CumInCAD is a Cumulative Index about publications in Computer Aided Architectural Design
supported by the sibling associations ACADIA, CAADRIA, eCAADe, SIGraDi, ASCAAD and CAAD futures

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_id 0918
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Swedish and Nordic Activities within CAAD
source computer Aided Architectural Design - Developments in Education and Practice. 1986. 9 p. includes bibliography
summary During the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the Nordic countries concerning effective use of computer resources in the building process. Swedish and Nordic research and development within CAAD and adjoining areas is briefly accounted for to give a flavor of ongoing and planned activities. A Nordic Action Program for promoting Nordic joint research and development efforts is also presented. The Nordic educational activities within CAAD are also briefly commented on
keywords CAD, building process, construction
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id 876b
authors Christiansson, Per
year 1986
title Structuring a Learning Building Design System
source Advancing Building Technology, CIB International Congress (10th : 1986 : Washington D. C.). 9 p. : ill. includes bibliography
summary It is now vital to aim at formulating computer system modules that possess a high ability to adapt their behavior to fundamental human values and a complex and unstandardized (not uniform) building process but at the same time put constraints on them so that we don't end up with a confusion of computerized routines hard to access, control and understand. In the paper formulations are made of basic artifact skeletons outgoing from the properties to give integrated CAD systems and to those rules by which the growth of the systems are governed. System learning domains including conceptual modelling tools are presented aiming at supporting professional skill, creativity and integration between process actors. The basis for system implementation is frames, descriptive language (PROLOG) and relational databases with regard taken to future possibilities to parallel processing
keywords modeling, learning, integration, database, AI, design, systems, frames
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:07

_id c27d
authors Flemming, U., Coyne, R.F. and Glavin, T.J. (et al)
year 1986
title ROOS1 -- Version One of a Generative Expert System for the Design of Building Layouts
source 17 p. : ill. Pittsburgh: Engineering Design Research Center, Carnegie Mellon University, September, 1986
summary ROOS1 is a generative expert system for the design of building layouts. The system is intended to complement human designers' performance through (a) its ability to systematically search for alternative solutions with promising trade-offs; and (b) its ability to take a broad range of design concerns into account. Work on the system provides insights into the applicability of Artificial Intelligence techniques to space planning and building design in general. The system is based on a general generate-and-test paradigm. Its main components are a generator, a tester and a control strategy (which is to be expanded later into a genuine planner). The generator is restricted to the allocation of rectangles. The spatial relations above, below, to the left and the right are defined for pairs of objects in a layout and serve as basic design variables which define differences between solutions and govern the enumeration of alternatives. Within the class of layouts it is able to produce, the generator is completely general and able to generate all realizable sets of spatial relations for a given number of objects. In contrast, the tester is domain-specific and incorporates knowledge about the quality of layouts in a specific domain. The system can be applied to various domains by running it with the appropriate tester and, possibly, the appropriate control strategy. The control strategy itself mediates between planner and tester and, when expanded into a planner, is able to streamline the search for alternatives. The system will go through a sequence of versions with increasing complexity. Each version will have a conceptually clean and clear architecture, and it is the authors' intention to evaluate each architecture explicitly in terms of its promises and limitations with respect to various domains. The first of these versions is described in the present paper
keywords enumeration, combinatorics, layout, floor plans, design, methods, architecture, expert systems, planning
series CADline
email ujf@cmu.edu
last changed 2003/06/02 12:41

