CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 5509
authors Koutamanis, Alexandros
year 1990
title Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans
source Delft University of Technology
summary The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of architectural plans. This investigation can be summarized as an introduction of computer vision to the computerization of architectural representations: chap represents an attempt to automate recognition of the most essential among conventional architectural drawings, floor plans. The system accepts as input digitized images of architectural plans and recognizes their spatial primitives (locations) and their spatial articulation on a variety of abstraction levels. The final output of chap is a description of the plan in terms of the grouping formations detected in its spatial articulation. The overall structure of the description is based on an analysis of its conformity to the formal rules of its “stylistic” context (which in the initial version of chap is classical architecture). Chapter 1 suggests that the poor performance of computerized architectural drawing and design systems is among others evidence of the necessity to computerize visual / spatial architectural representations. A recognition system such as chap offers comprehensive means for the investigation of a methodology for the development and use of such representations. Chapter 2 describes a fundamental task of chap: recognition of the position and shape of locations, the atomic parts of the description of an architectural plan in chap. This operation represents the final and most significant part of the first stage in processing an image input in machine environment. Chapter 3 moves to the next significant problem, recognition of the spatial arrangement of locations in an architectural plan, that is, recognition of grouping relationships that determine the subdivision of a plan into parts. In the absence of systematic and exhaustive typologic studies of classical architecture that would allow us to define a repertory of the location group types possible in classical architectural plans, Chapter 3 follows a bottom-up approach based on grouping relationships derived from elementary architectural knowledge and formalized with assistance from Gestalt theory and its antecedents. The grouping process described in Chapter 3 corresponds both in purpose and in structure to the derivation of a description of an image in computer vision [Marr 1982]. Chapter 4 investigates the well-formedness of the description of a classical architectural plan in an analytical manner: each relevant level (or sublevel) of the classical canon according to Tzonis & Lefaivre [1986] is transformed into a single group of criteria of well-formedness which is investigated independently. The hierarchical structure of the classical canon determines the coordination of these criteria into a sequence of cognitive filters which progressively analyses the correspondence of the descriptions derived as in Chapter 3 to the constraints of the canon. The methodology and techniques presented in the dissertation are primarily considered with respect to chap, a specific recognition system. The resulting specification of chap gives a measure of the use of such a system within the context of a computerized collection of architectural precedents and also presents several extensions to other areas of architecture. Although these extensions are not considered as verifiable claims, Chapter 5 describes some of their implications, including on the role of architectural drawing in computerized design systems, on architectural typologies, and on the nature and structure of generative systems in architecture.
series thesis:PhD
last changed 2003/02/12 21:37

_id a661
authors Cajati, Claudio and Calandro, Lucia
year 1986
title Architectural analysis of buildings in order to choice new functional destinations: an application of computer graphics for Faculty of Architecture's students
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 17-19
summary The research tries to give a little but meaningful answer to the specific context of the Faculty of Architecture of Naples. Such a context presents a delay of teachers and researchers, in their teaching and researching activity, in beginning the CAAD way. Often the delay is due to a wrong attitude: a too high or too low expectation towards the use of the computer. In such a situation, the chief target of the research is the student of architecture. It is possible and useful to address a clear message, by a simple educational material, just to the student of architecture; not necessarily by producing a software or modifying some existing one, but also applying a given available software to an important architectural question.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/05/16 19:27

_id 2d41
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title The Role of Shape Grammars in the Analysis and Creation of Designs
source New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986. pp. 213-244 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The paper gives an informal introduction to the shape grammar formalism. It presents results form a case study in which this formalism was applied to a realistic problem in order to convey the flavor of work with such grammars, to demonstrate its advantages and to show that our familiarity with this formalism has now progressed to a level were issues of architectural substance can be addressed. The paper concludes with the outline of a simple way to implement shape grammars by computer: it does not resolve the theoretical problems that exist for such implementations, but makes non-trivial applications like the case study possible
keywords shape grammars, design, architecture
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id ddss9846
id ddss9846
authors Rigatti, Decio
year 1998
title Rubem Berta Housing Estate: Order and Structure, Designand Use
source Timmermans, Harry (Ed.), Fourth Design and Decision Support Systems in Architecture and Urban Planning Maastricht, the Netherlands), ISBN 90-6814-081-7, July 26-29, 1998
summary The main goal of this paper is to investigate, through some space configurational based tools, a quite common phenomenon found in many different locations in Brazil, concerning the process of urban changes individually introduced by dwellers of public housing estates. A significant number of housing estates, particularly those designed according to rationalist concepts, seem to be unable to support space related social requirements and are then widely transformed when compared to the original layouts. Beyond the quantitative features, the morphological changes that take place in those housing estates mean a fundamental new approach to understand how completely new urban structures can arisefrom the space produced by a comprehensive urban design, took as a starting point for the transformations made by the dwellers of those settlements. As a case study is analysed the Rubem Berta Housing Estate which was built in Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil, for 20,000 people in the late 70’s. Since the begining of its occupation in 1986 and the invasion that took place in 1987, the urban transformations there have never stopped. It’s possible to realize that the dwellers individually use some constant physical rules to define the new settlement which are very similar within the estate itself and, at the same time, very similar to those found in other transformed housing estates of this sort. The physical rules introduced change the features of the entire settlement in two different levels: a) locally, through the transformations introduced in order to solve individual needs; b) globally, the local rules of physical transformations produce a new overall structure for the whole urban complex. The knowledge of this process makes it possible to bring to the surface of architectural theory some generic configurational codes that can be used as a tool for designing public housing estates in Brazil.
series DDSS
last changed 2003/08/07 14:36

