CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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Hits 101 to 120 of 211

_id 2b3c
authors Carrara, G. and Novembri, G.
year 1986
title KAAD - Knowledge-based Assistance for Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 202-212
summary The research being conducted at the CABD LAB at the Department of Building and Environmental Control Technologies is geared to the production of an Expert System for architectural design, which is able to perform interactive design tasks and help to provide accurate and complete description of the buildings in question. The Expert System will control the design process, continually ensuring consistency between the definitions of the designer and a given set of constraints. Accordingly, the System will be able to determine the effects of of definition, performing the choices taken at different stages necessary calculations and checks. The System is based on a general representation of the building objects, from individual components to the whole building defined in terms of a number of hierarchical, topological and functional relational structures resulting from earlier research conducted into the automatic management of architectural design since 1975.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id 63d0
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Constraint-bounded design search
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 146-157
summary The design process requires continual checking of the consistency of design choices against given sets of goals that have been fulfilled. Such a check is generally performed by comparing abstract representations of design goals with these of the sought real building objects (RBO) resulting from complex intellectual activities closely related to the designer's culture and to the environment in which he operates. In this chapter we define a possible formalization of such representations concerning the goals and the RBO that are usually considered in the architectural design process by our culture in our environment. The representation of design goals is performed by expressing their objective aspects (requirements) and by defining their allowable values (performance specifications). The resulting system of requirements defines the set of allowable solutions and infers an abstract representation of the sought building objects (BO) that consists of the set of characteristics (attributes and relations) which are considered relevant to represent the particular kind of RBO with respect to the consistency check with design goals. The values related to such characteristics define the performances of the RBO while their set establishes its behaviour. Generally speaking, there is no single real object corresponding to an abstract representation but the whole class of the RBO that are equivalent with respect to the values assumed by the considered characteristics. The more we increase the number of these, as well as their specifications, the smaller the class becomes until it coincides with a single real object - given that the assessed specifications be fully consistent. On the other hand, the corresponding representation evolves to the total prefiguration of the RBO. It is not therefore possible to completely define a BO representation in advance since this is inferred by the considered goals and is itself a result of the design process. What can only be established in advance is that any set of characteristics assumed to represent any RBO consists of hierarchic, topological, geometrical and functional relations among the parts of the object at any level of aggregation (from components to space units, to building units, to the whole building) that we define representation structure (RS). Consequently the RS may be thought as the elementary structures that, by superposition and interaction, set up the abstract representation that best fit with design goals.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id caadria2007_659
id caadria2007_659
authors Chen, Zi-Ru
year 2007
title The Combination of Design Media and Design Creativity _ Conventional and Digital Media
source CAADRIA 2007 [Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Nanjing (China) 19-21 April 2007
summary Creativity is always interested in many fields, in particular, creativity and design creativity have many interpretations (Boden, 1991; Gero and Maher, 1992, 1993; Kim, 1990; Sternberg, 1988; Weisberg, 1986). In early conceptual design process, designers used large number of sketches and drawings (Purcell and Gero, 1998). The sketch can inspire the designer to increase the creativity of the designer’s creations(Schenk, 1991; Goldschmidt, 1994; Suwa and Tversky, 1997). The freehand sketches by conventional media have been believed to play important roles in processes of the creative design thinking(Goldschmidt, 1991; Schon and Wiggins, 1992; Goel, 1995; Suwa et al., 2000; Verstijnen et al., 1998; Elsas van and Vergeest, 1998). Recently, there are many researches on inspiration of the design creativity by digital media(Liu, 2001; Sasada, 1999). The digital media have been used to apply the creative activities and that caused the occurrenssce of unexpected discovery in early design processes(Gero and Maher, 1993; Mitchell, 1993; Schmitt, 1994; Gero, 1996, 2000; Coyne and Subrahmanian, 1993; Boden, 1998; Huang, 2001; Chen, 2001; Manolya et al. 1998; Verstijinen et al., 1998; Lynn, 2001). In addition, there are many applications by combination of conventional and digital media in the sketches conceptual process. However, previous works only discussed that the individual media were related to the design creativity. The cognitive research about the application of conceptual sketches design by integrating both conventional and digital media simultaneously is absent.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2008/06/16 08:48