_id 8db7
authors Gero, John S., Radford, Antony D. and Rosenman, Michael A. (et al)
year 1986
title Knowledge-based Building Design
source CIB 86, Advanced Building Technology, Proceedings. 1986. vol. 1: pp. 93-102
summary CADLINE has abstract only. The use of the right knowledge depends not only on its availability but also on the designer recognizing that it is needed. The great majority of failures in building design and construction come from the non-application of existing, recorded knowledge; the designer either could not find the right information, or never recognized that the existing basis for making design decisions was inadequate in a new context. This paper describes some work towards the development of knowledge-based computer-aided design tools in which the knowledge is explicit, explained and open to modification. The philosophy behind the work is that design is almost always better if it is based on better knowledge, and that knowledge should be linked as closely as possible to the design activity. Rather than rely on a theoretical discussion, the authors make some brief statements about the nature of such knowledge-based systems and then give some working examples from the Architectural Computing Unit in the University of Sydney
keywords building, knowledge base, design, architecture, CAD
series CADline
email john@arch.usyd.edu.au
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id 2363
authors Gross, Mark Donald
year 1986
title Design as exploring constraints
source Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Architecture
summary A theory of designing is proposed, developed, and illustrated with examples from the domain of physical form. Designing is seen as the exploration of alternative sets of constraints and of the regions of alternative solutions they bound. Designers with different objectives reach different solutions within the same set of constraints, as do designers with the same objectives operating under different constraints. Constraints represent design rules, relations, conventions, and natural laws to be maintained. Some constraints and objectives are given at the outset of a design but many more are adopted along the way. Varying the constraints and the objectives is part of the design process. The theory accounts for various kinds of expertise in designing: knowledge of particular constraints in a design domain; inference--calculating the consequences of design decisions; preference--using objectives to guide decision-making; and partitioning--skill in dividing a large and complicated design into sets of simpler pieces, and understanding the dependencies between decisions. The ability to manage ambiguity and vagueness is an important aspect of design expertise. A computational model supporting the theory is proposed and its implementation discussed briefly. The constraint explorer, a computational environment for designing based on constraint descriptions is described. We see how the constraint explorer might be used in connection with a simple space- planning problem. The problem is taken from the procedures of the Stichting Architecten Research (S.A.R.), a specific architectural design methodology developed to help architects systematically explore layout variability in alternative floorplan designs. Finally, a selected review of related work in constraint-based programming environments, architectural design methods, and the intersection of the two fields is presented.
series thesis:PhD
email mdgross@u.washington.edu
more http://dmg.caup.washington.edu
last changed 2003/03/15 05:49

_id 0ebf
id 0ebf
authors Hanson, N.L.R. and Radford, Antony D.
year 1986
title On Modelling the Work of the Architect Glenn Murcutt
source Design Computing, pp. 189-203
summary A prototypical design grammar for a class of country houses by the Australian award-winning architect Glenn Murcutt is developed. The rules of the design grammar are executed to create a design for a country house on a real site with a real brief, in parallel with a design by Murcutt himself. Feedback from Murcutt and the differences between the designs and the reasons for them are discussed. Some conclusions are drawn on the role and assumptions of design grammars as rule- based expert systems and the qualities of design activity which cannot be modelled by such systems
keywords expert systems, architecture, design, shape grammars, applications
series CADline
email b.martens@tuwien.ac.at
last changed 2003/12/01 19:29

_id caadria2009_053
id caadria2009_053
authors Hu, Hui-Jiun; Jen Yen
year 2009
title Conceptual Model for Design Team toward Website Construction
source Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia / Yunlin (Taiwan) 22-25 April 2009, pp. 503-510
summary Since mid 1990s internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in late history and play an important role in living. Therefore, how to design an interface of easy to use has become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction. Norman (1986) proposed in the human computer interaction, there is a design model in the mind of designer. In turn, the designer will follow design model and to design a set of system image that is functional, learnable, and usable. Therefore, we want to understand the critical factor of influencing toward website construction, we should find out the mental model that web design team at first. In this paper, we using the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach. The data collection method of the participant of the focus group’s silent brainstorming is adopted. Further analyze web design team’s the conceptual model on website construction through inductive coding and axial coding. The result shows the affinities of 9 web design team is thus produced. And, Business Decision, Team Performance, Self-Fulfillment and Entrepreneur Communication are main influence factor. These factors can lead trend and goal of a website.
keywords website construction; web design team; conceptual model; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
series CAADRIA
email momo@tit.edu.tw
last changed 2012/05/30 19:29

_id a833
authors Jong, M. de
year 1986
title A Spatial Relational Reference Model (3RM)
source Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures [CAAD Futures Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-408-05300-3] Delft (The Netherlands), 18-19 September 1985, pp. 85-91
summary In this chapter we hope to provide the reader with an impression of the objective, framework and possibilities of 3RM in the construction industry. In Dutch, 3RM stands for 'Ruimtelijk Relationeel Referentie Model' (Spatial Relational Reference Model). The model could begin to be used as an information-bearer in the building industry within which the specific trade information for each of the building participants could be interrelated, including drafting symbolism, building costs, physical qualities and building regulations. In this way, the model can be used as a means to a more efficient running of the building process and enabling the integration of information, at project level, provided by various building participants. The project should be defined in the same way as is a typical architectural project, whereby the actual development as well as the project management is carried out by architects. For the time being, development is limited to integral use at the design stage, but it also offers sufficient expansion possibilities to be able to function as a new communications model throughout the complete building process. We shall first provide information as to the origin, the objective and the execution of the project. Thereafter, we shall attempt to state the theoretical information problem within the building industry and the solution to this offered through 3RM. Finally, we shall report upon the results of the first phase of the 3RM project.
series CAAD Futures
last changed 1999/04/03 15:58