_id 28d8
authors Sarnak, Neil and Tarjan, Robert E.
year 1986
title Planar Point Location Using Persistent Search Trees
source Communications of the ACM July, 1986. vol. 29: pp. 669-679 : ill. includes bibliography.
summary A classical problem in computational geometry is the planar point location problem. This problem calls for preprocessing a polygonal subdivision of the plane defined by n line segments so that, given a sequence of points, the polygon containing each point can be determined quickly on-line. Several ways of solving this problem in O(log n) query time and O(n) space are known, but they are all rather complicated. The authors propose a simple O(log n) query-time, O(n) space solution, using persistent search trees. A persistent search tree differs from an ordinary search tree in that after an insertion or deletion, the old version of the tree can stillÔ h)0*0*0*°° ÔŒ be accessed. A persistent form of binary search tree that supports insertions and deletions in the present and queries in the past is developed. The time per query or update is O(log m), where m is the total number of updates, and the space needed is O(1) per update. The planar point location algorithm is an immediate application of this data structure. The structure also provides an alternative to Chazelle's 'hive graph' structure, which has a variety of applications in geometric retrieval
keywords search, data structures, algorithms, point inclusion, computational geometry
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 4c79
authors Aguilar, Lorenzo
year 1986
title A Format for a Graphical Communications Protocol
source IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications vol. 3 (March, 1986): pp. 52-62
summary This article describes the requirements for a graphical format on which a graphical on-line communications protocol can be based. It is argued that on-line graphical communications is similar to graphical session capture, and thus the author proposes an interactive graphical communications format using the GKSM session metafile. The discussion includes items that complement the GKSM metafile such as a format for on-line interactive exchange. One key application area of such a format is multimedia on-line conferencing. Therefore, a conferencing software architecture for processing the proposed format is presented. This format specification is made available to those planning multimedia conferencing systems
keywords user interface, communication, computer graphics, multimedia, standards
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 6002
authors Barduzzi, Ondina and Pascolo, Carlo
year 1986
title CAD System (Computer Aided Design) for the Planning of the Territory, with Reference to the Automatical Estimate of Works of Urbanization
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 167-179
summary Any applied research, no matter what discipline is concerned, needs affined and suitable tools; as regards the studies in the field of architecture and planning, the use of automatic systems of analysis, data ordering and comparison is of particular interest. The quickness of operations by means of computers and the corresponding graphical representation gives new possibilities for scientific work, once impossible, not certainly because of conceptual limits, but practically, for the limits of available tools. It is the wideness of applications of computers to be pointed out, for although studied for scientific reasons, their practical usefulness is often enormous. This has been generally verified. It guilts in particular for the CAD System, proposed and explained in this paper. The practical utility this and other systems from the same field have for the public administration, contractors and consultants is well known and therefore not necessary to be described further. The use of such systems is particularly convenient in those sectors where the graphical representation is the basic part of the production process.