_id aa60
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Properties of Future Knowledge Based Systems : The Interactive Consultation System Example
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 14 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary An introduction to knowledge based systems is presented to point out possibilities and limitations of the new software and hardware technology now beginning to be available. A pilot study on the use of an expert system shell (the ES/P Advisor), is briefly discussed. A part of the Swedish concrete building code was implemented in the expert system shell to demonstrate the use of an interactive consultation system. Ideas on how compact video-discs can be used in this type of systems are also put forward
keywords knowledge base, systems, expert systems, CAD, media
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 0918
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Swedish and Nordic Activities within CAAD
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 9 p. includes bibliography
summary During the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the Nordic countries concerning effective use of computer resources in the building process. Swedish and Nordic research and development within CAAD and adjoining areas is briefly accounted for to give a flavor of ongoing and planned activities. A Nordic Action Program for promoting Nordic joint research and development efforts is also presented. The Nordic educational activities within CAAD are also briefly commented on
keywords CAD, building process, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 876b
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Structuring a Learning Building Design System
source Advancing Building Technology, CIB International Congress (10th : 1986 : Washington D. C.). 9 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary It is now vital to aim at formulating computer system modules that possess a high ability to adapt their behavior to fundamental human values and a complex and unstandardized (not uniform) building process but at the same time put constraints on them so that we don't end up with a confusion of computerized routines hard to access, control and understand. In the paper formulations are made of basic artifact skeletons outgoing from the properties to give integrated CAD systems and to those rules by which the growth of the systems are governed. System learning domains including conceptual modelling tools are presented aiming at supporting professional skill, creativity and integration between process actors. The basis for system implementation is frames, descriptive language (PROLOG) and relational databases with regard taken to future possibilities to parallel processing
keywords modeling, learning, integration, database, AI, design, systems, frames
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id a9b1
authors Cohen, M.F., Greenberg, D.P. and Immel, D.S. (et al)
year 1986
title An Efficient Radiosity Approach for Realistic Image Synthesis
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications March, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 26-35 : col. ill. includes bibliography.
summary The radiosity method models the interaction of light between diffusely reflecting surfaces and accurately predicts the global illumination effects. Procedures are now available to simulate complex environments including occluded and textured surfaces. For accurate rendering, the environment must be discretized into a fine mesh, particularly in areas of high intensity gradients. The interdependence between surfaces implies solution techniques which are computationally intractable. This article describes new procedures to predict the global illumination function without excessive computational expense. Statistics indicate the enormous potential of this approach for realistic image synthesis, particularly for dynamic images of static environments
keywords computer graphics, radiosity, rendering, algorithms
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:42

_id 2a91
authors Cox, Brad J.
year 1986
title Object-Oriented Programming : An Evolutionary Approach
source 274 p. : ill Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1986. includes index
summary Object oriented programming departs from conventional programming by emphasizing the relationship between consumers and suppliers of codes rather then the relationship between a programmer and his code. The author describes the development of an object-oriented C language compiler, and how it can be put to work
keywords systems, languages, software, programming, OOPS
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 8503
authors Coyne, Richard D. and Gero, John S.
year 1986
title Semantics and the Organisation of Knowledge in Design
source Design Computing. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 68-89 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The linguistic paradigm of design is considered. The idea of meta-languages is developed as a means of generating designs that are imbued with semantic content. The formulation of meta-languages therefore becomes a way of organizing knowledge about design. The usefulness of these ideas is demonstrated by means of programs developed in Prolog
keywords design, knowledge, semantics
series CADline
last changed 2003/05/17 08:17

