clearer picture of the design process to elicit a response to and a better understanding of the task environment of architecture.
series thesis:PhD
email jxh40@psu.edu
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id e12d
authors Johnson, Robert E.
year 1986
title Micro-computers and Computer Aided Design Instruction
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 173-181
summary During the past few years we have been involved in a variety of experiments that teach the use of computers to non-computer oriented architecture students. These teaching experiences have led to the development of an experimental, entry-level course in computer-aided architectural design using the Macintosh personal computer. Objectives of this course included: a) to provide an introductory course to students with little or no prior computer experience, b) to use the course as a vehicle for illustrating principles of computer-aided design, c) to course so that it would be applicable to design in general, not just architectural design, and d) whenever possible, to use "off the shelf', generic, readily accessible software. The history of these developments will be presented along with a very preliminary evaluation of results.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id aad7
authors Mackenzie, C.A. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Learning in the Domain of Decisions and Performances
source IAAI'86 Conference. 1986. pp. i:1:1-9. CADLINE has abstract only
summary Many domains present themselves as mappings between two classes of spaces: decision spaces and performance spaces. All design domains can be represented in this manner where the designer takes decisions which manifest themselves as performances in the designed artifact. Learning in these domains can take account of the structural characteristics of the spaces and of the mappings. This paper describes a system, PARE, which learns in the domain of decisions and performances by making use of the characteristics of a particular structuring concept known as 'Pareto optimality.' Much is known about the concept and its features which are used as hypotheses. If the hypotheses succeed then learning takes place by specializing the hypotheses' characteristics. Characterizations of Pareto optimality are described and the feature extraction process shown. The feature extraction process utilizes fuzzy pattern matching. An example of the system, written in ConSUN workstations, is presented from the domain of fenestration design
keywords performance, learning, design process, optimization, analysis, applications, theory, systems
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 0565
authors Oxman, Robert and Oxman, Rivka
year 1990
title The Computability of Architectural Knowledge
source The Electronic Design Studio: Architectural Knowledge and Media in the Computer Era [CAAD Futures 89 Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-262-13254-0] Cambridge (Massachusetts / USA), 1989, pp. 171-185
summary In an important contribution to the theoretical foundation of design computing, Mitchell noted "an increasingly urgent need to establish a demonstrably sound, comprehensive, rigorously formalized theoretical foundation upon which to base practical software development efforts" (Mitchell, 1986). In this paper we propose such a theoretical framework. A basic assumption of this work is that the advancement of design computing is dependent upon the emergence of a rigorous formulation of knowledge in design. We present a model of knowledge in architectural design which suggests a promising conceptual basis for dealing with knowledge in computer-aided design systems. We require models which can represent the formal knowledge and manipulative operations of the designer in all of their complexity-that is formal models rather than just geometric models. Shape Grammars (Stiny,1980) represent an example of such models, and constitute a relatively high level of design knowledge as compared to, for example, use of symmetry operations to generate simple formal configurations. Building upon an understanding of the classes of design knowledge as the conceptual basis for formal modeling systems may contribute a new realization of the potential of the medium for design. This will require a comprehensive approach to the definition of architectural and design knowledge. We consider here the implications of a well-defined body of architectural and design knowledge for design education and the potential mutual interaction-in a knowledge-rich environment-of design learning and CAAD learning. The computational factors connected with the representation of design knowledge and its integration in design systems are among the key problems of CAAD. Mitchell's model of knowledge in design incorporates formal knowledge in a comprehensive, multi-level, hierarchical structure in which types of knowledge are correlated with computational concepts. In the main focus of this paper we present a structured, multi-level model of design knowledge which we discuss with respect to current architectural theoretical considerations. Finally, we analyze the computational and educational relevance of such models.
series CAAD Futures
email arrro01@techunix.technion.ac.il
last changed 2003/05/16 18:58

_id c2dd
authors Oxman, Robert
year 1986
title Towards a New Pedagogy
source Journal of Architectural Education. Summer, 1986. vol. 39: pp. 22-28 : ill. includes some bibliographical notes
summary This paper proposes the potential of design studies as a vehicle for the transfer of what might be considered 'architectural knowledge' as compared to 'professional experience.' An analogy with language study is suggested as a means of conveying the distinction between the acquisition of general design knowledge - a knowledge base which is not domain specific - and its application in dealing with ad-hoc problems
keywords design, knowledge acquisition, education, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id cc5a
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title Expert System Integrity Maintenance for the Use of Engineering Data
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (4th : 1986 : Boston, MA). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 654-668. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper describes a mechanism that enables one to automatically monitor and evaluate the use of engineering design data. The framework, associated with a relational database management system, combines a database with a set of constraints on the use of engineering data. This requires a database that stores all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as all of the domain-dependent constraints imposed upon the use of the design data. Such a framework has been successfully constructed and is described in this paper. An example, based on constraints extracted from the AISC Specification, is presented and the performance of the framework is discussed. The proposed framework resides between a DBMS and its users and serves as an experienced expert consultant to the users. It embodies the knowledge of the specific domain of interest; in this case, allowable stresses in steel members. Whenever a user retrieves data from the database, the mechanism is activated. It interprets data request, applies the appropriate constraints, and provides the correct data. Its understanding of the semantics of both the data request and its own constraints insures the validity of data it selects to return to the user. All previous database integrity research concentrated on maintaining the integrity of the stored data, i.e., on guaranteeing the integrity of any static state of the database. This paper advocates a mechanism for checking data being retrieved from the database as well as for checking data being inserted into the database. It deals, therefore, with the correctness of data being selected for use
keywords information, civil engineering, expert systems, relational database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id c3ca
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Watson, Bruce R.