series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id b25c
authors Bergeson, Donald E. and Cetin, Randal F.
year 1986
title ADAM - Architectural Design Applications Model
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 37-54
summary This paper will describe ADAM, a project to explore the potential for interfacing independent graphics software for the purpose of developing a microcomputer based design system. This system will be implemented in three undergraduate design studios at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign) School of Architecture. The three design studios are part of an experimental project to determine the usefulness of computers in the architectural design curriculum. The concept used throughout the design of this system is: "make use of what already exists, but use it smoothly together in such a way that the management system is totally invisible to the user." Many low- end quality graphics software packages are commercially available. Each has the capacity to address some aspect of the architectural design process, none will do it all . The problem is a lack of compatibility between software. ADAM is a management system designed to invisibly control and interface the use of an assembly of graphics programs and data base management systems to achieve compatibility. Because of these compatible interfaces, new and varied design tools can be created from existing software..
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id caadria2006_601
id caadria2006_601
year 2006
title PRIVATE/UN-PRIVATE SPACE: Scenario-based Digital Design for Enhancing User Awareness
source CAADRIA 2006 [Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia] Kumamoto (Japan) March 30th - April 2nd 2006, 601-603
summary Context awareness is important for human senses of places as well as human computer interaction. The aim of this research paper is focusing on controlling the user's privacy in a smart space which is adaptive to different users for enhancing the user's awareness in his diary life. In Environmental Psychology, the definition of privacy is that an individual has the control of deciding what information of himself is released to others, and under how he interact with others. (Westin 1970) And privacy is categorized as the linguistic privacy and visual privacy. (Sundstorm 1986). Solutions for privacy control: Plan Layout, Vision Boundary, Access Control and Architecture Metaphor - the transmission of information is not ascertainable for every single user. Although information are shown in public, but information is implied by cues and symbols. Only a certain user or a group of users have access to the full context of information. The methodology is to form an analytic framework to study the relationship between information, user and activities by using the computational supports derived from KitchenSense, ConceptNet, Python, 3d Studio Max and Flash; and to record patterns built up by users' behaviour and actions. Furthermore, the scenario-based simulation can envision the real world conditions by adding interfaces for enhancing user awareness.
series CAADRIA
last changed 2006/04/17 16:48

_id 2eb1
authors Bridges, Alan H.
year 1986
title Alternative Approaches Towards the Teaching of Computer Aided Architectural Design
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 331-340
summary The problems of architectural education in general and CAD education in particular are discussed. The paper suggests that the computing requirements of architectural practice are different to those of architectural education and that much of the software used in schools of architecture is not used in an educationally structured way. A number of proposals for the educational use of computers are made, together with recommendations for a common computing environment.
series eCAADe
last changed 2003/11/21 14:16

_id c8a8
authors Cajati, Claudio
year 1986
title A Fully Integrated Use of Available Media and of Computer Technology for Up-to-date Educational Tools in Architecture
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 129-147
summary In this paper no general or specific forecast is- made about what is going to happen in the next decade in architectural education. No extrapolation and projection in the future, through more or 1e33 sophisticated technique3, of plausible trends is attempted. Such an effort goes beyond the competence and inteffectual force of the author.
series ACADIA
last changed 2003/05/15 19:17

_id 6643
authors Carrara, Gianfranco and Novembri, Gabriele
year 1986
title Expert System for Building Design
source Congress of the International Council for Building Research, Studies and Documentation (10th : 1986 : Washington). vol. 2: pp. 651-658. includes bibliography. -- abstract also in French
summary At the CABD LAB at the University of Rome, an interactive expert system for architecture is being implemented to supervise building design at every stage of development. The system operates by checking the consistency of design choices against given sets of constraints, and by automatically checking the design process. It is therefore an innovation with respect to current architectural software developed as specific design aids. The system is based on a general representation of building objects (from components to the whole building) by means of semantic nets and a set of inferential procedures. The general representation is developed by making explicit the relational structures according to which architects organize their knowledge about building objects. To do this, the `Frame' formalism is used: this is a knowledge representation technique used in the field of artificial intelligence. It is then shown that such an expert CAAD system is a general purpose tool for architectural design, enabling architects to assess any constraint and/or building attribute by means of a declarative method, which in no way affects their own specific design methodologies
keywords semantic networks, representation, constraints, expert systems, CAD, building, design process, knowledge, frames
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 014f
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Integrated Building CAD at the Lund Institute of Technology, Department of Structural Engineering
source 1986. 8 p. Includes Per Christiansson reports and publication list
summary A description of the department, equipment, research projects and education
keywords education, CAD, engineering, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id e73e
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1990
title State of the Art of Computer Use in Practical Architectural Design in Sweden
source A/E/C Systems Japan. September, 1990. [4] p. English and Japanese
summary A status report on Computer Aided Design in Sweden, since 1986
keywords CAD, architecture, practice
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 2e43
authors Cipriani, Roberto and Decri, Anna
year 1986
title Approaching CAAD at Facolta' Di Architettura, Genova
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 213-222
summary This paper describes a few aspects of the current research and teachings in the field of CAAD in the School of Architecture at the University of Genoa. In particular it analyses the capacity of a small system, which a single professional can afford and which provides a simple approach for the teaching of automatic drawing. This analysis has not yet been completed because it is a part of a thesis which is currently being written.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:14

_id 4d30
authors De Cola, Bruno and De Cola, Sergio
year 1986
title Experience of Thematic Mapping Using Personal Computer
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 223-230
summary The work that is presented here is the result of research conducted within and by the "Observatory of territorial and planning transformation" group of the faculty of Architecture at the University of Reggio Calabria, which was formed as a consequence of a commission called Coordination of Territorial Planning (C.T.P) given to the Calabrian University by the Regional Government.