_id sigradi2008_175
id sigradi2008_175
authors Knight, Terry; Larry Sass, Kenfield Griffith, Ayodh Vasant Kamath
year 2008
title Visual-Physical Grammars
source SIGraDi 2008 - [Proceedings of the 12th Iberoamerican Congress of Digital Graphics] La Habana - Cuba 1-5 December 2008
summary This paper introduces new visual-physical design grammars for the design and manufacture of building assembly systems that provide visually rich, culturally resonant design variations for housing. The building systems are intended to be tailored for particular cultures and communities by incorporating vernacular, decorative design into the assembly design. Two complementary areas of computational design research are brought together in this work: shape grammars and digital fabrication. The visual or graphic aspects of the research are explored through shape grammars. The physical design and manufacturing aspects are explored through advanced digital design and fabrication technologies and, in particular, build on recent work on mono-material assemblies with interlocking components that can be fabricated with CNC machines and assembled easily by hand on-site (Sass, 2007). This paper describes the initial, proof-of-concept stage of this work: the development of an automated, visual-physical grammar for an assembly system based on a vernacular language of Greek meander designs. A shape grammar for the two-dimensional Greek meander language (Knight, 1986) was translated into a three-dimensional assembly system. The components of the system are uniquely designed, concrete “meander bricks” (Figure 1). The components have integrated alignment features so that they can be easily fitted and locked together manually without binding materials. Components interlock horizontally to form courses, and courses interlock vertically in different ways to produce a visual variety of meander walls. The assembly components were prototyped at desktop scale with a layered manufacturing machine to test their appearance after assembly and their potential for design variations (Figure 2). Components were then evaluated as full-scale concrete objects for satisfaction of physical constraints related to concrete forming and component strength. The automated grammar (computer program) for this system generates assembly design variations with complete CAD/CAM data for fabrication of components formed from layered, CNC cut molds. Using the grammar, a full-scale mockup of a corner wall section was constructed to assess the structural, material, and aesthetic feasibility of the system, as well as ease of assembly. The results of this study demonstrate clearly the potentials for embedding visual properties in structural systems. They provide the foundations for further work on assembly systems for complete houses and other small-scale structures, and grammars to generate them. In the long-term, this research will lead to new solutions for economical, easily manufactured housing which is especially critical in developing countries and for post-disaster environments. These new housing solutions will not only provide shelter but will also support important cultural values through the integration of familiar visual design features. The use of inexpensive, portable digital design and fabrication technologies will allow local communities to be active, cooperative participants in the design and construction of their homes. Beyond the specific context of housing, visual-physical grammars have the potential to positively impact design and manufacture of designed artifacts at many scales, and in many domains, particularly for artifacts where visual aesthetics need to be considered jointly with physical or material requirements and design customization or variation is important.
keywords Shape grammar, digital fabrication, building assembly, mass customization, housing
series SIGRADI
email tknight@mit.edu
last changed 2016/03/10 08:54