year 1986
title ADI : An Adaptive Database Interface for Dynamic Databases
source ASME Symposium Proceedings on Knowledge based Expert Systems for Manufacturing. Anaheim, CA: American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Production Engineering Division, December, 1986. pp. 119-130. CADLINE has abstract only
summary The operation of a manufacturing organization often depends on its underlying design and manufacturing databases. In a manufacturing environment, many users, both individuals and application programs, must have access to one or more of the organization's databases to provide, use, or modify data, to control information flow, and to facilitate information management. Such databases routinely undergo dynamic changes in both their content and their structure. These changes commonly result from the design of new products, the introduction of new materials, and the introduction of new machines and processes on the shop floor. Such continuing changes must be reflected in the database schemas and subsequently require that application programs be updated and that online users be educated on a continuous basis. The problem addressed in this paper is that it is difficult for users and application programs to get the information that they need, when they need it, from the multiple heterogeneous database management system (DBMS) environments that have evolved in design and manufacturing organizations. The solution proposed here is to build a general, extendable interface between database users and the many sources of data available to them. This in itself is not a new suggestion; a number of researchers have addressed portions of this problem. In general, the interfaces that they have developed to date are best suited to environments where the structure of the database is static and does not change over time. One of the things that this paper proposes that is different from existing work is an interface which handles the dynamic restructuring nature of manufacturing databases, enabling a user to obtain the most accurate and up to date information as the structure and content of the underlying databases change. Another unique aspect of the DBMS interface proposed herein is that the interface attempts to capture the knowledge that an experienced human user incorporates in his search for data in a database, i.e., it seeks to identify and use the generic knowledge needed to operate a DBMS. This knowledge is used by the interface to enable both the online users and the application programs to request data without knowing the data's location or precisely how to ask for it. Further, the interface makes use of mechanisms that allow the user to request data without knowing the exact identity of the required entities that are stored in the database
keywords engineering, database, manufacturing, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 882b
authors Rosenman, M.A., Manago, C. and Gero, J.S.
year 1986
title A Model- based Expert System Shell
source 1986. pp. c:1:15
summary Rule-based expert systems, despite having demonstrated their usefulness in many circumstances, have been widely attacked for the shallowness of their knowledge. They have no knowledge about the knowledge which they possess and therefore can only be used in a very rigid manner. This paper shows that this meta-knowledge can be extracted from the rule base of an expert system and by producing a model of the artifact(s) described within, extend the functionality of the overall system. One of the benefits of this extended functionality is the ability of the model-based expert system to interface with external systems such as existing CAD systems. This paper describes the development of a general model-based expert system developed in the Department of Architectural Science, University of Sydney. The utility of the approach is shown in an example of the system interfacing with a commercially available CAD system. The CAD system is used to define the features of a building and a rule base dealing with some aspects of building regulations is applied to interpret the database produced by the CAD system
keywords expert systems, tools, CAD
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 7a08
authors Smith Shaw, Doris
year 1986
title Case Studies in Architectural CADD Education
source ACADIA Workshop 86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 157-172
summary Stages in the formation of concepts necessary for mastery can be observed in cognitive development in many different areas of study. These stages seem to follow a particular hierarchy common to most learners. Distinct levels can be recognized by patterns of procedural errors. The remediation of errors can then take the form of building a conceptual framework rather than training in procedural patterns. This has been found to be highly efficient for learners at all stages since it can be aimed at the underlying problem area and not at isolated errors which may change frequently. It was felt, that concept development of architects learning to use computer-aided drawing programs would show such levels. Preliminary studies made at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory upon selected subjects using computer-aided lessons in AutoCAD as a basis for observations reveal several categories of errors in using computer-aided design. These case studies show that the design process can be enhanced by automated drawing and design tools if the conceptual relationships are established as a part of the learning environment. Even more important, the observations show that architects have particular characteristics which differ from engineers and other CAD users. These differences require that education and software be tailored to their needs.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

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