series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:15

_id c967
authors Fantacone, Enrico
year 1994
title Exporting CAD Teaching into Developing Countries
source The Virtual Studio [Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Education in Computer Aided Architectural Design / ISBN 0-9523687-0-6] Glasgow (Scotland) 7-10 September 1994, p. 222
summary In 1986 the Faculty of Architecture was established in Maputo. It is financed by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and managed by a Scientific Council of the Faculty of Architecture of "Università La Sapienza" of Rome. The need to create human technical resources beeing able to work profesionally as soon as they finish their studies, made the teaching basis for lab exercises and design. The new architects (the first six students graduated in 1991), need to design and make very important decisions without any control by more experienced local technical institutions. The creation of a CAAD laboratory, and the teaching of information technologies and metodologies in architectural designing aimes to achieve a double goal: (-) to make the new architects able to manage on their own, because of the lack of qualified human resources, large quantity of data, and difficult design problems; (-) to make University, the most important scientific center in the country, an information exchange center between developped countries, and Moçambique.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/09/14 08:12

_id c27d
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R.F. and Glavin, T.J. (et al)
year 1986
title ROOS1 -- Version One of a Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts
source 17 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 1986
summary ROOS1 is a generative expert system for the design of building layouts. The system is intended to complement human designers' performance through (a) its ability to systematically search for alternative solutions with promising trade-offs; and (b) its ability to take a broad range of design concerns into account. Work on the system provides insights into the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques to space planning and building design in general. The system is based on a general generate-and-test paradigm. Its main components are a generator, a tester and a control strategy (which is to be expanded later into a genuine planner). The generator is restricted to the allocation of rectangles. The spatial relations above, below, to the left and the right are defined for pairs of objects in a layout and serve as basic design variables which define differences between solutions and govern the enumeration of alternatives. Within the class of layouts it is able to produce, the generator is completely general and able to generate all realizable sets of spatial relations for a given number of objects. In contrast, the tester is domain-specific and incorporates knowledge about the quality of layouts in a specific domain. The system can be applied to various domains by running it with the appropriate tester and, possibly, the appropriate control strategy. The control strategy itself mediates between planner and tester and, when expanded into a planner, is able to streamline the search for alternatives. The system will go through a sequence of versions with increasing complexity. Each version will have a conceptually clean and clear architecture, and it is the authors' intention to evaluate each architecture explicitly in terms of its promises and limitations with respect to various domains. The first of these versions is described in the present paper
keywords enumeration, combinatorics, layout, floor plans, design, methods, architecture, expert systems, planning
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 4512
authors Flemming, Ulrich
year 1986
title On the Representation and Generation of Loosely-Packed Arrangements of Rectangles
source 33 p. : ill Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, CMU, September, 1986. includes bibliography.
summary Several computer programs that enumerate rectangular dissections as solutions to certain layout problems have established a distinct paradigm for dealing with the crucial theoretical issues involved. The present paper suggests an extension of the paradigm to include `loosely-packed arrangements of rectangles,' which are of wider applicability in an architectural context. The paper introduces orthogonal structures to represent these arrangements and establishes the conditions of well-formedness for these structures. It presents a grammar to enumerate orthogonal structures and suggests that best use is made of the grammar if it is incorporated into a generative expert system, able to serve as a vehicle to discover, encode and utilize a broad range of constraints and criteria in the generation of layout alternatives
keywords expert systems, architecture, space allocation, floor plans, rectangles, shape grammars, layout
series CADline
last changed 2003/02/26 16:24

_id a666
authors Galle, Per
year 1986
title Abstraction as a Tool of Automated Floor-Plan Design
source Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. 1986. vol. 13: pp. 21-46 : ill. includes bibliography
summary The automated design of architectural floor plans satisfying given topological and dimensional constraints is a challenging field of research. In this paper ABSTRACTION is pointed out as an important conceptual tool of this field. A critical discussion of existing plan-design methods leads to the conclusion that the potentials of abstraction as a tool have not yet been fully recognized. The rest of the paper is an attempt to improve this situation by suggesting a new approach to automated floor-plan design. Theoretically, design is viewed as a one-to-many relation; a tree whose lines are directed from the root (the problem) towards the leaves (the solutions). Abstraction is viewed as the inverse many-to-one relation. A particular relation of abstraction is defined, such that the intermediate nodes of the tree (between root and leaves) are themselves floor plans, but are less detailed than the solutions. From the study of this concept of abstraction, it is concluded that the design algorithm based on it is likely to have certain useful properties
keywords layout, automation, design, architecture, floor plans, abstraction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

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