_id 6ab7
authors Korson, Tim and McGregor, John D.
year 1990
title Understanding Object- Oriented : A Unifying Paradigm
source Communications of the ACM September, 1990. vol. 33: pp. 40-60. includes bibliography.
summary The purpose of this paper is to introduce terminology, concepts and basic techniques surrounding the object-oriented paradigm. software / OOPS / programming. 63. Koskela, Lauri, Raija Hynynen and Martti Kallavuo, et al. 'Expert Systems in Construction - Initial Experiences.' CAD and Robotics in Architecture and Construction, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference = CAO et Robotique en Architecture et B.T.P. Actes des Journees Internationales. June, 1986. Paris: Hermes, pp. 167-176. includes bibliography and abstracts in French and English. This paper describes development of expert systems for construction applications in the Laboratory of Building Economics of the Technical Research Centre of Finland. Five small expert systems are described. Experiences gained in the development work are evaluated. The future significance of expert systems for the construction industry is discussed, and an approach towards expert systems to be adopted by organizations in the construction industry is suggested
keywords construction, applications, economics, expert systems, knowledge, evaluation, analysis
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id ae5f
authors Krishnamurti, Ramesh
year 1986
title Modelling Design Descriptions
source January, 1986. [5] p. : ill
summary This paper reports some of the principles that underlie a modelling environment being developed at EdCAAD. It describes research that is part of a larger programme directed at computer-based systems that can accommodate the idiosyncratic nature of design practice, without prescriptions to the form or content of designs. That is, towards developing systems to assist in the design process by enabling designers -via conversations with the machine - to make 'reasonable' statements about design objects; to ask 'reasonable' questions about these objects; and to perform 'reasonable' tasks on these objects. Implicit in the authors' approach is the view that designing is an activity dependent on designers' perceptions of design tasks and their resolution. In the context of computer-aided design, this view of design demands that the crucial element in any machine environment lies in the ability of the machine to accept (partial) descriptions of design objects. Moreover, these descriptions can be manipulated according to some (perhaps unanticipated) criteria that the designer may wish to apply. The authors present a model for intentional descriptions of objects. That is, a description that can be structures so that it can be used to recognize objects and can be compared with other descriptions. Such a description of an object should be organized around entities with associated descriptions, it must be able to represent partial knowledge about an object, and it must accommodate multiple descriptors which can describe the object from different viewpoints. Last, but not least, these descriptions should possess a quality of 'truth' in that they reflect the (factual or otherwise) beliefs held by the designer. One way to treat these descriptions is to regard them as statements that belong to some logical framework
keywords design process, representation, intentionallity
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:08

_id 8190
authors Lawson, B.
year 1986
title Teaching CAAD at Sheffield University
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 78-87
summary The University of Sheffield Department of Architecture has been using Computer Aided Architectural Design in its teaching now for over ten years. During that time there has also been a major research unit in CAAD working in the department and most of the software used in our teaching programme has originated in our own research unit. Our students have now got access to a wide range of CAAD programs including 2D draughting, 3D colour visualisation, environmental analysis, structural design and cost estimating. We have generated our own specialised systems of terrain modelling and intelligent building modelling which link to both the visualisation and environmental appraisal software. Students also have access to data base and word processing software. CAAD has been used in all five years of our course and we also have students working .with CAAD during their professional experience years. Over this ten year period we have gradually altered and refined our approach to the educational use of CAAD and this paper will describe this approach and present some of the lessons we have learnt. I want to organise the paper into two main sections; firstly what are we trying to achieve by teaching CAAD on our course, and secondly, how do we fit this into the curriculum and what effect does it have.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:03

_id c2dd
authors Oxman, Robert
year 1986
title Towards a New Pedagogy
source Journal of Architectural Education. Summer, 1986. vol. 39: pp. 22-28 : ill. includes some bibliographical notes
summary This paper proposes the potential of design studies as a vehicle for the transfer of what might be considered 'architectural knowledge' as compared to 'professional experience.' An analogy with language study is suggested as a means of conveying the distinction between the acquisition of general design knowledge - a knowledge base which is not domain specific - and its application in dealing with ad-hoc problems
keywords design, knowledge acquisition, education, architecture
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id eb7a
authors Porada, Mikhael
year 1999
title Virtual Analogy and Architecture
source Architectural Computing from Turing to 2000 [eCAADe Conference Proceedings / ISBN 0-9523687-5-7] Liverpool (UK) 15-17 September 1999, pp. 69-73
summary Our fashion of thought is dialogic in its way to use simultaneously logic- mathematics and analogical approaches (Morin, 1986). The analogy works as well at the level of the unconscious by the construction of an analogon that permits us to recognise a face between thousand of others, despite changes intervened in time; as consciously where by an effort of constructive analogy, we establish bridges between different events or domains giving to the design a new lighting that puts it on the way to a solution. For this reason visual approach acquires a great importance in the establishment of similitude in conception. Many testimonies of scientists, philosophers, artists confirm this observation about their creative work, while underlining the danger of no founded analogies. In current life, analogy brings a support of likeness to the daily conversations, and the possibility to advance in the dialogue by a chaining of analogies having for objective to strengthen the speech.
series eCAADe
email Michel.Porada@evcau.archi.fr
last changed 2003/04/01 16:57

_id 6353
authors Raibert, Marc H.
year 1986
title Symmetry in Running
source Science. March, 1986. vol. 231: pp. 1292-1294 : ill. includes bibliography
summary Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions
keywords symmetry, robotics, animation
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 08:24