_id c62d
authors Davis, Randall
year 1986
title Knowledge-Based Systems
source Science February, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 957-963 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary First developed two decades ago, knowledge-based systems have seen widespread application in recent years. While performance has been a strong focus of attention, building such systems has also expanded our conception of a computer program from a black box providing an answer to something capable of explaining its answers, acquiring new knowledge, and transferring knowledge to students. These abilities derive from distinguishing clearly what the program knows from how that knowledge will be used, making it possible to use the same knowledge in different ways
keywords AI, knowledge base, systems, theory
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 295a
authors De Grassi, Mario
year 1986
title Rational Data Model: An Approach for Building Design and Planning
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 231-242
summary A model of the building object utilizing the typical formal structures of the relational data model is presented, which allows interactive design procedures to be foreseen and at the same time the use of the model for a data base containing information on building objects, to be used for normative planning and for building design.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id 31d5
authors Delisle, N. and Schwartz, M.
year 1986
title Neptune: A Hypertext System for CAD Applications
source Proceedings ofACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, (Washington D.C., May 28-30 1986) pp. 132-143
summary Even though many of the essential notions of hypertext were first contained in the description of a "memex," written by Vannevar Bush in 1945, there are today only a few scattered implementatlons of hypertext, let alone any serious use of it in a CAD environment. In what follows, we describe what hypertext is all about We describe a prototype hypertext system, named Neptune, that we have built.
series other
last changed 2003/04/23 13:50

_id 079f
authors Dickson, Gary W., DeSanctis, Gerardine and McBride, D. J.
year 1986
title Understanding the Effectiveness of Computer Graphics for Decision Support : A Cumulative Experimental Approach
source Communications of the ACM. January, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 40-47. includes bibliography
summary A total of 840 junior and senior-level undergraduate business students participated in three experiments that compared computer-generated graphical forms of data presentation to traditional tabular reports. The first experiment compared tables and bar charts for their effects on readability, interpretation accuracy, and decision making. No differences in interpretation accuracy or decision quality were observed for the two groups, although tabular reports were rated as 'easier to read and understand' than graphical reports. The second experiment compared line plots to tables for their effects on interpretation accuracy and decision quality. Subjects with graphical reports outperformed those with tables. There were no meaningful differences in interpretation accuracy across treatment groups. The third experiment compared graphical and tabular reports for their ability to convey a 'message' to the reader. Only in situations in which a vast amount of information was presented and relatively simple impressions were to be made, did subjects given graphs outperform those using tables. This program of cumulative experiments indicates that generalized claims of superiority of graphic presentation are unsupported, at least for decision-related activities. In fact, the experiments suggest that the effectiveness of the data display format is largely a function of the characteristics of the task at hand, and that impressions gleaned from 'one shot' studies of the effectiveness of the use of graphs may be nothing more than situationally dependent artifacts
keywords business, computer graphics, presentation, decision making, visualization
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 43a7
authors Durrett, John H. (ed.)
year 1986
title Color and the Computer
source Cambridge, MA: Academic Press Inc., 299 p.
summary Specific guidelines provide practical knowledge that is easily assimilated. Includes example of color display applications. [includes index]
keywords Color, Computer Graphics
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/15 14:20

_id 578f
id 578f
authors Flemming, Ulrich and Schmitt, Gerhard
year 1986
title The Computer in the Design Studio. Ideas and Exercises that Go Beyond Automated Drafting
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 55-78
summary The present use of computers in the design studio focusses on automating routine tasks and on increasing drawing productivity. We assume that the impact of computers in design can be more profound and present a series of exercises for two contrasting design studios that build on our teaching and computing experience. 'Me first studio uses the computer as a design evaluation tool. The second studio demonstrates the use of computers for simple design generation tasks. In both cases, a very general and important educational objective is pursued, and computers become an integral part of the exercise.
series ACADIA
last changed 2004/03/18 08:51