_id cc5a
authors Rasdorf, William J. and Wang, TsoJen E.
year 1986
title Expert System Integrity Maintenance for the Use of Engineering Data
source Computing in Civil Engineering Conference Proceedings (4th : 1986 : Boston, MA). American Society of Civil Engineers, pp. 654-668. CADLINE has abstract only
summary This paper describes a mechanism that enables one to automatically monitor and evaluate the use of engineering design data. The framework, associated with a relational database management system, combines a database with a set of constraints on the use of engineering data. This requires a database that stores all of the data normally associated with engineering design as well as all of the domain-dependent constraints imposed upon the use of the design data. Such a framework has been successfully constructed and is described in this paper. An example, based on constraints extracted from the AISC Specification, is presented and the performance of the framework is discussed. The proposed framework resides between a DBMS and its users and serves as an experienced expert consultant to the users. It embodies the knowledge of the specific domain of interest; in this case, allowable stresses in steel members. Whenever a user retrieves data from the database, the mechanism is activated. It interprets data request, applies the appropriate constraints, and provides the correct data. Its understanding of the semantics of both the data request and its own constraints insures the validity of data it selects to return to the user. All previous database integrity research concentrated on maintaining the integrity of the stored data, i.e., on guaranteeing the integrity of any static state of the database. This paper advocates a mechanism for checking data being retrieved from the database as well as for checking data being inserted into the database. It deals, therefore, with the correctness of data being selected for use
keywords information, civil engineering, expert systems, relational database
series CADline
last changed 2003/06/02 11:58

_id ab08
authors Samad, Tariq
year 1986
title A Natural Language Interface for Computer-Aided Design
source ix, 188 p. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1986. includes bibliography: p. [174]-184 and index. -- (Kluwer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science)
summary A description of CLEOPATRA, a natural language interface for a particular sub-domain of computer aided design--circuit simulation post processing. The language is based on an approach to natural language understanding that supplements a case frame parser with a few novel features that give the approach more generality and power than pervious approaches without sacrificing the intuitive appeal of case-frame semantics
keywords CAD, natural languages, user interface, integrated circuits
series CADline
last changed 1999/02/12 14:09

_id avocaad_2001_20
id avocaad_2001_20
authors Shen-Kai Tang
year 2001
title Toward a procedure of computer simulation in the restoration of historical architecture
source AVOCAAD - ADDED VALUE OF COMPUTER AIDED ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, Nys Koenraad, Provoost Tom, Verbeke Johan, Verleye Johan (Eds.), (2001) Hogeschool voor Wetenschap en Kunst - Departement Architectuur Sint-Lucas, Campus Brussel, ISBN 80-76101-05-1
summary In the field of architectural design, “visualization¨ generally refers to some media, communicating and representing the idea of designers, such as ordinary drafts, maps, perspectives, photos and physical models, etc. (Rahman, 1992; Susan, 2000). The main reason why we adopt visualization is that it enables us to understand clearly and to control complicated procedures (Gombrich, 1990). Secondly, the way we get design knowledge is more from the published visualized images and less from personal experiences (Evans, 1989). Thus the importance of the representation of visualization is manifested.Due to the developments of computer technology in recent years, various computer aided design system are invented and used in a great amount, such as image processing, computer graphic, computer modeling/rendering, animation, multimedia, virtual reality and collaboration, etc. (Lawson, 1995; Liu, 1996). The conventional media are greatly replaced by computer media, and the visualization is further brought into the computerized stage. The procedure of visual impact analysis and assessment (VIAA), addressed by Rahman (1992), is renewed and amended for the intervention of computer (Liu, 2000). Based on the procedures above, a great amount of applied researches are proceeded. Therefore it is evident that the computer visualization is helpful to the discussion and evaluation during the design process (Hall, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998; Liu, 1997; Sasada, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1993, 1997, 1998). In addition to the process of architectural design, the computer visualization is also applied to the subject of construction, which is repeatedly amended and corrected by the images of computer simulation (Liu, 2000). Potier (2000) probes into the contextual research and restoration of historical architecture by the technology of computer simulation before the practical restoration is constructed. In this way he established a communicative mode among archeologists, architects via computer media.In the research of restoration and preservation of historical architecture in Taiwan, many scholars have been devoted into the studies of historical contextual criticism (Shi, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995; Fu, 1995, 1997; Chiu, 2000). Clues that accompany the historical contextual criticism (such as oral information, writings, photographs, pictures, etc.) help to explore the construction and the procedure of restoration (Hung, 1995), and serve as an aid to the studies of the usage and durability of the materials in the restoration of historical architecture (Dasser, 1990; Wang, 1998). Many clues are lost, because historical architecture is often age-old (Hung, 1995). Under the circumstance, restoration of historical architecture can only be proceeded by restricted pictures, written data and oral information (Shi, 1989). Therefore, computer simulation is employed by scholars to simulate the condition of historical architecture with restricted information after restoration (Potier, 2000). Yet this is only the early stage of computer-aid restoration. The focus of the paper aims at exploring that whether visual simulation of computer can help to investigate the practice of restoration and the estimation and evaluation after restoration.By exploring the restoration of historical architecture (taking the Gigi Train Station destroyed by the earthquake in last September as the operating example), this study aims to establish a complete work on computer visualization, including the concept of restoration, the practice of restoration, and the estimation and evaluation of restoration.This research is to simulate the process of restoration by computer simulation based on visualized media (restricted pictures, restricted written data and restricted oral information) and the specialized experience of historical architects (Potier, 2000). During the process of practicing, communicates with craftsmen repeatedly with some simulated alternatives, and makes the result as the foundation of evaluating and adjusting the simulating process and outcome. In this way we address a suitable and complete process of computer visualization for historical architecture.The significance of this paper is that we are able to control every detail more exactly, and then prevent possible problems during the process of restoration of historical architecture.
series AVOCAAD
email tsk.aa88g@nctu.edu.tw
last changed 2005/09/09 08:48