_id 4418
authors Franklin, Randolph, Wu, Peter, Y. F. and Samaddar, Sumitro (et al)
year 1986
title Prolog and Geometry Projects
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. November, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 46-55 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Prolog is a useful tool for geometry and graphics implementations because its primitives, such as unification, match the requirements of many geometric algorithms. During the last two years, programs have been implemented to solve several problems in Prolog, including a subset of the Graphical Kernel System, convex-hull calculation, planar graph traversal, recognition of groupings of objects, Boolean combinations of polygons using multiple precision rational numbers, and cartographic map overlay. Certain paradigms or standard forms of geometric programming in Prolog are becoming evident. They include applying a function to every element of a set, executing a procedure so long as a certain geometric pattern exists, and using unification to propagate a transitive function. This article describes the experiences, including paradigms of programming that seem useful, and finally lists those considered as the advantages and disadvantages of Prolog
keywords geometric modeling, computer graphics, PROLOG, programming
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id a241
authors Freund, Dwight D.
year 1986
title A Note : An Interactive Procedure for Constructing Line and Circle Tangencies
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications. April, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 59-63 : ill. includes bibliography
summary This note describes a procedure that enables a designer or draftsperson with limited mathematical training to discover interactively the construction of a wide variety of tangency and intersection problems. Requiring very little code to implement, it supplements the standard tangency constructions available on commercial turnkey computer-aided-design systems with a flexibility unavailable even through the inclusion of the numerous special-purpose algorithms available in the literature
keywords drawings, circles, computational geometry, user interface
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id 6916
authors Gasparski, W.
year 1986
title Design Methodology: How I Understand and Develop it
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 16-27
summary The term 'methodology' is sometimes given two diametrically opposed meanings, well characterized by Mark Blaug in the preface of a very informative book devoted to the methodology of economics. This is also the case with the methodology of design. One can find studies in which 'the methodology of design' is simply a method or methods of design, given a fancy name to make it or them appear more scientific. Authors of such studies should not confuse their readers by taking methodological studies to mean technicalities of design or demanding that their interpretation and assessment of so-called 'practical applicability' should follow this criterion. The methodology of design - as we understand it has parallels in the methodology of Blaug's economics, the philosophy of practical science, the applied sciences or the sciences of artificial objects or artefacts. Understood this way, the methodology of design is neither the method of practising design nor an instruction for its use but a theoretical reflection - in the meaning given to methodology by the philosophy of science - of design. In this connection a study of the methodology of design should be provided with the subtitle, 'How researchers of practical sciences and designers understand the concept of changes'.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id ecc2
authors Gero, John S. and Balachandran, M. B.
year 1986
title Knowledge and Design Decision Processes
source Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1986. pp. 343- 352
summary This paper describes how knowledge engineering techniques can be employed within optimization design decision processes. It commences with a brief discussion about multicriteria design optimization prior to elaborating the use of knowledge within this decision process. Four areas are briefly described-- knowledge as a control mechanism in the generation of the Pareto optimal set, knowledge needed to select alternate generation processes, knowledge which can be induced from the Pareto optimal set, and knowledge needed to recognize optimization models. A system which implements these concepts is presented
keywords design process, knowledge, representation, optimization, decision making, multicriteria
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id a6a9
authors Goebel, Martin and Kroemker, Detlef
year 1986
title A Multi-Microprocessor GKS Workstation
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications July, 1986. vol. 6: pp. 54-60 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary Implementers of graphical application systems hesitate to interface their applications to the GKS standard not only because GKS functionality seems to be less sufficient for a particular application but also because the use of GKS -- as it is offered in portable software implementations -- usually means a loss of system performance. This article describes an installation of GKS on a multi-microprocessor that is based on functional distribution principles as well as on the object-oriented distribution of a graphics system. The main concepts and advantages of a GKS workstation using more than one processing unit with at least one output pipeline are described. The flexibility of this approach opens a perspective view to a GKS workstation that is configurable to application requirements
keywords standards, GKS, graphs, systems, hardware
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

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