_id 7a08
authors Smith Shaw, Doris
year 1986
title Case Studies in Architectural CADD Education
source ACADIA Workshop ‘86 Proceedings - Houston (Texas - USA) 24-26 October 1986, pp. 157-172
summary Stages in the formation of concepts necessary for mastery can be observed in cognitive development in many different areas of study. These stages seem to follow a particular hierarchy common to most learners. Distinct levels can be recognized by patterns of procedural errors. The remediation of errors can then take the form of building a conceptual framework rather than training in procedural patterns. This has been found to be highly efficient for learners at all stages since it can be aimed at the underlying problem area and not at isolated errors which may change frequently. It was felt, that concept development of architects learning to use computer-aided drawing programs would show such levels. Preliminary studies made at the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory upon selected subjects using computer-aided lessons in AutoCAD as a basis for observations reveal several categories of errors in using computer-aided design. These case studies show that the design process can be enhanced by automated drawing and design tools if the conceptual relationships are established as a part of the learning environment. Even more important, the observations show that architects have particular characteristics which differ from engineers and other CAD users. These differences require that education and software be tailored to their needs.
series ACADIA
last changed 1999/10/10 12:26

_id 68ef
authors Tweed, Christopher
year 1986
title A Computing Environment for CAAD Education
source Teaching and Research Experience with CAAD [4th eCAADe Conference Proceedings] Rome (Italy) 11-13 September 1986, pp. 136-145
summary This paper describes a modelling system, MOLE (Modelling Objects with Logic Expressions), and its use as a computing environment for teaching architectural undergraduates. The paper also sketches the background to MOLE's development as a medium for research, and identifies benefits conferred on research and teaching through their common interest in MOLE. Teaching at EdCAAD is conducted in what is chiefly a research milieu. Hence our teaching methods exploit the products and experience of research. But the partnership is mutually rewarding, because teaching informs future research efforts through the experience gained from using MOLE. At present, our teaching concentrates on a ten-week elective course for fourth year architectural undergraduates. The main component of the course requires each student to program a simple application related to architectural design. Applications normally require a programming language with access to graphics routines, and in previous years we have used C or, more recently, Prolog with their graphics extensions. For the past two years MOLE has fulfilled this need. The paper begins by explaining the evolution of our approach to CAAD, leading to the development of the description system, MOLE. Section two outlines the main features of the version of MOLE which has been extended to provide a comprehensive computing environment for programming simple architectural applications. MOLE in use is the subject of section three which is illustrated with examples drawn from students' coursework projects and exercises. This is followed by a discussion of the lessons learned from teaching which highlight areas of MOLE's development that need more study. A concluding section summarises what has been learned, and poses vital questions that require answers before we can expect widespread acceptance of CAAD in practice.
series eCAADe
last changed 1998/08/18 08:09

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